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ANGLIA (ang. England) is geographically – historical
region, which in the past was an independent dutchy,
and now it is the part of Great Britain (ang. Strictly
speaking United Kingdom) It is the biggest and the most
populated part of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland.
United Kingdom apart from England consists of: Wales,
Scotland and Northern Ireland. England is inhibited with
83% of all the residents of the island, and England’s
surface occupies 2/3 of the overall surface of Great
Britain.
England borders with Wales from the west, and with
scotland from the north. Moreover the country is
surrounded by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, Atlantic
Ocean and the English Channel. In the composition of
England we also include more than 100 lesser islands
such as: Isles of Scilly or Isle of Wight
The capitol of England is London, and a patron is
Saint George.
England is divided into 9 regions, which are the biggest units of the local government.
Each of the regions is divided into counties.
39 counties and 7 metropolitan counties.
Londyn (ang. London) – the city in the
south-east part of Great Britain, the capital
city of England.
Situated upon river Thames, is the third
biggest city of Europe, the biggest city of the
European Union and one of the biggest cities
in the world both in therms of the sole city
as well as in terms of the agglomeration.
The number of the citizens of London (in the
borders of so called Greater London) is about
7,6 mln on the land of 1 607 kmВІ; the whole
London agglomeration, together with all the
bordering towns (from Tonbridge in the
South-East to Windsor in the North-West)
counts about 20 mln of citizens.
About 20% of citizens come from Asia, Africa
and the Caribbean.
Dr Johnson once said:
"When a man is tired of London, he is
tired of life".
Doktor Johnson powiedziaЕ‚ kiedyЕ›:
„Gdy człowiek jest zmęczony Londynem, on jest
zmД™czony Ејyciem".
England is the only country of the United Kingdom, which does not have its own parliament and stays under the
jurisdiction of the British parliament, thereby the members of parliament, who come from outside England (for
example. from Scotland), have the influence on the internal affairs of England. England is divided into nine
regions: London, South East, South West, West Midlands, North West, North East, Yorkshire i Humber, East
Midlands and East of England. All of these regions, in other words administrative units, don’t have the
authorities chosen in the direct election. London is the only exception, as it has a Mayora, being ellected and so
called London Assembley.
The official language is English. Citizens (over the age of 18) have the common right to vote.
The political system of England is based on the hereditary
constitutional monarchy and simultaneously parliamentary
representative democracy. Queen is the head of the state. He
current monarch in reign is queen Elizabeth II. The legislative
branch belongs to the Queen and to the parliament. The
queen appoints the government (executive branch) which is
responsible in front of bicameral parliament. The capital of
the Great Britain is London situated in the territory of
England.
Elizabeth II- Elizabeth Alexandra Mary (born on 21st of April 1926
in London), the queen of the United Kingdom from the house of
Windsor, crowned on the 2nd of June 1953, the daughter of king
George VI and his wife – Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon called Queen Mother.
- In 1949 the clock was around 41 minutes slow, after
the flock of birds sat on the minute hand
- In 1962 the clock stoke the New Year ten minutes late, because of the
heavy load of snow on its hands.
- In 1952 when the bus was going through the Tower Bridge, the bridge
started to rise, hopefully nobody was hurt.
There are many reasons why people emigrate, however the main reason
that we emigrate are money. How much can we expect to earn after the arrival?
The majority of men, especially these going abroad for the first time work for the
work agencies. The majority of agencies offer the work, provide accomodation,
commonly the means of transport from and to the work. In exchange they take
some part of the earned money.
A minimum hourly rate of pay you can earn in the United Kingdom is ₤ 5,35 per
hour gross.
Children in Great Britain are obligated to attend school till the age of 16. In
England the school obligation time ends in the last Friday of June in the span of
academic year, in which the learner becomes 16. The current government makes
the proposals of rising the age, to which learners are obliged to receive certain
form of education or training up to 18.
The school year lasts from September to July and lasts for 39 weeks.
In many places the year is divided into 6 periods:
*from
*from
*from
*from
*from
*from
September to October
October to December
January to February
February to March
April to May
June to July
One of the most recognizable symbols of London are black taxis. These cars
are produced in the limited ammounts practically exclusively for the needs of
taxi corporations. The cars are spacious, they take 5 passengers and there is a
lot of place for the luggage.
