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Force Directed Methods and Spring Algorithm

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Force-Directed Methods
— Drawing Undirected Graphs
Force-Directed Methods
• Use a physical analogy to draw graphs
– How does the natural “draw” a graph?
• View a graph as a system of objects with forces acting
between them.
• Assumption: a balanced system gives a good layout
• Specifically, a system configuration with locally minimal
energy:
– The sum of the forces on each object is zero.
Force-Directed Methods
• Vertex:
– Object of the system;
– Interacting with each other based on “some” force(s).
• Edge:
– A different type of object;
– Not interacting with each other;
– Add new force(s) to vertex object.
• Equilibrium configuration: the sum of forces on each
vertex object is zero
There are many force directed methods. In general, they
have two parts: model & algorithm
• The model: a force system defined by vertices &
edges
• The algorithm: a technique for finding an equilibrium
state, that is the sum of the forces on each vertex is
zero (force system); or
– a technique for finding a configuration with locally minimal
energy (energy system)
Spring Methods
• Vertex:
– Electrically charged particles;
– Repel each other.
• Edge:
– Spring that connect particles;
– Attraction force when longer than the natural length;
– Repulsion force when shorter than the natural length.
1.
2.
A Larger Example
В© Sander
6
Many Variations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Spring & electrical force
Barycenter method
Force simulating graph theoretic distance
Magnetic field
General energy function
Constraints
1. Springs & Electrical Forces
• Use a combination of spring & electrical forces
– Edge: modeled as spring
– Vertex: equally charged particles which repel each other
• The force on v : F(v) = Σ f u,v + Σ g u,v
(u,v)пѓЋE
(u,v)пѓЋVxV
• f u,v : force on v by the spring between u an v
: follow Hook’s law (proportional to the difference
between the distance between u and v and the zeroenergy length of the spring)
• g u,v : Electrical repulsion exerted on v by vertex u
: follow inverse square law
• d(p,q) : Euclidean distance between points p and q
• pv = (xv, yv): position of vertex v
• x component of the force on v
k
( u , v )пѓЋ E
1
uv
( d ( p u , p v ) пЂ­ l uv )
xv пЂ­ xu
d ( pu , pv )
пЂ«

( u , v )пѓЋV п‚ґV
xv пЂ­ xu
2
k uv
( d ( p u , p v ))
2
пѓ—
d ( pu , pv )
lu,v : natural (zero energy) length of the spring between u
and v
: if the spring has natural length lu,v, no force is exerted;
k1u,v : stiffness of the spring between u and v
: the larger k1u,v , the more tendency for the distance between u
and v to be close to lu,v.
k2u,v : the strength of the electrical repulsion between u
and v
Aim of the force model design:
• Spring force:
– Ensure the distance between adjacent vertices u and v is
approximately equal to lu,v.
• Electrical force:
– Ensure vertices not too close to each other.
• One may choose parameters luv k1u,v k2u,v to customize
for specific applications.
• There are many technique to find an equilibrium
configuration (or minimum energy).
• Simple algorithm
– Initially at random location
– At each iteration:
• Force F(v) on each vertex is computed
• Each vertex v is moved in the direction of F(v) by a small
amount proportional to the magnitude of F(v)
– Stops when equilibrium is achieved or some conditions are
met.
• Not the fastest, but allow smooth animation.
• Calculating attractive forces only between neighbors:
O(|E|)
• Calculating repulsive forces between all pair of
vertices: O(|V|2)
– Bottleneck of the algorithm in general
Spring Embedder [Eades84]
“Logarithmic spring”
• Rather than Hook’s law, the spring force is calculated as:
F (v ) пЂЅ k
1
uv
пѓ¦ d ( pu , pv )
log пѓ§пѓ§
l uv
пѓЁ
пѓ¶ xv пЂ­ xu
пѓ·
пѓ· d(p , p )
u
v
пѓё
• Hook Law (linear) spring is too strong when the vertices
are far
Advantages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Relatively simple & easy to implement
Good flexibility
Heuristic improvements easily added
Handle domain constraints
Smooth evolution of the drawing into the final configuration
helps preserving the user’s mental map
Can be extended to 3D
Often able to display symmetries
Works well in practice for small graphs with regular
structure
Show some clustering structure
Disadvantages
• Slow running time
• Results are acceptable, but not brilliant
• Few theoretical results on the quality of the drawings
produced
• Difficult to extend to orthogonal & polyline drawings
• Limited constraint satisfaction capability
2. Barycenter Method [Tutte60,63]
• Use springs with natural length 0, and attractive force
proportional to the length
• Pin down the vertices of the external face to form a given convex
polygon (position constraint)
• Let the system go…

