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The UK Education system in
focus
Luke Sibieta (Institute for Fiscal
Studies)
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Outline
• Overall spending and performance
– Compared with other countries
• Structure of UK education system
– Focus on England, highlight differences in other parts of UK
• Key issues and cross-country comparisons
– By stage of education
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Rise in UK Education spending as share of
national income over past ten years
To date
Education spending as a share of national income (%)
6.0
LR Average
CSR plans
5.8
5.6
5.4
5.2
5.0
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.2
4.0
1978-79
1981-82
1984-85
1987-88
Source: HM Treasury; IFS calculations
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
1990-91
1993-94
1996-97
1999-00
2002-03
2005-06
2008-09
3
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Source: OECD Education at Glance, 2008
Greece
Slovak Republic
Ireland
Spain
Czech Republic
Italy
Japan
Netherlands
Germany
Austria
Hungary
Norway
Portugal
Australia
Poland
Finland
France
Belgium
Switzerland
Canada
UK
Sweden
M exico
New Zealand
United States
Korea
Denmark
Iceland
Percent of national income, 2005
UK is an above average spender on education
9
OECD Average
8
7
6
5
4
Spending over stages of education
$ per student, PPP adjusted, 2005
25000
20000
15000
US is a high spender,
Highest at tertiary
particularly at tertiary
Other
countries
have
Relatively flat up to
much steeper profile
UK is asecondary
high
pre-primary
spender
10000
5000
0
United Kingdom
Pre-Primary
OECD average
Primary
Source: OECD Education at Glance, 2008
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
France
Secondary
Sweden
United States
Tertiary (excluding R&D)
Finland
Korea
Netherlands
Switzerland
Canada
Japan
New Zealand
Belgium
Australia
Denmark
Czech Republic
Iceland
Austria
Germany
Sweden
Ireland
France
UK
Poland
Slovak
Hungary
Luxembourg
Norway
Spain
United States
Portugal
Italy
Greece
Turkey
M exico
M ean Score in M aths (PISA, 2006)
Cross-country performance in maths
600
575
550
525
500
475
450
425
400
Source: OECD PISA Results, 2006
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Korea
Finland
Canada
New Zealand
Ireland
Australia
Poland
Sweden
Netherlands
Belgium
Switzerland
Japan
UK
Germany
Denmark
Austria
France
Iceland
Norway
Czech Republic
Hungary
Luxembourg
Portugal
Italy
Slovak Republic
Spain
Greece
Turkey
M exico
M ean Score in M aths (PISA, 2006)
Cross-country performance in reading
600
575
550
525
500
475
450
425
400
Source: OECD PISA Results, 2006
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Finland
Canada
Japan
New Zealand
Australia
Netherlands
Korea
Germany
UK
Czech
Switzerland
Austria
Belgium
Ireland
Hungary
Sweden
Poland
Denmark
France
Iceland
United States
Slovak
Spain
Norway
Luxembourg
Italy
Portugal
Greece
Turkey
M exico
M ean Score in Science (PISA, 2006)
Cross-country performance in science
600
575
550
525
500
475
450
425
400
Source: OECD PISA Results, 2006
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Do high performers also have high spending?
600
Weak positive
correlation
550
UK
PISA Maths Score
500
450
400
350
Driven by
outliers?
300
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Cumulat ive spend per st udent relat ive t o GDP per head
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Source: OECD PISA Results, 2006; Education at a Glance 2008; Muriel and Sibieta (2008)
4
Do high performers also have high spending?
600
Trend without
Mexico/Turkey
550
PISA Maths Score
500
450
400
350
300
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Cumulat ive spend per st udent relat ive t o GDP per head
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Source: OECD PISA Results, 2006; Education at a Glance 2008; Muriel and Sibieta (2008)
4
Spending and performance
• High spenders aren’t necessarily the best performers
• Other factors play an important role
– e.g. differences in education structures, family background,
cultural factors etc…
• Illustrate English education system
• Highlight key aspects and differences across stages
– Not exhaustive, see OECD Education at Glance
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Timeline of English Education System (ages 3-21)
State Primary School
Independent/Prep School
Comprehensive
Foundation school
Academy
Grammar
Sixth form
FE college
Independent school
Compulsory School
Compulsory School
Leaving Age
12.5
hrs free
nursery
Foundation
Stage
Key
(Reception)
Stage Key
1 (Y1-Y2)
Stage
(Y3-Y6)
Key Stageschool
GCSEs
3 (Y7-Y9)
(Y10-Y11)
Starting
Age
Enter2secondary
per week
A-levels or
other quals (Y12-Y13)
Participation Rate
100%
80%
60%
Pre
40%
School
Degree or equivalent
Post-16
Secondary
Primary
20%
HE
0%
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Age
Notes: Figure is drawn for a child in England born on 1st September X-axis can alternatively be
interpreted as the age a child will turn during that school year. Different arrangements apply in Scotland
for assessments and school starting ages.