The most popular way �to catch’ a taxi in London is to halt the driving taxi on the
street. However, there is also a posibility of ordering of the drive by phone, but it is
connected with the additional payments. The taxis in London are not one of the
cheapest, but in case of driving in groups they are a convenient form of transport.
The city bus network in London is one of
the biggest and the most used in the
world. Every day more than 6800 buses
transports about 6 milion passangers on
more than 700 different routes. We
should remember that the most common
phenomenon in London are thaffic jams.
London busses can be late especially in
the early hours, when people commute to
work and during the peak hours. Thus
when planning the drive, we should take
into account the fact that when the bus is
full the driver does not allow us to enter.
Using buses in London we may get
practically to every place. In order to get
to the English airports (Heathrow,
Stansted, Gatwick, Luton) we may use
coaches.
Storeyed bus – the bus with two levels (storeys), taking from 60 to 80 passengers. The
stairs are leading to the second level floor, being usually situated just behind the driver’s
cabin.
Metro londyЕ„skie (ang. London
Underground, informally the Tube) – the
system of local railway routes running in
the underground tunnels and on the
surface, supporting the majority of the
Greater London.
Despite its English name suggesting the underground,
only about 45% of its routes’ length is situated under the
surface.
The system consists of 12 lines, 275 stations
(including 14 beyond the administrative borders of
Greater London) and 408 km of routes. It is used by
about 3 mln passengers daily.
London Luton Airport – the international airport situated near Luton, 50 km
north from London. It is the fourth (taking into account the number of
transported passengers) airport of the city. In 2008 it serviced over 10 mln
passengers.
London Heathrow Airport – the biggest airport of Europe. It is situated 24 km west
from the London center. The Heathrow airport in 2005 served for almoust 68 mln of
passengers, which gave it the third place in the world taking into account the
passenger traffic, after the airports in Chicago-O'Hare and Atlanta – HartsfieldJackson.
London City Airport – international city airport in the district Royal Docks, being about 10
km from the very center of London
Londyn-Gatwick
London Gatwick Airport – the second busiest international airport in London
(after Heathrow). It is situated 40 km south from the center of the capital of
Great Britain and 40 km north from Brighton
London Stansted Airport – big international airport situated 48 km northeast of London, serving cheap airlines. It is currently 4th of size in Great
Britain, 3rd in size serving for London after Heathrow and Gatwick. It has
one 3048-meter long starting runway.
Wizz Air Hungary Legikozlekedesi short name
Wizz Air – Hungarian cheap airlines, serving in
Central and Eastern Europe, South Scandinavia,
South Ireland and some regions of Great Britain,
Benelux, Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Turkey.
In Great Britain, there is a left hand
traffic, so the driver sits on the right side
of the car. However, pedals are in the same
order as in the left hand cars, with an
accelerator pedal on the right side. The
tools and almoust always the handbrake is
operated with the left hand.
Most of the cars in Great Britain
have a gear lever.
British people are driving deliberately, politely in comparison with the other road
users, they obey the traffic rules, and rarely overtake even lorries.
Tower Bridge – a drawbridge in
London (sometimes confused with
the neighbouring bridge in
London called London Bridge),
running through the Themes river,
near the Tower of London, from
which it takes its name. One of the
most famous sites in London, built
in the Victorian style.
The characteristic elements of the bridge are two main towers, joined at the
top with two piers – overpass for pedestrians, hung 34 m over the roadway
and more than 44 m over the mark of the upper level in the river. The middle
part of the bridge consists of the two lifted bridge spans – the crane devices
with counterweight. These are two gigantic wings, each of 1 200 tons of
weight, when risen up, they form 86 degrees angle with the surface of the
roadway.
Big Ben – the clock tower in Londynie in Great Britain.
The name initially was referring to the bell from St.
Stephen's Tower, called also The Clock Tower,
belonging to the Westminster Palace. Currently the
name Big Ben refers commonly to the bell, the clock as
well as to the very tower.
London Eye, called also Millenium Wheel – an observation wheel (Ferris wheel) situated
in Lambeth district in London, at the south bank of the river Thames, between the
Westminster and Hungerford bridges.
The wheel has 135 meters of
height, and its full turn lasts
for about 40 minutes. There
are 32 air-conditioned
passenger capsules on the
wheel. The slow line speed
of the cabins (about 0,9
km/h) allows for taking the
passengers in and out of the
wheel without stopping it.
