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The Growth of the Thirteen Colonies

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1607-1770
п‚— Essential Question:
п‚— How did geography affect the economic development
of the three colonial regions?
 1700 – population of 250,000 colonists; 1770s – 2.5
million colonists
 1700 – 28,000 Africans; 1770s – 500,000 Africans
п‚— Immigration
п‚— Women marry early and have large families
п‚— America is a healthy place to live
п‚— Main economic activity for all colonies
п‚— Farms in North are smaller than those in the South
п‚— Why?
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п‚— New England farmers use subsistence farming
п‚— Small businesses
п‚— Skilled craftsman trade their goods
п‚— Shipbuilding (Lumber!!!)
п‚— Fishing
п‚— Northern coastal cities
п‚— Link Northern and Southern colonies
п‚— Link America to other parts of the world
п‚— Enslaved Africans march to West African coast, traded
to Europeans, branded and forced onto a ship
п‚— Shipped to the West Indies (Middle Passage)
п‚— Travel to slave markets in American ports
 Mild climate – produce much bigger harvests than
in New England
п‚— Grew cash crops
п‚— Farmers sent cargoes of wheat and livestock to
NYC and Philadelphia for shipment
п‚— Busy ports
п‚— Largest cities in the American colonies
п‚— Rich soil, warm climate
п‚— Large farms producing cash crops
п‚— Little industry develops
п‚— Tobacco
п‚— Main crop in Maryland and Virginia
п‚— Rice
п‚— Main crop in South Carolina and Georgia
п‚— Very strenuous work = reliance on slave labor
 Very profitable crop – By 1750s South Carolina and
Georgia have fastest growing economies in the colonies
п‚— Self contained communities
п‚— Might include slave cabins, barns, stables, blacksmith
shop, carpenter shop, store rooms, kitchens, chapel,
school
п‚— Independent small farmers outnumber large
plantations but plantation owners are wealthier and
more influential
п‚— Some enslaved Africans might do housework.
Most work in the fields under the watch of
overseers
 1705 – Virginia creates a slave code
п‚— Helps define relationship between enslaved people and
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
free people
Illegal to teach Africans to read or write
Can’t leave plantation without written permission
Can’t assemble in large groups
Whipped for minor offenses
Hanged or burned to death for major offenses
п‚— More important to economic success of Southern
colonies
п‚— Less support for slavery in Northern colonies
п‚— Puritans
п‚— Quakers
п‚— Mennonites
п‚— Answer the Essential Question
п‚— How did geography affect the economic
development of the three colonial regions?
п‚— New England
п‚— Middle
п‚— Southern
п‚— Although the American colonies developed some self-
government, the British still set many laws, especially
those concerning trade
п‚— American Spirit: Americans were beginning to view
themselves differently from the way Britain viewed
them
п‚— England viewed its North American colonies as an
economic resource (MERCANTILISM)
п‚— Navigation Acts
п‚— Colonial merchants could not use foreign ships to export
goods
п‚— Colonists could not trade certain products outside
England’s empire
п‚— Controls on trade would later cause more conflict
between the American colonies and England
п‚— Trial by Jury
п‚— Government is not all powerful!
п‚— Limited government
п‚— Representative government
п‚— Type of Colony
п‚— Charter
п‚— Characteristics
п‚— Settlers given a charter to establish the colony
п‚— Elected governors and members of the legislature
п‚— Colonies
п‚— Connecticut, Rhode Island
п‚— Type of Colony
п‚— Proprietary
п‚— Characteristics
п‚— Proprietor owned land and made laws
п‚— Proprietor appointed governors and members of upper
house of legislature
п‚— Colonists elect lower house of legislature
п‚— Colonies
п‚— Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania
п‚— Type of Colony
п‚— Royal
п‚— Characteristics
п‚— Britain rules directly
п‚— Conflicts occur when officials try to enforce tax laws and
trade restrictions
п‚— Colonies
п‚— Georgia, Virginia, NJ, NY, SC, NC, Mass
п‚— White men who owned property
п‚— Proportion of people in colonies participating in
government is higher than anywhere in Europe
п‚— Valuable training for when colonies become
independent
п‚— Family is basic foundation of colonial society
п‚— Men are formal heads of household
п‚— Women run households, care for children, had few
rights
п‚— Widows or unmarried women could run businesses
and own property but could not vote
п‚— High value on education
п‚— Many colonies eventually developed schools
п‚— Harvard College: Established by Puritans in 1636
п‚— In what ways was an American culture developing
during the colonial period?