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
20
21
The Early Years
• UK is a relatively high-spender on early years
• Big expansion in recent years
– Partly to encourage people into work
• Many targeted programmes
– E.g. Sure Start, Children's Centres
– Too early to judge success
• Children start formal school at a relatively young age
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Compulsory School Starting Ages in
Europe
Four
Five
Six
Seven
Northern Ireland
Ireland
England
Malta
Netherlands
Scotland
Wales
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Republic of Ireland
Ireland
Italy
Luxembourg
Norway
Portugal
Romania
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Turkey
Bulgaria
Estonia
Denmark
Finland
Latvia
Lithuania
Poland
Sweden
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Source: Eurydice at NFER
Primary and secondary schools (1)
• UK is an average performer across countries (PISA)
– Recent improvements in formal attainment across all ages
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Improvements in key stage results
1 = Proportion reaching expected level in 1997
1.5
KS2 (English)
KS3 (English)
5 GCSEs (A*-C)
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
Source: DCSF Website
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
20
08
20
07
20
06
20
05
20
04
20
03
20
02
20
01
20
00
19
99
19
98
19
97
0.8
Primary and secondary schools (1)
• UK is an average performer across countries
– Recent improvements in formal attainment across all ages
• Inequalities in performance
– Socio-economic gaps open early and continue to widen
– Girls do better than boys, e.g. GCSEs obtained
– Ethnicity: open up early, but narrow by 16
• Concern expressed about level of external testing and breadth
of curriculum
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2008
Luxembourg
Iceland
Italy
Portugal
Greece
Spain
Switzerland
Austria
M exico
Slovak Republic
Denmark
Hungary
Czech Republic
Primary
Poland
Germany
France
Australia
United States
Ireland
United Kingdom
Japan
Korea
Average class size
Relatively high primary class sizes in UK
40
Secondary
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Primary and secondary school (2)
• Relatively high primary class sizes compared with other
countries
– Down on previous years for primary schools
• How does teacher quality vary?
– Important question, but its difficult to measure empirically
• School choice and school admissions are controversial topics
– Parents can apply to any school
– Many popular schools are over-subscribed
– Proximity to school mainly used to allocate places at these schools
• Schools are relatively autonomous (!)
– High proportion of decisions taken at school-level
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2008
M exico
Japan
Finland
Austria
Scotland
Germany
Luxembourg
Norway
Spain
France
Iceland
Denmark
Portugal
Australia
Italy
Sweden
Korea
Czech Republic
Hungary
Belgium (Fl.)
