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Hadjigeorgiou - University of Surrey

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Ethnicity in education research on
British born ethnic minorities
Demetris Hadjigeorgiou
City University
Ethnicity as Social Capital useful in
explaining ethnic minority academic
performance from bottom-up
Must be sensitive so as not to
�essentialise’ ethnicity
Outline
Overview of themes in early literature
Recent encouraging trends
Ethnicity as Social Capital
Avoid essentialising ethnicity
Overview of themes in ethnic
minority educational research
Family background, including class & racial
disadvantage – �blackness’
School processes, role of teachers
Pupil characteristics, language problems & selfperception
More positive trends in ethnic minority
education
Increasing recognition of complexity &
diversity in ethnic minority academic
performance
Achievement by ethnic group GCSE’s in England 2004
5 A*-C GCSE’s in Britain
Chinese 1st generation
low human & financial
capital
Indians & Pakistanis 10%
more likely to achieve this
when control for class
Ethnicity
%Expected
GCSE’s 5 A*-C
White British
52
Indian
67
Pakistani
45
Bangladeshi
48
Black Caribbean
36
Black African
43
Chinese
74
First Year Full-Time & Part-Time Students, 1997-98
Ethnicity
%18-24 in higher
education
%18-24 in Great
Britain
18-24’s in higher
education
White
85.2
4.7
2.7
0.7
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.0
0.5
92
2
1.8
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.9
0.7
48*-52*
51-49
56-44
58-42*
50-50
52-48
48-52
40-60
38*-62
Indian
Pakistani
Bangladeshi
Chinese
Asian Other
Africans
Caribbeans
Black Other
Ethnicity as Social Capital
Ethnicity �unfashionable’ in 1970’s and into
1980’s
Work in America on �ethnicity as social capital’.
Combination of cultural capital & social capital
(Modood, 2004).
Can encourage academic performance through
�communal effect’ and shielding children from
developing similar attitudes to other pupils from
disadvantaged backgrounds.
Characteristics of ethnicity as Social Capital
Family support
Embededness in ethnic group
Intergenerational closure
Family Support
Mean scores of Year 13 pupils’ decisions to enter Higher Education
Issues
affecting
decision
Black
African
Black
Caribbean
Pakistani/
B’deshi
Indian
Chinese
All
minority
groups
White
E’ment
from
family
4
4
4
4
3.8
4
3.4
Always
assumed
go to HE
4
3.2
4
4.1
3.9
3.9
3.1
Chinese parents UK (Francis & Archer, 2003)
Greek-Cypriot parents UK
Embededness in Social Group
Geographical concentration
Many formal and informal networks
Lack of sense of Britishness
Intergenerational Closure
Continued importance of family to many
ethnic minorities in the UK
Muslim community (Archer 2003) &
Chinese community (Francis & Archer
2004)
Avoiding essentialism
Ethnicity as Social Capital can appear to �essentialise’
ethnicity
New ethnicities literature
Particular problem for minorities such as Asians
portrayed as static and traditional
Considerable intra-group variation e.g. Pakistanis &
Bangladeshis
Negotiating between family, community
and �external influences’ e.g. local youth
cultures
Use of different capitals in different
situations
Developing understanding on class &
status within communities
Questions?
D.G.Hadjigeorgiou@city.ac.uk
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