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Mass Society in an Age of Progress

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Mass Society in an
Age of Progress
1871 - 1894
Main Points
в–є Era
of significant material prosperity and progress
в–є Second Industrial Revolution reinforces faith in
в–є Mass Society emerges with this broad urban,
industrial and economic growth
в–є Era of increased democracy and the triumph of
в–є New ideas of mass politics, propaganda and mass
Growth of Industrial Prosperity
в–є After
1871, new technology and industrial
developments triggered Second Industrial
 First IR focused on textiles, coal, iron and RR
 Second focused on steel, chemicals, electricity,
and petroleum
New Products, New Markets
в–є Substitution
of steel for iron (Bessemer Process
and Gilchrist Process)
в–є Chemical production: Germany surpasses GB
(soap, paper, dyes, film)
в–є Electricity
 T. Edison (1847-1931) and Joseph Swan – light bulb
 A.G. Bell (1847-1922) – telephone, 1876
 G. Marconi (1874-1937) – radio waves across the
Atlantic, 1901
 Transformation of factories to electrical power
в–є Internal
combustion engine and petroleum power
New Products, New Markets
в–є Automobile
and airplane
Daimler (1886) engine
H. Ford (1863-1947) – mass production
Zeppelin airship, 1900
Wright brothers, 1903
Evolution of the “Zeppelin”
From the very first Zeppelin
…to the virile progenitors of
heavy metal Zeppelin
…to a
…to the Viagra-dependent
New Products, New Markets
Marconi’s radio (1901); Daimler’s
internal combustion engine in the
first motorcycle (1885)
New Products, New Markets
 Increased wages and elevated standard of
 Competition
 Cartels
 Precision tools/interchangeable parts and
assembly line
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
в–є Depression,
1873-1895 – falling prices,
business slump
в–є Economic boom after 1895
в–є La
belle Г©poque
в–є German
Industrial Leadership
 Germany replaces Britain as the industrial
leader of Europe
 New areas of manufacturing; emphasis on
scientific and technological education
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
► Europe’s
two economic zones: Industrial
and Agricultural
 Advance industrial core of Great Britain,
Belgium France, the Netherlands, Germany,
western part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire,
and northern Italy
 Little industrial development in southern Italy,
most of Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the
Balkan kingdoms, and Russia
в–є Development
of world economy caused
many agricultural areas to specialize due to
an abundance of grain
Industrial Regions of Europe by 1914
Women and Work
“Right to work”
Ideal of domesticity/cult of domesticity vs. reality of financial
Sweatshops and “slopwork” and factory restrictions
White-Collar Jobs
 Increased white-collar jobs created shortage of male workers opening
up opportunities for women
 Secretaries, teachers, clerks, telephone operators, nurses
 Freedom from domestic patterns
Contagious Diseases Acts of 1870s and 1880s
 Government penalizes prostitutes, not Johns
 Josephine Butler’s “Shrieking Sisters”
 Repeal of the acts in 1886
Women and Work
Female telephone operators; French
prostitutes: “Why didn’t they just wash
the muff?”
Organizing the Working Class
в–є Growing
numbers of workers – they wanted their
voices heard and developed labor unions and
political parties
в–є Socialist Parties in Germany
 German Social Democratic Party (SPD) 1875 – most
prominent socialist party – why in Germany?
 Liebknecht and Bebel – Marxist rhetoric
в–є Socialist
Parties in France
 Variety of socialist parties
 Jean Juares – rejects Marxism in favor of model from
French Revolution
в–є Effects
of the growth of socialist parties – Belgium,
Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania and
в–є Second International (1889) and International
Labor Day 5/1
Organizing the Working Class
divisive issues: Revisionism and
 Evolutionary Socialism vs. Marxism
and Marxism
в–єEduard Bernstein (1850-1932) and
 Nationalism
working man has no country” (?)
в–єMany like Marx favored international
approach but nationalism was a powerful
Organizing the Working Class
в–єFormation of labor unions
 Right to strike
 Replacement of violent upheaval with
collective bargaining
 Strong ties to socialist parties – why?
 Initially a peaceful movement
 Bakunin’s approach – more violence
 Use of assassination
Contrasting Political Viewpoints
the state!