New Zealand
England
Netherlands
Percentage of decisions taken at school-level
Schools in England are more autonomous
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Post-16 Education
• Participation low by international standards
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2008
Turkey
M exico
United Kingdom
Portugal
Luxembourg
New Zealand
United States
Canada
Spain
Italy
Austria
Australia
Denmark
Switzerland
Iceland
Slovak Republic
France
Korea
Norway
Hungary
Sweden
Ireland
Finland
Germany
Netherlands
Czech Republic
Poland
Greece
Belgium
Proportion of 15-19 year olds enrolled (%)
UK has a relatively low participation rate at 15-19
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Increased participation, lower employment
100
90
Proportion of 16-18 year olds (%)
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1985
1987
1989
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
Year
Full t ime Educat ion
Source: DCSF; IFS Calculations
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Training and Work-Based Learning
Employment
NEET
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2008; excludes Turkey and Mexico
Norway
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Finland
Poland
Germany
Denmark
Czech Republic
Ireland
Sweden
Hungary
United States
France
Austria
Slovak Republic
Australia
Belgium
Canada
Switzerland
Portugal
Greece
Japan
Spain
United Kingdom
New Zealand
Italy
Proportion of 15-19 not in education or work (%)
Young people in UK more likely to be “NEET”
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Post-16 Education
• Participation low by international standards
• Staying on rates have increased in the UK
– Still high numbers of “NEETs”
• Proposal to increase education leaving age
– A few countries have 18 as compulsory school leaving age
– But countries with similar school leaving ages have higher participation
rates
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Compulsory School Leaving Age by
Country
Less than 16
16
16
17
18
Australia
Canada
United States
Belgium
Czech Republic
Denmark
Germany
Greece
Finland
(varies by state)
state)
Italy
France
Japan
Hungary
Korea
Iceland
Luxembourg
Ireland
Mexico
New Zealand
Portugal
Norway
Switzerland
Poland
Turkey
Slovak Republic
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2008
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Netherlands
Lower participation than other countries with school
leaving age of sixteen
100
Percent age of 15-19 year olds enrolled
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2008
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Unit ed Kingdom
New Zealand
Spain
Denmark
Iceland
Slovak Republic
France
Norway
Hungary
Sweden
Ireland
Finland
Poland
0
Post-16 Education
• Participation low by international standards
• Staying on rates have increased in the UK
– Still high numbers of “NEETs”
• Proposal to increase education leaving age
– A few countries have 18 as compulsory school leaving age
– But countries with similar school leaving ages have higher participation
rates
• All parties have proposed more apprenticeships
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Higher Education
• Slightly higher participation than other countries
– “Massification” in late 1980s and early 1990s
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
0
Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2008
Turkey
Greece
Germany
Austria
Czech Republic
Switzerland
Hungary
Spain
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Canada5
United States
Japan
United Kingdom
Ireland
Italy
Sweden
Norway
Netherlands
Denmark
Poland
Finland
New Zealand
Australia
Iceland
Proportion who obtain graduate qualifications (%)
Slightly above average participation in HE
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
20
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
01
99
97
95
93
91
89
87
85
83
81
79
77
75
73
71
69
67
65
63
61
50
GB HE Age Participation Index
“Massification” of Higher Education
40
30
20
10
0
Higher Education
• Slightly higher participation than other countries
– “Massification” in late 1980s and early 1990s
• Gaps by socio-economic status
– Wide, but mainly due to prior attainment
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Socio-economic gaps accounted for by prior attainment
3% of poorest
get top A-levels
25% of richest
get top A-levels
100%
HE participation rate at age 18 or 19 (%)
90%
Richest 20%
80%
Poorest 20%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
None
1-180
181-300
A-level Points
Source: Chowdry et al (2008)
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
301+
Higher Education
• Slightly higher participation than other countries
– “Massification” in late 1980s and early 1990s
• Gaps by socio-economic status
– Wide, but mainly due to prior performance
• Increased levels of fees
– But only slightly above average levels of private contributions
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2008
Denmark
Greece
Finland
Austria
Iceland
Belgium
Sweden
Germany
Ireland
France
Czech Republic
Hungary
Spain
Netherlands
Slovak Republic
Poland
Italy
Mexico
Portugal
United Kingdom
New Zealand
Canada
Australia
United States
Japan
Korea
Proportion of HE funding from private sources (%)
Slightly above average private contributions to HE
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Higher Education
• Slightly higher participation than other countries
– “Massification” in late 1980s and early 1990s
• Gaps by socio-economic status
– Wide, but mainly due to prior performance
• Increased levels of fees
– But slightly above average levels of private contributions
• University performance
– Five UK universities in top 50 rankings across world, but mainly US
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Proportion of population aged 25-64 with highest qualification
Lots of low achievers and higher achievers
Below upper secondary
upper secondary
t ert iary
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
It aly
France
Unit ed
Kingdom
OECD
Average
Germany
Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2008, OECD average excludes Turkey and Mexico
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
Canada
Unit ed
St at es
UK education – a summary for a beer mat
• UK spends early and starts education early
• Lots of leavers at sixteen as well
• Average school performance based on PISA
• Socio-economic inequalities at all ages
• High performers and long-tail of low achievement
В© Institute for Fiscal Studies
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