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Industrialization Changes Way of Life

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Industrialization
Changes
Way of Life
Ch. 25.2
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The factory system changed the way people
lived, worked, and introduced a variety of
problems for society.
Quality of life improves
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Coal provided heat for homes
Wore better clothing
Ate more meat
Cities grew
Urbanization
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Urbanization – city building and the movement
of people into cities.
Between 1800-1850 more than 45 cities had
populations of 100,000+
Glasgow and Berlin quadrupled in size.
London
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Replaced Paris as the
largest city in Europe
Population of 1 million
Leader in
industrialization
Major Cities
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Birmingham and Sheffield became iron-smelting
centers.
Leeds and Manchester dominated textile
manufacturing.
Liverpool and Manchester were the center of
the cotton industry.
Living Conditions
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No plans, sanitary codes, or building codes
controlled the growth of English cities.
They lacked adequate housing, education, and
police protection.
Unpaved streets had no drainage and collected
heaps of garbage.
Workers lived in dark, dirty shelters, whole
families crowded into one bedroom.
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Think about your family…
Could you all live in ONE BEDROOM?
Sickness widespread
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Cholera epidemics regularly swept through the
slums of Great Britain.
In 1842, British government study showed an
average life span to be 17 years for working-class
people in a large city, while it was 38 years for
the countryside.
Cholera
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Cholera is an infection of the small intestine
that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea.
Symptoms: Abdominal cramps; Dry mucus
membranes or mouth; Dry skin; Excessive
thirst; Glassy or sunken eyes; Lack of tears;
Lethargy
Mary Barton
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Fiction novel written by Elizabeth Gaskell in
1848.
It is about a family living during Britain’s
industrial time.
While it’s fiction, it gives an accurate portrayal
of life during that time period.
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“You went down one step even from the foul
area into the cellar in which a family of human
beings lived. It was very dark inside. The
window panes were broken and stuffed with
rags…the smell was foul…three or four children
rolled on the damp, wet brick floor…”
Working Conditions
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The average worker spent 14 hours a day at the
job, 6 days a week.
Factories were poorly lit.
Factories were unclean.
Machines injured workers in countless ways.
There was no government program to provide
aid in case of injury.
Coal Miners
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The most dangerous conditions of all were
found in the coal mines.
Frequent accidents
Damp conditions
Constant breathing of coal dust made the
average coal miner’s life span ten years shorter
than other workers.
X-Ray of Coal Miner’s Lungs
Healthy
lungs are
pink!
A Middle Class Emerges
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The Industrial Revolution brought enormous
wealth to Great Britain.
Most of this wealth went to factory owners,
shippers, and merchants.
These wealthy people created the middle class.
It was a social class of skilled workers,
professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy
farmers.
The Middle Class
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The new middle class transformed society.
In the past, wealthy landowners and aristocrats
controlled British society. Now factory owners,
merchants, and investment bankers grew
wealthier than landowners and aristocrats.
Landowners still looked down on those who
made their fortunes in the �vulgar’ business.
It wasn’t until the 1800s that the rich
entrepreneurs were considered the social equals
of the lords of the countryside.
A Larger Middle Class
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A larger middle class, neither rich nor poor,
emerged.
This group included an upper middle class of
government employees, doctors, lawyers, and
managers of factories, mines, and shops.
Lower middle class consisted of factory
overseers and skilled workers such as
toolmakers, mechanical drafters, and printers.
These people enjoyed a comfortable life.
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Poor workers saw little improvement in their
own living and working conditions.
Many machines replaced workers and put people
out of a job.
In response, workers smashed the machines they
thought were putting them out of work.
The Luddites
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A group of poor workers named after Ned
Ludd.
The Luddites attacked whole factories in
northern England beginning in 1811.
They destroyed machinery.
Outside the factories, mobs rioted over poor
working and living conditions.
Children
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Children went to work as soon as they were able
to help the support the family.
They typically began factory work at the age of
six.
They worked 14-16 hour days with only a lunch
break.
They were often whipped to stay awake.
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How would your life have been different if you
lived during this time period?
Effects of Industrialization
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Size of Cities
Living Conditions
Working Conditions
Emerging Social Classes
Size of Cities
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Growth of factories, bringing job seekers to
cities.
Urban areas doubling, tripling, or quadrupling
in size
Factories develop near sources of energy
Many new industrial cities specializing in
certain industries
Living Conditions
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No sanitary codes or building controls
Lack of adequate housing, education, and
police protection
Lack of running water and indoor plumbing
Frequent epidemics sweeping through slums
Eventually better housing, healthier diets, and
cheaper clothing
Working Conditions
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Industrialization creating new jobs for workers
Workers trying to keep pace with machines
Factories dirty and unsanitary
Workers running dangerous machines for long
hours in unsafe conditions
Harsh and severe factory discipline
Eventually, higher wages, shorter hours, and
better working conditions
Emerging Social Classes
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Growing middle class of factory owners,
shippers, and merchants
Upper class of landowners and aristocrats
resentful of rich, middle class
Lower middle class of factory overseers and
skilled workers
Workers overworked and underpaid
In general, a rising standard of living, with some
groups excluded
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