п‚— Limited government, representative government, family
is the basis of society
п‚— Essential Question:
п‚— Why did conflict arise in North America between
France and Great Britain?
п‚— Rivalry between Great Britain and France led to a war
for control of North America
п‚— Both wanted control land west of the Appalachian
Mountains (Ohio River Valley)
п‚— Fighting breaks out in 1740s
п‚— French are interested in fur trade while English are
interested in colonization
п‚— French had many Native American allies;
intermarriage is common and customs are followed
п‚— French missionaries convert many Native Americans
to Catholicism
п‚— Native Americans often help French and raid British
settlements
п‚— Most powerful group of Native Americans in the East
(New York)
п‚— Five Nations: Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga,
Oneida, (Tuscarora, 1722)
п‚— Iroquois skillfully play French and British against one
another and dominate the Great Lakes area
 Mid 1770s – become British allies
 1754 – 22 year old George Washington becomes a
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
lieutenant colonel
Washington and 150 militia men sent to build a fort in
the Ohio River Valley
French already built Fort Duquesne
Washington attacked and was defeated
Washington is released and becomes colonial hero for
striking the first blow against the French
п‚— Developed by Benjamin Franklin
п‚— Representatives adopted a plan of unified colonial
government to stand against the French
 No colonies approved the plan. They didn’t want to
give up their power.
п‚— French and Indian War erupts
п‚— Why do you think Benjamin Franklin proposed the
Albany Plan of Union?
п‚— How did the Iroquois remain independent from both
the British and the French? How did that change?
п‚— Answer the Essential Question
п‚— Why did conflict arise in North America between
France and Great Britain?
п‚— Essential Question:
п‚— How did the outcome of the French and Indian war
determine who controlled North America?
п‚— Battle of Quebec (1759)
п‚— Part of a larger struggle between Britain and
France for
п‚— Control of world trade
п‚— Power over the seas
п‚— French are building forts throughout Great Lakes and
Ohio River Valley
п‚— French network of alliances with native Americans
allows them to control large areas of land
 1754 – Britain steps in to help colonists fight the
French
 Fighting in America helps start Seven Years’ War in
Europe
п‚— War is declared in 1756
п‚— Early on the French are
п‚— Capturing British forts
п‚— Native American allies are raiding frontier farms from
NY to PA
п‚— Killed settlers, burned farmhouses and crops
п‚— Drive many families back toward to coast
п‚— William Pitt: Great British military planner
п‚— Sent forces to recapture fortresses previously taken by
French
п‚— Very successful
п‚— Captured Fort Duquesne in Pennsylvania and renamed
it Fort Pitt
п‚— The fall of Quebec and Montreal ended the war
п‚— British troops captured Quebec in 1759
 1763 – Forces France to give Canada and most lands
west of the Mississippi River to Great Britain
п‚— Also receives Spanish Florida and the port at New
Orleans
п‚— Marks the end of France as a power in North America
п‚— French loss is a great blow to Native Americans
п‚— British start pushing further west
 Pontiac’s War
п‚— Ottawa Chief Pontiac united Native Americans against
British
 1763 – Killed settlers along PA and VA frontiers
 1765 – British forces defeat Pontiac and his allies
п‚— To prevent more fighting, British set the Appalachian
Mountains as the temporary western border
п‚— Colonists who had already brought land west of the
mountains were furious
п‚— More conflicts would soon arise between Britain and
the colonists.
п‚— Answer the Essential Question:
п‚— How did the outcome of the French and Indian war
determine who controlled North America?
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