The English national sport stadium situated in Wembley district in London. It
has 90 000 places and is the third stadium in Europe considering its size.
Taking into consideration technical and architectural solutions, and the cost of
its construction, it is currently one of the most modern sport building in the
world.
The first official match at the new
Wembley was carried out on 24th of
March 2007 between the football
representations of England and Italy
up to 21. It ended with 3:3 score.
Wembley will be the host stadium of
the football Champions League in
2011.
Piccadilly Circus – the square
and the crossroads of the main
streets in the very heart of the
theatre and entertainment district
West End in Londynie, not far
from Soho.
It was built in 1819 after the
crossing with Regent Street.
Earlier it was called Portugal
Street in honour of the princess
Kate Braganz from Portugal,
married by king Karol II.
The place recognizable all over the world mainly thanks to the neon commercials such
companies as e.g. SANYO, McDonald's and Coca-Cola, situated at one of the place
corners. In the central place there is a fountain with Anteros figure. It is a place of
meetings of Londoners and the tourist attraction of London.
Directly under the square in the underground there is a Piccadilly Circus tube station.
Harrods – luxury department store on the Brompton Road, in
Knightsbridge district in London. Apart from the department store
Harrods Group includes Harrods Bank, Harrods Estates, Harrods
Casino, Harrods Aviation and Air Harrods.
Its name originates from the
name of Charles Henry Harrods, who
in 1849 opened a small grocer’s shop.
In time the shop became the vast
department store. In 1983 it was
bought by the Egipcian Mohamed al
Fayed, who made the shop even
more exclusive. Nowadays Harrods is
situated in 7 storey building and
employs almoust 4000 people. Queen
Elizabeth among other famous people
was doing shopping in Harrods.
It is one of the most known Anglican
Churches in Great Britain and buildings
of London. It is situated in the very
center of the district City of London and
formally serves the function of the main
church in that district. The care of the
church is taken directly by Lord Mayor.
St Paul’s Cathedral was built as a symbol of the
London’s revival and is characterized by the
flourish and monumentality, however it is less
prominent then the Vatican’s St Peter’s Basilica. St
Paul’s Cathedral has about 158 meters of length
and about 75 meters of width. The hight of the
building measured from the floor to the top of the
cross situated on the dome counts 108 meters.
The astronomical observatory built
by the king Karol II on 10th of
August 1675r. It was managed in in
later years by John Flamsteed
among others. It served then for
the astronometric measures, useful
for navigation in the oceanic
shipping. Then the seat of the
manager was taken by Edmond
Halley
(in 1720). The observatory sets the
position of the �zero’ meridian.
Westminster Abbey is the most
important, together with the Cathedral
in Canterbury and St. Paul’s Cathedral
in London City, it is an Anglican
Church.
The Abbey beginning from William the
Conqueror (1066) is a place of English
kings’ coronation, with the exception
of Edward V and Edward VIII, who
were not crowned. from XIII century
the Abbey is also the place of burial of
kings and distinguished people.
Windsor Castle – from 1110 the residence of English kings,
situated in the town of Windsor (Berkshire county in
England).
It consists of the numerous buildings surrounded
by walls with towers and gateways. It was built in
1070-1086 by William I the Conqueror, then
developed by the following rulers; such as Edward
III who erected here in the 14th century the Round
Tower
Westminster
Cathedral, dedicated to
the Most Precious Blood of
Jesus Christ– the Roman
Catholic basilica erected
at the turn of the 19th
and 20th century in
London in neobisantic
style. The main catholic
church of England and
Wales, Cathedral of the
Archbishop of Westminster.
It is the official residence of British monarchs and simultaneously the biggest kings’
palace in the world still servinng its original function. The official London’s residence of the
Queen. From 1913 the statue of Queen Victoria stands on the square in front of the palace.
Nowadays Buckingham Palace, apart from the role of London’s residence of
Queen Elizabeth II and the royal family, is also a place of state celebrations as well
as the official meetings of the Heads of State. For the British the palace constitutes
a symbol of Great Britain – here Londoners were offering flowers after the death of
princess of Wales - Diana.
Theatre in London
functioning in years 15991642, established by R. and
C. Burbage. One of the coowners was William
Shakespeare. The premieres
of his works were exhibited
there as well as the arts of
Ben Johnson and J. Webster.