k
1
uv
( d ( p u , p v ) пЂ­ l uv )
( u , v )пѓЋ E
xv пЂ­ xu

пЂ«
d ( pu , pv )
( u , v )пѓЋV п‚ґV
• luv = 0, k1u,v = 1, no electrical force

( u , v )пѓЋ E
d ( pu , pv ) пѓ—
xv пЂ­ xu
d ( pu , pv )
пЂЅ
 (x
( u , v )пѓЋ E
• Trivial solution pv = 0 for all v
v
пЂ­ xu )
2
k uv
( d ( p u , p v ))
2
пѓ—
xv пЂ­ xu
d ( pu , pv )
• Partition V into two sets: fixed vertex (at least 3, nailed down) and
free vertex
• To achieve equilibrium, choose pv so that Fx(v) = 0 for all free
vertices;
– Similarly, choose pv so that Fy(v) = 0 for all free vertices.
Therefore,
Fx (v ) пЂЅ
 (x
( u , v )пѓЋ E
v
пЂ­ x u ) пЂЅ deg( x ) пѓ— x v пЂ­
x
wпѓЋ N 0 ( v )
• Where deg(v) is the degree of v,
•N0(v): set of fixed neighbor of v;
•N1(v): set of free neighbor of v.
*
w
пЂ­
x
uпѓЋ N 1 ( v )
u
пЂЅ0
deg( v ) x v пЂ­

xu пЂЅ
uпѓЋ N 1 ( v )

x w , deg( v ) y v пЂ­
*
wпѓЋ N 0 ( v )

yu пЂЅ
uпѓЋ N 1 ( v )

*
yw
wпѓЋ N 0 ( v )
• The equations are linear.
• The number of equations and the number of
unknownvariables are both equal to the number of
free vertices.
• Solving them equals to placing each free vertex at the
barycenter of its neighbours.
– So the name �barycenter method’.
Algorithm Barycenter-Draw
Input: partition of V,
V0: at least 3 fixed vertices
V1: set of free vertices
Strictly convex polygon P with V0 vertices
Output: position pv
1. Place each vertex u in V0 at a vertex of P and each free
vertex at the origin
2. Repeat
For each free vertex v do
xv = _____
1
S xu
deg(v) (u,v)пѓЋE
yv = _____
1
S yu
deg(v) (u,v)пѓЋE
Until xv and yv converge for all free vertices v
An Example
3. Force Simulating Graph Theoretic Distance
[Kamada Kawai 89]
• Model graph-theoretic distance with Euclidean distance
– The forces try to place vertices so that their geometric
distance in the drawing is proportional to their graph
theoretic distance
• For each pair of vertices (u, v), δ(u,v) is the graph-theoretic
distance between them;
– Number of edges on a shortest path between u and v.
• Aim: find a drawing such that for each pair of vertices, the
Euclidean distance d(pu, pv) is approximately proportional
to Оґ(u,v)
– i.e. system has a force proportional to d(pu, pv) - d(u,v)
• Potential energy in the spring between u and v:
ВЅ kuv (d(pu, pv) - d(u,v))2
• Choose stiffness parameter: springs between vertices that
have small graph theoretic distance are stronger
kuv = k / d(u,v)2
• Thus, energy in (u, v): h = k/2 (d(pu, pv)/d(u,v) – 1)2
• Energy in the whole drawing is the sum of individual
energies:
h = k/2 S (d(pu, pv)/d(u,v) – 1)2
u п‚№v пѓЋE
• Algorithm seek a position pv=(xv, yv), for each vertex v to
minimize h
•  h /  xv = 0,  h /  yv = 0, v  V : non linear equation
– Partial derivatives with respect to each xv and yv are zero
• However, iterative approach can solve the equation
