UK Higher Education 2013: Are we still struggling with вЂ�internationalisationвЂ™? Sheila Trahar Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, email@example.com A Fellow TravellerвЂ™s Journey п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Why вЂ�strugglingвЂ™ with вЂ�internationalisationвЂ™? Is there anything new to say? Definitions? What IS the UK governmentвЂ™s вЂ�internationalisation strategyвЂ™? Can we learn from othersвЂ™ definitions of internationalisation? Is вЂ�global responsibilityвЂ™ a вЂ�good thingвЂ™? If so, what is our responsibility to foster it and how do we do so? A staging post вЂ“ for now вЂ�The Story Never Stops Beginning and EndingвЂ¦вЂ™ вЂ�By embarking on a more personal journey of internationalisation in higher education, lives can be enhanced through learning and teaching strategies that celebrate diversity and are respectful and inclusive. Such strategies can challenge all of us to come to terms with our вЂњhistories and cultural inheritancesвЂќ so that fewer people are disadvantaged by particular systems and вЂњfuture hauntingsвЂќ can be preventedвЂ™ (Trahar, 2011, p.147) The Back Story The Back Story п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў All of my research has emphasised the importance of students/researchers feeling вЂ�includedвЂ™ in the вЂ�culturesвЂ™, in particular learning and teaching cultures Foregrounded the importance of recognising and challenging dominant academic practices вЂ“ ethnorelative not ethnocentric Continuous reflection on my own beliefs and values in particular in relation to learning and teaching (e.g. Trahar, 2007, 2011, 2013) Striving to maintain openness and encourage dialogue through вЂ�unhomelinessвЂ™ Seeking to understand ways in which learning and teaching are mediated in myriad contexts But do people want to вЂ�feel includedвЂ™? вЂ�IncludedвЂ™ in what? вЂ�InternationalisationвЂ™ вЂ�Globalization is the context of economic and academic trends that are part of the reality of the 21st century. Internationalization includes the policies, practices undertaken by academic systems and institutions вЂ“ and even individuals вЂ“ to cope with the global academic environmentвЂ¦Globalization may be unalterable but internationalization involves many choicesвЂ™ (Altbach & Knight, 2007; 290-291, my emphasis) вЂ�InternationalisationвЂ™ вЂ�An ethos of mutuality and practices geared at strengthening cooperationвЂ¦By encouraging greater internationalisation across teaching, research and service activities, the quality of higher education can be enrichedвЂ™ (Kreber, 2009, p.24) вЂ�InternationalisationвЂ™ вЂ�Genuine globalisation should be grounded in cross-cultural fertilisation and mutual learning rather than conformity and convergence to a universal set of benchmarks that deter or discourage diverse local featuresвЂ¦Internationalisation is not the same as Europeanisation or Americanisation. It should be genuinely international...appreciating diversity and plurality across nations and societiesвЂ™ (Cheung, 2012, p.106) вЂ�UK Internationalisation StrategyвЂ™? International Education: Global Growth and Prosperity вЂ�UK Internationalisation StrategyвЂ™? п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў вЂ�Internationalisation has many facets that include international student and staff mobility, partnerships and collaboration in research and teaching and the internationalisation of curriculaвЂ™ (BIS, 2013, p.3) The Wider Benefits of International Higher Education in the UK вЂ�UKвЂ™s sheer cosmopolitanism can result in suboptimal integration of international and home studentsвЂ™ (BIS, 2013, p.xvi) вЂ�Cosmopolitanism and intercultural sensitivityвЂ¦the benefit arose through integration in a globally diverse student body, but was markedly less where they chose not to integrate or circumstances limited this. In a few cases there had been limited integration with UK students or societyвЂ™ (BIS, 2013, p.xii) вЂ�UK Internationalisation StrategyвЂ™? п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Second only to the USA in its ability to attract students from other countries. In 2011/2012, 16.8% of all students in UK higher education were defined as вЂ�internationalвЂ™ i.e. coming from outside of the European Union (EU) At postgraduate level study, 69% of full-time taught postgraduates and 46% of all taught postgraduates were international, with 41% of