The actors were exclusively
male. The theatre was build
in 1599. It was burned in a
fire in 1613, and rebuilt in
1614. Due to the Puritans’
intervention it was closed in
1642, then it was
demolished two years later.
The building was reconstructed according to
the project of the Buro Happold company and
opened in 1997.
The Globe was amphitheatre, which could seat
3000 spectators. It had the shape of circle. The
seats were divided into standing (cheaper) and
sitting (more expensive).
Trafalgar Square – the square in central London situated in the old site of
the royal stables, comemorating the victory of the British Royal Navy in the
sea battle of Trafalgar in 1805.
Its construction was started in 1829 and in 1843 the 55–meter’s high column called Nelson
Column was erected. The square is also decorated with the monuments of George IV, gen.
Havelok and gen. Napier as well as sir Lutyens fountains.
The place, where the Stonehenge structure was
erected. It gained the cultural significance
before 2950 BC. The prove of it is in the graves
outside the megalith dated even at about 3100
BC and the ring from the ground dated also at
that time.
One of the most famous European monolith
structures, from the neolith age and bronze age.
Megalith is situated 13 km from Salisbury in
Wiltshire county in the south of England. It was
the most probably connected with the cult of
moon and sun. It consists of the earth
embankments surrounding the big complex of
the standing stones. The site is included into the
UNESCO list of the world’s heritage from 1986.
British Museum – one of the biggest museums of
the ancient history in the world
It was created thanks to sir Hans Sloane,
physician, naturalist and collector. He wanted to
save his collection of literature and works of art
counting more than 71 thousand objects. He
offered then its sale for 20 thousand pounds for
king George II.
The museum was opened in 1917 for
commemoration of the fallen in the
time of the World War I. Initially it
was situated in the Crystal Palace
building, which was burned down in
1936. The seat was transfered to
Lambeth Road in Southwark to the
building initially serving the function
of the psychiatric hospital. The
collection of the museum was
extended during the World War II
and in 1953 they started presenting
the exhibits from all the British
armed conflicts. The museum
includes also a big collection of the
recordings of interviews with the
witnesses of wars and holocaust.
A wax figures museum (ang. Madame Tussauds) it was founded by Marie Tussaud, who in fact
was called Marie Grossholtz (born on 1st of December 1761 in Strasburg, died on 16th of April
1850 in London).
She came to London after the French Revolution with the formerly prepared wax casts of heads of
decapitated French aristocrats such as Maria Louisa, princess de Lamballe. She often had to look for
the particular heads on her own. She inherited her talent after Mr. Curtius. Her museum was passed
by means of inheritance. The last portrait was made 8 years before her death.
The said casts became the onset of the great collection presenting known people from various life
branches. After comming to England in 1835 she set the first exhibition at Baker Street it was the
first exhibition, which in 1884 was moved by her grandson to the present site at Marylebone Road.
It is the oldest of the parks included in the group of royal parks in London. It
is situated in the City of Westminster, East of the Buckingham Palace and
West of the Whitehall and Downing Street. St. James's, to which belong not
only the very park but also St. James's Palace, is situated in the north. Park
has a surface of 23 hectares (58 acres).
The borders of St. James's Park are indicated by the streets: The Mall in
north, Hourse Guards in east and Birdcage Walk in south. There is also a
small lake called St. James's Park Lake, with two islands, Duck Island (called
that because of the occurrence of the various species of waterfowl) and West
Island. The bridge running over the lake allows to see the eastern side of the
Buckingham Palace surrounded with trees and fountains and simmilarly
enclosed western facade of the Foreign Office seat.
Hyde Park – one of the few royal parks in London, laying in the area of
390 acres (about 159 ha). Divided in two parts by the lake Serpentine.
From the 19th century the park
became the popular place of social
meetings and cultural events.
In front of the park, at the north-east corner, there is
a Marble Arch. It was the original gate of the
Buckingham Palace built in 1827. It turned to be too
narrow for the royal carriage and was moved to the
present place in 1851.
Tintagel
Tintagel is a village situated on
the Atlantic coast of Cornwall, United
Kingdom. The village and nearby
Tintagel Castle are associated with the
legends surrounding King Arthur and the
knights of the Round Table. During the
19th century Tintagel was visited by
many notable writers, including Robert
Stephen Hawker, Charles Dickens,
Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Thomas
Hardy. The village has, in recent times,
become attractive to tourists from many
parts of the world and is one of the mostvisited places in Britain.
