close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

UK HE 2013: Are we still struggling with

код для вставкиСкачать
UK Higher Education 2013: Are we still
struggling with �internationalisation’?
Sheila Trahar
Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol,
s.trahar@bristol.ac.uk
A Fellow Traveller’s Journey
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Why �struggling’ with
�internationalisation’?
Is there anything new to say? Definitions?
What IS the UK government’s
�internationalisation strategy’?
Can we learn from others’ definitions of
internationalisation?
Is �global responsibility’ a �good thing’? If
so, what is our responsibility to foster it
and how do we do so?
A staging post – for now
�The Story Never Stops Beginning and
Ending…’
�By embarking on a more personal journey
of internationalisation in higher education,
lives can be enhanced through learning
and teaching strategies that celebrate
diversity and are respectful and inclusive.
Such strategies can challenge all of us to
come to terms with our “histories and
cultural inheritances” so that fewer people
are disadvantaged by particular systems
and “future hauntings” can be prevented’
(Trahar, 2011, p.147)
The Back Story
The Back Story
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
All of my research has emphasised the
importance of students/researchers feeling
�included’ in the �cultures’, in particular learning
and teaching cultures
Foregrounded the importance of recognising
and challenging dominant academic practices –
ethnorelative not ethnocentric
Continuous reflection on my own beliefs and
values in particular in relation to learning and
teaching (e.g. Trahar, 2007, 2011, 2013)
Striving to maintain openness and encourage
dialogue through �unhomeliness’
Seeking to understand ways in which learning
and teaching are mediated in myriad contexts
But do people want to �feel included’?
�Included’ in what?
�Internationalisation’
�Globalization is the context of economic
and academic trends that are part of the
reality of the 21st century.
Internationalization includes the
policies, practices undertaken by
academic systems and institutions – and
even individuals – to cope with the
global academic
environment…Globalization may be
unalterable but internationalization
involves many choices’ (Altbach &
Knight, 2007; 290-291, my emphasis)
�Internationalisation’
�An ethos of mutuality and practices
geared at strengthening
cooperation…By encouraging greater
internationalisation across teaching,
research and service activities, the
quality of higher education can be
enriched’ (Kreber, 2009, p.24)
�Internationalisation’
�Genuine globalisation should be grounded
in cross-cultural fertilisation and mutual
learning rather than conformity and
convergence to a universal set of
benchmarks that deter or discourage
diverse local features…Internationalisation
is not the same as Europeanisation or
Americanisation. It should be genuinely
international...appreciating diversity and
plurality across nations and societies’
(Cheung, 2012, p.106)
�UK Internationalisation Strategy’?
International Education:
Global Growth and Prosperity
�UK Internationalisation Strategy’?
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
�Internationalisation has many facets that
include international student and staff mobility,
partnerships and collaboration in research and
teaching and the internationalisation of
curricula’ (BIS, 2013, p.3) The Wider Benefits
of International Higher Education in the UK
�UK’s sheer cosmopolitanism can result in suboptimal integration of international and home
students’ (BIS, 2013, p.xvi)
�Cosmopolitanism and intercultural
sensitivity…the benefit arose through
integration in a globally diverse student body,
but was markedly less where they chose not to
integrate or circumstances limited this. In a
few cases there had been limited integration
with UK students or society’ (BIS, 2013, p.xii)
�UK Internationalisation Strategy’?
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Second only to the USA in its ability to attract
students from other countries. In 2011/2012, 16.8%
of all students in UK higher education were defined
as �international’ i.e. coming from outside of the
European Union (EU)
At postgraduate level study, 69% of full-time taught
postgraduates and 46% of all taught postgraduates
were international, with 41% of all research
postgraduates falling within that category (2011/12)
Such students contribute more than ВЈ8 billion
annually to the UK economy (Department for
Business, Innovation and Skills, 2013)
Second most popular destination in the world for
PhD researchers.
By 2024 there will be 568,000 international students
in the UK, 29% up on 2011 – but far less than
government’s anticipated 15% to 20% annual
growth over the next five years (British Council)
International Higher Education –
the Future?
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
China and India will see the largest growth
in HE participation
Huge potential for growth in Africa
Mobility is still mainly from Global South to
Global North and from Asia to the main
English speaking countries
UK, US, Australia, Canada, Germany will
continue to dominate
China, Malaysia, India – developing as
major host countries
MOOCs – danger of neocolonialism – US
academic experience and pedagogical ideas
International Higher Education –
the Future?
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
2012 – UKBA requires HEIs to report
�engagement’ of Tier 4 visa students on a
monthly basis
�No cap on the number of students who can
come to study in the UK and no intention to
introduce one’ (July, 2013)
PhD graduates can remain for up to a year
to work
80% of those from India, China and South
Korea completing a PhD in the US – stay
Continuing greater diversity – and its
challenges
International Higher Education –
the Future?
�Despite the power and influence of
the emerging economies, the world
remains decidedly more westernised
than it is �Japanised’ or �Africanised’
or �Confucianised’…the balance in
cultural integration can only be
attained through creating space for
multiple cultural identities to
flourish in HE settings’ (Maringe &
Woodfield, 2013, p.5).