all research postgraduates falling within that category (2011/12) Such students contribute more than ВЈ8 billion annually to the UK economy (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2013) Second most popular destination in the world for PhD researchers. By 2024 there will be 568,000 international students in the UK, 29% up on 2011 вЂ“ but far less than governmentвЂ™s anticipated 15% to 20% annual growth over the next five years (British Council) International Higher Education вЂ“ the Future? п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў China and India will see the largest growth in HE participation Huge potential for growth in Africa Mobility is still mainly from Global South to Global North and from Asia to the main English speaking countries UK, US, Australia, Canada, Germany will continue to dominate China, Malaysia, India вЂ“ developing as major host countries MOOCs вЂ“ danger of neocolonialism вЂ“ US academic experience and pedagogical ideas International Higher Education вЂ“ the Future? п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў 2012 вЂ“ UKBA requires HEIs to report вЂ�engagementвЂ™ of Tier 4 visa students on a monthly basis вЂ�No cap on the number of students who can come to study in the UK and no intention to introduce oneвЂ™ (July, 2013) PhD graduates can remain for up to a year to work 80% of those from India, China and South Korea completing a PhD in the US вЂ“ stay Continuing greater diversity вЂ“ and its challenges International Higher Education вЂ“ the Future? вЂ�Despite the power and influence of the emerging economies, the world remains decidedly more westernised than it is вЂ�JapanisedвЂ™ or вЂ�AfricanisedвЂ™ or вЂ�ConfucianisedвЂ™вЂ¦the balance in cultural integration can only be attained through creating space for multiple cultural identities to flourish in HE settingsвЂ™ (Maringe & Woodfield, 2013, p.5). вЂ�InternationalisationвЂ™ and Malaysia What are the issues that arise when teaching in a context that is increasingly diverse, culturally, in particular when learners are from outside the вЂ�localвЂ™ context of Malaysia? вЂ�InternationalisationвЂ™ and Malaysia п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Language and communication barriers Plagiarism Students are passive, demanding, aggressive, complaining Students have different values They do not mix with local students They have unrealistic expectations There is a lack of familiarity with the system/terms They do not like groupwork They challenge grades and look for the easy way out вЂ�InternationalisationвЂ™ and Malaysia п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Internationalisation of higher education a significant factor in increasing вЂ�MalaysiansвЂ™ international awareness and developing a sense of national prideвЂ™ (Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia, 2011, p.23) It will accelerate the country towards Vision 2020 and its aspiration to join the league of developed nations. MoHE вЂ�Internationalisation PolicyвЂ™ draws on definitions that foreground the importance of integrating international elements into all of a universityвЂ™s functions. The documentвЂ™s main emphasis, however, is on mobility. вЂ�InternationalisationвЂ™ and Hong Kong вЂ�A wide spectrum of issues, including curriculum design, research collaboration, international faculty mix, student recruitment, integration of all students on campusвЂ¦The UGC sees internationalisation with Mainland China as the key to Hong KongвЂ™s future and that it should be actively pursued by the UGCfunded institutionsвЂ™ (UGC Annual Report, 2011- 2012). вЂ�InternationalisationвЂ™ and Hong Kong п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Little effort has been made to вЂ�internationaliseвЂ™ the curriculum and to вЂ�integrateвЂ™ students on campus The majority of вЂ�international studentsвЂ™ are from Mainland China Language complexities вЂ“ teaching is in English вЂ“ or is it? Local student resistance Internationalisation of the Curriculum? вЂ�We mustвЂ¦never provide the people with programs which have little or nothing to do with their own preoccupations, doubts, fears and hopesвЂ¦It is not our role to speak to the people about our own view of the world, nor to impose that view on them, but rather to dialogue with the people about their view and oursвЂ™ (Pedagogy of the Oppressed) Internationalisation of the