• At each step, a vertex is moved to a position that
minimizes energy, while other vertices remain fixed
• Choose a vertex that has the largest force acting on it,
that is
2
 h
 h 
пѓ§
пѓ· пЂ« пѓ§пѓ§
 x 
 y
is maximized for all v in V.
пѓ¶
пѓ·пѓ·
пѓё
2
4. Magnetic Fields [SM95]
• Variations:
– Some or all of the springs are magnetized
– There is a global magnetic field that acts on the spring
– Magnetic field can be used to control the orientation of edges
• 3 types of magnetic fields
– Parallel: all magnetic forces operate in the same direction
– Concentric: the force operates in concentric circles
– Radial: the forces operate radially outward from a point
• The three basic magnetic fields can be combined
– encourage orthogonal edges with a combination of parallel
forces in the horizontal & vertical directions
• The springs can be magnetized in two ways:
– Unidirectional: the spring tends to align with direction of the
magnetic field
– Bidirectional: the spring tends to align with the magnetic field,
but in either direction
• A spring may not be magnetized at all
• The magnetic field induces a torsion or rotational force
on the magnetic springs.
• For a unidirectionally magnetized spring representing
(u,v), the force is proportional to d(pu, pv) aq b
d(pu, pv): Euclidean distance between pu and pv
q: angle between the magnetic field and the line from pu to pv
a and b are constant
Unidirectional magnetic spring
Оё
Direction of the magnetic field
• The magnetic forces are combined with the spring &
electrical force
• Algorithm to find equilibrium:
– initially random position and at each iteration move the vertex
to lower energy position
• Can handle directed graphs (unidirectional springs with
one of the 3 fields)
– arcs point downward: downward parallel field
– Outward: radial field
– Counterclockwise: concentric field
• Can be applied to orthogonal drawings: combined
vertical & horizontal field with bidirectional springs
• Applied with success to mixed graphs (graph with both
directed & undirected edges)
Two Examples
Vertical magnetic field
Vertical and horizontal
magnetic field
5. General Energy Function
• Most of the energy function h is a simple continuous
function of the location of vertices. However, many of
aesthetic criteria are not continuous
• Including discrete energy function
– The number of edge crossings
– The number of horizontal & vertical edges
– The number of bends in edges
• general energy function
h  l 1 h 1 + l 2 h 2 + … + lk h k
п‚– hi : a measure for an aesthetic criterion
– May include spring, electrical, magnetic energy
[Davidson & Harel 96] energy function for
straight line drawings
h пЂЅ l1 h 1 + l2 h 2 + l3 h 3 + l4 h 4
h1 = Su,vпѓЋV (1/ (d(pu, pv))2 ) : similar to electrical repulsion
(vertices do not come too close together)
h2 пЂЅ