And shoot
Bebel: “We aim in the domain of politics at republicanism; in the domain of
economics at socialism; in the domain of what is today called religion, at atheism.”
Bernstein: "The Communist Manifesto was correct…but…we see the privileges of
the capitalist bourgeoisie yielding…to democratic organizations…In my
judgment…success lies in a steady advance……than in…a catastrophic clash.“
Bakunin: “If there is a State, then there is domination, and in turn, there is
Emergence of Mass Society
в–є Population
 270 mil to 460 mil from 1850-1910!
 Decline in the death rate
discoveries and environmental conditions
в–єImproved publication sanitation
в–єImproved nutrition
в–є Increased
emigration to urban areas and to
 Opportunity for employment
 Need to escape persecution
Population Growth in Europe,
The Urban Environment
в–є Growth
of cities / Urbanization
в–є Urban Reformers and Improved Living
 Edwin Chadwick, Rudolf Virchow
to relationship between living conditions and
в–єBoards of Health established
в–єBuildings begin to be inspected for problems
в–єPublic Health Act of 1875 in Britain
в–єClean water into the city
в–єExpulsion of sewage
Transformation of the
Urban Environment
в–є Housing
 Reformer-philanthropists focused on relationship of living
conditions to political and moral health of the nation
 Victor A. Huber, German reformer – no more SLUMS!
 Octavia Hill – personal investment in housing
 Lord Leverhulme – Port Sunlight and his soap factory
 Ebenezer Howard – Letchward Garden City
 Garden City Movement
в–є Redesigning
the cities; British Housing Act of 1890
 Construct new buildings, reconfigure spaces
 Cheap modern transportation – urban sprawl, suburbs
 Liberal principles of government don’t hold true
Transformation of the
Urban Environment
Slum housing; Lord Levelhulme’s houses for
his employees at Port Sunlight Village; the
visual concept for the Garden City Movement
Social Structure of Mass Society
The Elite
 5 percent of the population that controlled 30 to 40 percent of
 Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy
 Common bonds
The Middle Classes
 Stratification: Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower
 Professionals
 White-collar workers
 Middle class values came to dominate society and culture
The Lower classes
 80 percent of the European population
 Agriculture
 Urban working class stratification: Skilled, semiskilled, unskilled
Social Structure of Mass Society
The elite, the urban
poor and the rural
The Woman Question
в–є There
were increased job opportunities for women
в–є However,
many women still aspired to the ideal of
 Marriage was the only honorable and/or available career
 Lord Tennyson’s The Princess:
в–є Man
is the hunter; woman is his game:
The sleek and shining creatures of the chase,
We hunt them for the beauty of their skins;
They love us for it, and we ride them down.
 Pt. V, l. 147-150.
в–є Man
for the field and woman for the hearth:
Man for the sword and for the needle she:
Man with the head and woman with the heart:
Man to command and woman to obey;
All else confusion.
 Pt. V, l. 427-431.
The Family and Family Life
► “Cult
of Domesticity” glorified
 Before increased job opportunities, women had to
marry out of financial necessity
 Most women chose to marry, however lowering
illegitimacy, but so did…
в–є Family
 Family size limited (contraception – vulcanized
 Dr. Aletta Jacob – first birth control clinic in
Amsterdam 1882
 Those who could afford children used birth control;
those who could not often didn’t
 Many spoke out against birth control
The Middle Class Family
в–є Family
was a central institution
 Men – income
 Women – household, socials – the more idle the
 Domestic Servants – housework/cooking
в–є 1890
to 1914 higher paying jobs made it
possible to live on the husband’s wages
в–є Leisure time due to higher wages and
reduced work week
 Holiday traditions
 Gender-based activities, toys for children
The Working Class Family
в–є Wages
improved to allow younger children
NOT to work, and even more women were
staying at home like middle class
► Consumer goods – sewing machines,
stoves, bicycles – provided goals to work
в–є Saturday leisure
в–є Compulsory education removed children
from factories and put them in schools
Education and Leisure
в–є Schools
 Gymnasium (Secondary Schools)
 Secondary (University) for wealthy and later,
middle class
 Needed compulsory education for informed
voting public and national pride!