Curriculum вЂ�The incorporation of an international and intercultural dimension into the content of the curriculum as well as the teaching and learning arrangements and support services of a program of studyвЂ™ (Leask, 2009, p.209) вЂ�Curricula, pedagogies and assessments that foster understanding of global perspectives and how these interact with the local and the personal; inter-cultural capabilities in terms of actively engaging with other cultures; and responsible citizenship in terms of addressing different value systemsвЂ™ (Clifford, 2009, p.135) Internationalisation of the Curriculum п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў вЂ�Who shapes the culture of learning and intellectual HE spaces and who determines the norms of discourseвЂ™? (Turner & Robson, 2008; 11) How are globalising processes вЂ�mediated on the ground, in the flesh and inside the headвЂ¦as these intersect with their lives and identitiesвЂ™? (Kenway & Fahey, 2006; 267) A вЂ�third space pedagogyвЂ™? (Ryan & Viete, 2009; 305) Internationalisation of the Curriculum вЂў вЂў вЂў Lack of awareness of ways in which learning and teaching are culturally mediated can result in teaching approaches that are ethnocentric and thus may be exclusionary We are all вЂ�core players in the processвЂ™ вЂ“ and therefore need to take some responsibility for ensuring inclusivity вЂ“ including вЂ�modellingвЂ™ good practice Most students (people) need to be encouraged to move out of their вЂ�comfort zoneвЂ™ and engage with others вЂ�InclusivityвЂ™ through the Curriculum? п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Internationalisation of the Curriculum often rationalised because of the importance of developing вЂ�global citizensвЂ™ Global citizenship вЂ“responsibility to act in the interests of social justice вЂ“ or cultural imperialism (Mertova & Green, 2010)? вЂ�Soft powerвЂ™? Ways of achieving international objectives through attraction and co-option rather than coercion вЂ“to promote cultural understanding and avoid cultural misunderstanding вЂ�InclusivityвЂ™? п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Importance of shared faith for Muslim international students вЂ“ вЂ�discovery of the importance of samenessвЂ¦undermines the contrasting claims thatвЂ¦globalisation will lead to an embracing of cultural diversityвЂ™ (Brown, 2009, p.65) In Malaysia, faith a determining factor in the decision of students from Muslim countries to study there Feeling a sense of belonging - strong emphasis on friendships with local Malaysians вЂ�Same-culture networks are not a universal panaceaвЂ™ (Sawir et al.2008, p.148) вЂ“ importance of adequate pastoral care Importance of social networking sites (SNS) вЂ“ вЂ�contributed to their online bridging capital and social adjustmentsвЂ™ (Lin et al., 2012, p.436) A вЂ�Global CitizenвЂ™ п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Aware of the wider world, sense of oneвЂ™s own role as a world citizen Respects and values diversity Has an understanding of how the world works economically, politically, socially, culturally, technologically and environmentally Is outraged by social injustice A вЂ�Global CitizenвЂ™ Participates in and contributes to the community at a range of levels from local to global п‚Ў Is willing to make the world a more sustainable place and п‚Ў Take responsibility for their actions (Oxfam, 2006) п‚Ў A вЂ�Global CitizenвЂ™? п‚Ў п‚Ў вЂ�As we learn to live sustainable and just lives so we form embodied identities that connect us to diverse others with renewed feelings for global responsibilityвЂ™ (Seidler, 2010, p.190) вЂ�The global imaginationвЂ¦is more often than not an expression of corporate cosmopolitanismвЂ¦we need an embodied, grounded cosmopolitanism that is attuned to addressing the challenges of our contemporary world, while drawing on the resources of multiple cultures to develop an ethics of care and hospitalityвЂ™ (Sidhu & DallвЂ™Alba, 2013, p.428) вЂ�The Story Never Stops Beginning and EndingвЂ¦вЂ™ вЂ�By embarking on a more personal journey of internationalisation in higher education, lives can be enhanced through learning and teaching strategies that celebrate diversity and are respectful and inclusive. Such strategies can challenge all of us to come to terms with our вЂ�histories and cultural inheritancesвЂ™ so that fewer people are disadvantaged by particular systems and