Bath
Bath is a city in the south west of
England. It is situated 156 km west of London
and 21 km south-east of Bristol. The population
of the city is 83,992. It was granted city status
by Queen Elizabeth I in 1590. The city was first
established as a spa resort with the Latin name,
Aquae Sulis ("the waters of Sulis") by the
Romans in AD 43. They built baths and a
temple on the surrounding hills of Bath in the
valley of the River Avon around hot springs. The
City of Bath was inscribed as a World Heritage
Site in 1987. The city has a variety of theatres,
museums, and other cultural and sporting
venues, which have helped to make it a major
centre for tourism, with over one million staying
visitors per year.
Great Britain is a very modern but on the other hand very tradition bound
country. The prove of it is the strong attachement of the British people to
the royal family, who despite its numerous scandals still is widely
respected. According to the tradition, every year on the 8th of June the
Queen’s birthday is celebrated. During this holiday there is a celebration
of the Household Cavalry (Trooping the Colour). It is worth to say that
during the year in Great Britain there are many celebrations.
Eating customs in the United Kingdom consist of three meals. The
traditional breakfast consists of: tomatoes, eggs, becon, saussage and
toasted bread. On Sunday people usually eat Roast dinner, which consist of:
roasted meet, roasted potatoes, vegetables and Yorkshire pudding. Every
day at 17.00 there is a Tea Time, that is the custom of tea drinking (the
statistical British person drinks daily about 8 cups of tea).
The British custom
initiated by duchess
of Bedford and
Queen Victoria. The
time of tea is
traditionally at 5
o’clock. The tea is
served then, which is
served in England
with milk, cakes or
sandwitches.
According to the
tradition at the turn
of 24th and 25th of
December the
biggest bell in the
church at the hour
before midnight
rings four times,
and punctually at
midnight all the
bells start to ring –
this is the beginning
of Christmas, the
joy of the newly
born Christ.
In the English Christmas tradition there are also many
plants, these evergreen.
Holly – the terror of elves
The sharp leaves of that plant are the symbol of the crown of
thorns, which Christ had on his head before the crucifixion
Ivy – a chance for a woman
Holly is considered to be a symbol of manhood. On the other hand
Ivy is a symbol of womanhood. This plant must be supported by
something.
Rosemary – against evil spirits and bears
This plant is said to have been the favourite spice of Holy Mary. It
protects against evil spirits.
Mistletoe – a berry kisses
The druids believed, that mistletoe fell down from heaven and that
is why it grows on trees. In this way it joins this which is heavenly
and spiritual with this which is earthly.
Druids believed, that mistletoe fell
down from heaven and that is why it
grows on trees. In this way it joins
this which is heavenly and spiritual
with this which is earthly. Thus it
symbolizes the reconciliation of God
with the sinful humanity. The
custom of kissing in public under a
mistletoe comes just from England.
At first we should tear off the white
berry from the twig and hand it in to
a person who we want to kiss. When
the berries end, the kisses end too.
Mistletoe is also a plant of friendship
and reconciliation. In one of the
York churches the mistletoe masses
were served. The public sinners
could be absolved then.
The sharp leaves of that plant are the symbol
of the crown of thorns, which Christ had on
his head before crucifixion. The red berries
are the symbol of His blood. That is why the
Holly is called the bush of thorns. The most
famous variety grows in Glastonbury, where it
was supposedly planted by St. Joseph of
Arimathea (shortly after the crucifixion of
Jesus he had to come to England, to
introduce the Christianity there). Every year
mayors of Glastonbury and Somerset and the
vicar of the local churchof St. John the Babtist
cut the twig from the bush and send to the
royal court as a decoration of the table.
In Scotland the holly twig was hung over the
doors, to protect the house from the naughty
elves. In the middle England there was a
custom, that boys cut their hands with a
sharp leaf, and the number of drops of the
drown blood told about the count of years left
to live.
A holly is considered to be a symbol of
manhood. Ivy on the other hand is a symbol of
womanhood. This plant does not grow on its
own, it must rely on something. It depicts the
weakness of a man, who should rely on God. Ivy
climbing the wall of the house had to keep the
witches away. The twig of an ivy - cut on the
Christmas Eve and put on the saucer with water
- tells the successful harvest in the following
year, if it survives till the Three Magi celebration.