(( 1 / ru ) пЂ« (1 / l u ) пЂ« (1 / t u ) пЂ« (1 / bu ))
2
2
2
2
u пѓЋV
ru, lu, tu, bu: Euclidean distance between vertex u and
the four side lines of rectangular area (vertices do not
come too close to the border of the screen)
h3 = S(u,v)пѓЋE (d(pu, pv))2 : edges do not become too long
h4 : the number of edge crossings in the drawing
• Flexibility of general energy function: allow variety of
aesthetics by adjusting li
– [BBS97]: user can choose & adjust system parameters
– [Mendonca94]: how these coefficients can be automatically
adjusted to user’s preference
• Main problem: computationally expensive to find a
minimum energy state (very slow)
– simulated annealing [DH96]…..
– Genetic algorithm [BBS97]…
• Flexibility ensures popularity
[Davidson & Harel 96]
simulated annealing
• Energy function takes into account vertex distribution,
edge-lengths, and edge-crossings
• Given drawing region acts as wall
• Simulated annealing: flexible optimization technique
• Efficiency: very slow
• 30 nodes and 50 edges
• Able to deal with optimization problem in a discrete
configuration space
• Aim: to minimize (or maximize) the cost function
• Using 3 different energy functions
6. Constraints
• Force-directed methods can be extended to support
several types of constraints
6.1. Position constraints
6.2. Fixed-subgraph constraints
6.3. Constraints that can be expressed by force or energy
function
6.1. Position constraints
• assign to a vertex a
topologically connected
region where the vertex
should remain
– Single point: a vertex nail
down at a specific location
– Horizontal line: group of
vertices arranged on a
layer
– A circle: set of vertices to
be restricted to a distinct
region
• [Ostry96]: constraints
vertices to curves and 3D
surfaces
6.2. Fixed subgraph constraints
• Assign prescribed drawing to a subgraph .
• May be translated or rotated, but not deformed.
• Considering the subgraph as a rigid body.
• For example, barycenter method is a force-directed
method that constrains a set of vertices (fixed
external vertices) to a polygon.
6.3. Constraints expressed by forces
• Constraints expressed by forces
– Orientation of directed edges: magnetic spring
– Geometric clustering of special set of vertices
– Alignment of vertices
• Clustering can be achieved [ECH97]
– For each set C of vertices, add a dummy attractor vertex vC
– Add attractive forces between an attractor vC and each vertex in
C.
– Add repulsive forces between pairs of attractors and between
attractors and vertices not in any cluster.
Remark
• Improve the efficiency
– [FR91]: amenable force functions
– [FLM95, Tun92]: use randomization in S.A.
– [Ost96]: the equations describing the minimal energy states
are stiff for some graphs of low connectivity.
– [HS95]: use combinatorial preprocessing step, good initial
layout
• [BHR96] empirical analysis
– [FR91],[KK89],[DH96],[Tun92],[FLM95]
– No winner, try several methods and then choose the best
Faster Spring methods
• Problem: Spring methods are too slow for huge graphs
Computing
the forces
takes
quadratic
time
1. pu = some initial position for each node u;
2. Repeat
2.1 Fu := 0 for each node u;
2.2 For each pair u,v of nodes
2.2.1 calculate the force fuv betwe
en u and v;
2.2.2 Fu += fuv;
2.2.3 Fv += fuv;
2.3 For each node u, pu += eFu;
Until pu converges for all u;
FADE [Quigley & Eades01]
• It is feasible to use
1. a spring method, then
2. a geometric clustering method
to obtain a good graph clustering.
Graph
Clustered
Graph
Quadtree
• A tree data structure
• Each internal node has up to
four children.
• Most often used to partition a
two dimensional
– Recursively subdividing it into
four quadrants or regions.
– Stops when each quadrant
contains one point.
• In general, recursively partition
the space into 2d subspace
equally, where d is the
dimension
– Known as Octree for 3D
Barnes-Hutt method
• A method of computing forces between
stars.
– Use Quadtree to cluster the stars
– Use the forces between the clusters to
approximate the forces between individual
stars.
root
a
d
c
c
TL
b
e
a
b
BR
d
BL
f
e
f
Barnes-Hutt method
• The contents of a subtree of can be
approximated by a mass at the centroid.
root
a
d
c
c
TL
b
es
a
b
BR
s
d
BL
f
e
f
Barnes-Hutt method
• The force that the subtree s exerts on the star x
can approximate the sum of the forces that the
nodes in s exert on x.
root
a
d
c
c
TL
b
es
a
b
BR
s
d
BL
f
e
f
FADE
To compute the force on star x, we proceed from the
root toward the leaves.
ComputeForce(star x; treenode t)
If the approximation is good
then return the approximation;
else return SsComputeForce(x, s), where
the sum is over all children s of t.
A simple method can be used to determine whether the
approximation is good; it depends on the mass of nodes and the
distance between x and s.
w(t) / d(x,t) < c,
w(t) the width of t; d(x,t) the distance between x and t, and c is a
constant.
FADE
• The Barnes-Hutt method is faster than the usual
spring algorithm.
1. px = some initial position for each
star x;
2. Repeat
In practice,
computing all the
forces takes
O(n log n) time
2.1 Build the quadtree;
2.2 Foreach star x
ComputeForce(x,root);
2.3 Foreach star x, px += eFx;
Until px converges for all x;
FADE
• At each iteration, the node movements introduced in the previous
step improves the quadtree clustering
– Makes the quadtre clustering (a geometric clustering) better reflects the
graph clustering.
1. pu = some initial position for each
node u;
2. Repeat
Some nodes
migrate from one
cluster to the
next
2.1 Build the quadtree;
2.2 Foreach node u
ComputeForce(u,root);
2.3 Foreach node u, pu += eFu;
Until pu converges for all u;
FADE
• Observations
– The Quadtree provides a clustering of the data
– If the data is well clustered, then BH runs faster
• The approximated force is then more accurate
– The spring algorithm tends to cluster the data
• This means that we can:
– Use Barnes-Hutt to compute the clusters as well as the drawing
– Use the quadtree as the clustering for the clustered graph
Experimental
Result
The error is the difference between
the approximated force vector and
the original one
Visual abstraction
Can we use other natural system
analogy?
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