вЂ�future hauntingsвЂ™ can be preventedвЂ™ (Trahar, 2011, p.147) вЂ�The Story Never Stops Beginning and EndingвЂ¦вЂ™ As an educator I believe I have a responsibility: п‚Ў To challenge what can be вЂ�rhetoric and bland mission statementsвЂ™ of internationalisation п‚Ў To do what I can to effect social justice п‚Ў To continue to encourage less emphasis on вЂ�international studentsвЂ™ and more emphasis on вЂ�usвЂ™ п‚Ў To continue to question myself вЂ“ and be open to othersвЂ™ beliefs, values, actions I continue to believe in the possibilities of internationalisation of higher education п‚Ў The fellow travellerвЂ™s journey continuesвЂ¦ References п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Altbach, P. & Knight, J. (2007) The internationalization of higher education: motivations and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11 (3/4), 290 вЂ“ 305 Brown, L. (2009) International Students in England: Finding Belonging through Islam. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 29 (1), 57 вЂ“ 67 Cheung, A.B.L. (2012) How Hong Kong universities balance the global and the regional. In B. Adamson, J. Nixon & F. Su(Eds.) The Reorientation of Higher Education: Challenging the East-West Dichotomy (pp95-112). Hong Kong, Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong/Springer. Clifford, V. (2009) Engaging the disciplines in internationalising the curriculum. International Journal for Academic Development, 14 (2), 133-143. Freire, P. (1972) Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Great Britain Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2013) The wider benefits of international higher education in the UK. Hong Kong University Grants Committee (2012) UGC Annual Report 2011 вЂ“ 2012. Kenway, J. & Fahey, J. (2006) The research imagination in a world on the move Globalisation, Societies and Education, 4 (2), 261-274. Kreber, C. (2009) Different perspectives on internationalization in higher education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 118, 1-1 Leask, B. (2009) Using formal and informal curricula to improve interactions between home and international students. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13 (2), 205-221 Lin, J-H., Peng, W., Kim, M., Sung, Y.K. & LaRose, R. (2011) Social networking and adjustments among international students. New Media and Society, 14 (3), 421-440 References п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Maringe, F. & Woodfield, S. (2013) Emerging internationalization models in an uneven global terrain. Compare, 43 (1), 9-36 Mertova, P. & Green, W. (2010) Internationalising teaching and learning: Perspectives and issues voiced by senior academics at one Australian university. http://www.proceedings.com.au/isana/docs/2010/paper_mertova.pdf Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (2011) Internationalisation policy for higher education Malaysia 2011 Oxfam Development Education Program. (2006). Education for global citizenship: a guide for schools. Retrieved 19 October 2010 from http://www.oxfam.org.uk/education/gc/files/education_for_global _citizenship_a_guide_for_schools.pdf Ryan, J. & Viete, R. (2009) Respectful interactions: learning with international students in the English-speaking academy. Teaching in Higher Education, 14 (3), 303-314 Sawhir, E., Marginson, S., Deumert, A., Nyland, C. & Ramia, G. (2008) Loneliness and International Students: An Australian Study. Journal of Studies in International Education, 12 (2), 148 -180. Seidler, V. (2010) Embodying identities: culture, differences and social theory. Bristol: The Policy Press Sidhu, R.K. & DallвЂ™Alba, G. (2013) International Education and (Dis) embodied Cosmopolitans. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44 (4), 413 -431 Trahar, S. (2007). Teaching and learning: The international higher education landscape. Some theories and working practices. Available to download at http://escalate.ac.uk/3559 References п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Trahar, S. (2011). Developing cultural capability in international higher education: A narrative inquiry. Oxon, England/New York, NY: Routledge Trahar, S. (2013) Autoethnographic journeys in learning and teaching in higher education European Educational Research Journal, 12 (3), 367-375 Turner, Y., & Robson, S. (2008). Internationalizing the university. London, England: Continuum.