Neither holly, nor ivy was not supposed to be
taken home before Christmas – this brings bad
luck. According to which of these plants will be
taken home first we may distinguish who will
rule the house through the following year –
woman or man.
The first Christmas tree was brought to England by prince
Albert, a husband of Queen Victoria. The richly decorated
tree occurred in the Windsor castle in 1841. The queen
was very pleased of it and it was welcomed by others
especially rich houses of high – class and rich middle
class representatives.
Spruce Christmas Tree is a German tradition, but
originating in... England. St. Boniface from Devon, living
in the 8th century, went to Europe, to preach the
Christianity among Germanic tribes. The evergreen
spruce was at that time considered as a symbol of
Christianity and eternal God in England. The german
tribes worshipped an oak, which was richly decorated in
the time of the turn of winter celebration. As the legend
says, Boniface in a gesture of opposition to the pagan
celebration he cut an oak, which was supposed to be in
the center of celebration. To everyone’s surprise the
spruce grew from the cut tree. From that time on the
custom of decorating spruce in candles was born in
Germany, so that st. Boniface could preach among the
pagan also at night.
Supposedly it was Martin Luter who brought the first tree
decorated with the shining stars to the house. During the
Victorian times the tree was decorated in candles. First
electric lamps appeared in 1895.
At Christmas in England Christmas tables look different
than in Poland. The traditional dish is a turkey stuffed
with various vegetables (supposedly better than our
Christmas Eve carp). It is accompained with the
different dishes too such as the sausages with a rolled
becon etc. English people eat the main dish at noon or
shortly after. The dishes are eaten in the crowns made
of paper. It is the symbol referring to Three Magi.
Christmas in England cannot be celebrated without the
traditional pudding for a dessert. It is served in a
coating glaze from the blancmange or brandy. In the
leter case alcohol is set on fire, and the flames are
supposed to protect from the bad luck. The tradition
tells, that the pudding should be made of 13
components (flour, beef suet, almonds, 3 types of raisin,
crumbs, sugar, eggs, rum, grated carrot, candied
cherries and lemon juice). It serves as a symbol of 12
disciples and Jesus Christ. Apart from pudding, muffins
with delicacies and other delicious desserts are served
too.
The second day of Christmas is
traditionally called Boxing Day and
contrary to the initial association it is
not related to fightings but to boxes,
given most commonly today for milkmen
and newsboys in the form of tips.
Bonfire Night or Guy
Fawkes
Day
is
on
November
5th.
It
celebrates the attempt by
Guy Fawkes to destroy the
Houses of Parliament in
1605. A lot of people
decide to make their own
“guy” to burn out of old
clothes. In Lewes, a town in
East Sussex, the town
decides on one “evil”
person to burn each year.
Pancake Day is celebrated on
Shrove Tuesday which is the dy before
Lent. Shrove Tuesday is often referred
to as Pancake Day because fats,
which were generally prohibited
during Lent, had to be used up. In the
United Kingdom of Great Britian
Pancake Day is celebrated with fun,
games, and of course a lot of eating.
However, the most well known
activity on this day is the Pancake
Day
race
at
Olney
in
Buckinghamshire. Only women are
allowed to participate in this race.
They must run a designated path with
a frying pan and end up at the church.
They must have a hot pancake in the
frying pan which they must flip at
least three times before they
complete the race.
This celebration takes place
on January 25th, and celebrates
Robert Burns’ life. Robert Burns was
the greatest Scottish poet. During
this day people meet, read his
poems, men wear kilts. The tradition
is to eat a big dinner on this day so
families and friends meet and eat
Haggis, which is minced sheep’s
liver, heart and lungs tied up inside a
sheep’s stomach.
п‚Ў
Great Britain introduced to the world’s do cuisine primarily hot breakfast, afternoon tea and the
traditional puddings. Great Britain as first introduced „fast food” and take away dishes in the form of the
famous fish and chips, sandwitches and Cornish pasty (vegetables and meat in cake). The modern
British cuisine is diverse and innovative, nontheless it is worth to try the traditional dishes, which are
prepared from the first-grade ingredients, such as beef, lamb and deer. In Great Britain, the island
country, traditionally a lot of fish food is eaten, however the sea fruit, being formerly cheap are recently
considerably more expensive.