 Germany had 1st public education system early
19th century
 By 1870s more school requirements
в–є Impact
on literacy
в–є Growth of publications
Education and Leisure
в–є Second
IR decimated village life of past –
long holidays didn’t mesh with industrial
в–є Shorter work days/weeks = more leisure!
в–є Machines to do housework = more leisure!
в–є Rail travel to resorts and Tourism (Thomas
в–є Music and dance halls
в–є Organized sports
в–є Amusement Parks
Early Days of Sport
Rugby in Britain; Football
(Soccer) in Genoa
Ferris Wheel – Old School
The National State:
Western Europe and the Growth of Political Democracy
в–є With
the exception of Spain and Italy,
parliamentary control of the governments of
western Europe were able to push for liberal
► Great Britain and Gladstone’s Reforms
 Reform Act of 1884
 Redistribution Act
 Salaries to members of the House of Commons
The National State:
Western Europe and the Growth of Political Democracy
в–є Irish
 Act of Union 1801
and the impact of
 Gladstone’s attempt at
land reform
 Failure of Home Rule
Bills of 1886 and 1893
 Irish Protestants in
Ulster (N. Ireland) vs.
The National State:
Western Europe and the Growth of Political Democracy
в–є France
in turmoil
 Defeat in the Franco-Prussian War led to the
downfall of Emperor Louis Napoleon III.
 Bismarck required defeated France to choose
their new government by UNIVERSAL MALE
SUFFRAGE, though the French Republicans had
set up a provisional government
 Once put to vote, the French public rejected the
republican government and elected a majority
of monarchists for the new National Assembly!
The National State:
Western Europe and the Growth of Political Democracy
в–є France
in turmoil
 Radical republicans rebel: Paris Commune
 National Assembly brutally puts down the
commune after a month of nasty street fighting
Michel and the role of women
в–єOutcome broadened the rift between middle and
working class already begun in 1848-9 revolutions
The National State:
Western Europe and the Growth of Political Democracy
в–є France
in turmoil
 Monarchists failure to choose a king
 Ineffective leadership opens door for republic to
 By 1875, Third Republic born. 1st? 2nd?
 Republicans come to dominate Chamber of
 Resistance to the Third Republic and the
Boulanger Affair
The National State:
Western Europe and the Growth of Political Democracy
в–є Spain
and Italy
 Spain remains conservative and brutally
suppresses outbursts of socialists and anarchists
 Italy, the Ethiopia humiliation, and the rift
between industrialists and working class
The National State:
Central and Eastern Europe and the Persistence of the
Old Order
в–є Germany
 Established legislature as well as universal male
suffrage, yet still remained an authoritarian and
conservative regime
 Bicameral legislature: Bundesrat and
 Role of Chancellor and persistence of Junkerdominated military hierarchy
The National State:
Central and Eastern Europe and the Persistence of the
Old Order
в–є Germany: a power struggle
 Bismarck
в–є Kulturkampf
and playing to liberals
► Bismarck’s conservative backlash in 1878
в–є Outlawing SDP
в–є Social Welfare Legislation (?)
в–є Failure to curb growth of SDP and desire to use undemocratic,
repressive measures to obliterate them
 Kaiser Wilhelm II
в–є Desire
to rule alone
в–є Role of Kaiser made secure by Bismarck
► Dissatisfaction with Bismarck’s failure to win over the workers
and stop spread of SDP
► Bismarck’s dismissal in 1890
The National State:
Central and Eastern Europe and the Persistence of the
Old Order
в–є Austria
 Ausgleich created dual monarchy 1867 with
constitution and parliament, but Emperor
Francis Joseph undermined its authority
 Ethnic minority problem
von Taaffe as PM (1879-1893)
в–єConcessions to minorities ager German-speaking
в–єFrancis Joseph used Catholicism to keep people
в–єUniversal male suffrage 1907
The National State:
Central and Eastern Europe and the Persistence of the
Old Order
в–є Hungary
 More effective parliament but dominated by
Magyar landowners
 Forced Magyarization
 Ethnic tensions
The National State:
Central and Eastern Europe and the Persistence of the
Old Order
в–є Russia
 No concessions or liberal democratic reforms
 Assassination of Alexander II made his son
Alexander III reactionary
 Secret police, power of Zemstovs curtailed
 Industrialization would force inevitable change…
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