п‚Ў
Full English breakfast consists of becon and eggs, mushroom and grilled tomatoes, mutton sausages,
blood sausage and toasts.
п‚Ў
Laverbread is a Welsh speciality prepared from the dark seeweed. It is served cold with sea fruit or
warm with bacon, toast and tomato.
п‚Ў
Cornish pasty is meat and wegetables baked in cake.
The style of English gardens is
not a „one style”. It is an infinite
number of styles, gardens and
people, who created them. The
English garden is most of all a
garden tended with hands of
many generations, with a great
love and devotion. Muddy
wellingtons, clippers in one
hand, the cup of steaming tea in
the other – these are the
attributes of a typical British,
who despite the rain and wind
spends long hours on weeding
and digging his garden. Stylish
kitchen filled with seedings and
covered with the garden soil – it
is a pretty regular phenomenon.
Because garden is the most
important!
п‚Ў
The garden in English style is characterised with the romantic
character – full of the colourfull flowers, the smell of roses,
misterious nooks and stylish decorations. Worth mentioning are the
vast areas, spacious lawns and the free, wild character being seen
inter alia in the choice of plants.
The space is divided into the separate interiors of various
functions. The vital elements of these „green rooms” are
potted plants in stylish containers, sculptures and other
details (most commonly cast-iron or wooden).
Perennial beds are characteristic for its style.
They can have the amphiteatrical order (low
level plants at front and higher level plants in
the rear) or in the free style (between the low
plants there are the clumps of higher).
Among plants there are roses spread on pergoli, garden houses, columns and by the
house entrances. They are eagerly planted also on flower beds, giving them a
romantic character.
J.R.R. Tolkien, writer
Margaret Thatcher, politician
Anthony Hopkins, actor
William Shakespeare, writer
Carl Darwin, a creator of
the theory of evolution of
species
Lord Byron, a poet
Isaac Newton, physicist,
matematician, alchemist
Winston Churchill, a
politician
Queen, the British
rock band
David Beckham, a
football player
It is a rhythmically simple ballroom
dance, however it demands from
the partners the great physical fit.
Slow waltz (English waltz) as the
very name suggests comes from
England and it was danced for the
first time at the end of 1921. Its
steps and turns indicate that its
father was Viennese waltz.
Tact: Вѕ
Tempo: 29-30 tacts per minute
Foxtrot is an English term meaning the
step of fox. Very popular at the beginning
of our century, trully free, having no strict
rules. When the actor Harry Fox
introduced in his band trotting steps, and
masters have smoothed it, thus it gained
its style and character. This dance
distinguishes a boy from a man. When
observing the dancers there is an
impression of smoothyness and the
confidence of motion. The same as
English waltz it is a typical English dance
and is considered to be the most difficult
standard dance despite it is based on the
basic walking figures.
Tact: 4/4
Tempo: 29-30 tacts per minute
It was born in America from onestep and rag.
In 1914 it came to England. It is a quick
variation of foxtrot, gushing with energy,
different style and character, proposed at the
congress of dance teachers in 1924. It can
symbolise young people full of joy and life,
taking joy of every while spent together by
means of jumps, running steps, fast changes
of direction, turnover figures and progressive
ones. It demands to be in a good fit and good
controll of ones ballance, especially because it
is danced at the end of the tournament.
During the tournament it is danced in the
tempo of 52 tacts per minute. It is a very
quick tempo, that is why this dance is called
quickstep - quic Foxtrot. Tact: 4/4,Tempo: 5053 tacts per minute.
The young dance created in the time of so
called dance revolution after 1910 as a
result of the stylization of swing and jazz
origin, rich in many movement inspirations.
As a jitlerburg it was carried to Europe in
1940 by the American soldiers. Later on
known as boigie - woogie. It was later
developed in England. From the mid 70’s it
is a tournament dance. In this dance there
are some African influences. Jive shows us
how great joy the life is. Simmilar to rock
and roll, but without the acrobatic figures.
In the present version it is a classic jazz
dance, influencing the emergence of the
new dancing figures „dancing jinks". All of
them are fleeting phenomena, whereas jive
lasts and still developes. Simmilarly as in
quickstep it demands good fit and condition,
because it is danced as a last dance. Tact:
4/4. Tempo: 44 tacts per minute”
THE END
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