�Internationalisation’ and Malaysia
What are the issues that arise when
teaching in a context that is
increasingly diverse, culturally, in
particular when learners are from
outside the �local’ context of
Malaysia?
�Internationalisation’ and Malaysia
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Language and communication barriers
Plagiarism
Students are passive, demanding, aggressive,
complaining
Students have different values
They do not mix with local students
They have unrealistic expectations
There is a lack of familiarity with the
system/terms
They do not like groupwork
They challenge grades and look for the easy way
out
�Internationalisation’ and Malaysia
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Internationalisation of higher education a
significant factor in increasing �Malaysians’
international awareness and developing a sense
of national pride’ (Ministry of Higher Education,
Malaysia, 2011, p.23)
It will accelerate the country towards Vision 2020
and its aspiration to join the league of developed
nations.
MoHE �Internationalisation Policy’ draws on
definitions that foreground the importance of
integrating international elements into all of a
university’s functions. The document’s main
emphasis, however, is on mobility.
�Internationalisation’ and Hong Kong
�A wide spectrum of issues, including
curriculum design, research collaboration,
international faculty mix, student
recruitment, integration of all students on
campus…The UGC sees
internationalisation with Mainland China
as the key to Hong Kong’s future and that
it should be actively pursued by the UGCfunded institutions’ (UGC Annual Report,
2011- 2012).
�Internationalisation’ and Hong Kong
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Little effort has been made to
�internationalise’ the curriculum and
to �integrate’ students on campus
The majority of �international
students’ are from Mainland China
Language complexities – teaching is
in English – or is it?
Local student resistance
Internationalisation of the Curriculum?
�We must…never provide the people
with programs which have little or
nothing to do with their own
preoccupations, doubts, fears and
hopes…It is not our role to speak to
the people about our own view of the
world, nor to impose that view on
them, but rather to dialogue with the
people about their view and ours’
(Pedagogy of the Oppressed)
Internationalisation of the Curriculum
�The incorporation of an international and
intercultural dimension into the content of
the curriculum as well as the teaching and
learning arrangements and support services
of a program of study’ (Leask, 2009,
p.209)
�Curricula, pedagogies and assessments that
foster understanding of global perspectives
and how these interact with the local and
the personal; inter-cultural capabilities in
terms of actively engaging with other
cultures; and responsible citizenship in
terms of addressing different value
systems’ (Clifford, 2009, p.135)
Internationalisation of the
Curriculum
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
�Who shapes the culture of learning and
intellectual HE spaces and who determines
the norms of discourse’? (Turner & Robson,
2008; 11)
How are globalising processes �mediated on
the ground, in the flesh and inside the
head…as these intersect with their lives and
identities’? (Kenway & Fahey, 2006; 267)
A �third space pedagogy’? (Ryan & Viete,
2009; 305)
Internationalisation of the
Curriculum
•
•
•
Lack of awareness of ways in which
learning and teaching are culturally
mediated can result in teaching approaches
that are ethnocentric and thus may be
exclusionary
We are all �core players in the process’ –
and therefore need to take some
responsibility for ensuring inclusivity –
including �modelling’ good practice
Most students (people) need to be
encouraged to move out of their �comfort
zone’ and engage with others
�Inclusivity’ through the Curriculum?
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Internationalisation of the Curriculum often rationalised because of the
importance of developing �global citizens’
Global citizenship –responsibility to act in
the interests of social justice – or cultural
imperialism (Mertova & Green, 2010)?
�Soft power’? Ways of achieving
international objectives through attraction
and co-option rather than coercion –to
promote cultural understanding and avoid
cultural misunderstanding
�Inclusivity’?
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Importance of shared faith for Muslim
international students – �discovery of the
importance of sameness…undermines the
contrasting claims that…globalisation will lead
to an embracing of cultural diversity’ (Brown,
2009, p.65)
In Malaysia, faith a determining factor in the
decision of students from Muslim countries to
study there
Feeling a sense of belonging - strong emphasis
on friendships with local Malaysians
�Same-culture networks are not a universal
panacea’ (Sawir et al.2008, p.148) –
importance of adequate pastoral care
Importance of social networking sites (SNS) –
�contributed to their online bridging capital and
social adjustments’ (Lin et al., 2012, p.436)
A �Global Citizen’
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Aware of the wider world, sense of
one’s own role as a world citizen
Respects and values diversity
Has an understanding of how the
world works economically,
politically, socially, culturally,
technologically and environmentally
Is outraged by social injustice
A �Global Citizen’
Participates in and contributes to
the community at a range of levels
from local to global
п‚Ў Is willing to make the world a more
sustainable place and
п‚Ў Take responsibility for their actions
(Oxfam, 2006)
п‚Ў
A �Global Citizen’?
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
�As we learn to live sustainable and just
lives so we form embodied identities that
connect us to diverse others with renewed
feelings for global responsibility’ (Seidler,
2010, p.190)
�The global imagination…is more often than
not an expression of corporate
cosmopolitanism…we need an embodied,
grounded cosmopolitanism that is attuned
to addressing the challenges of our
contemporary world, while drawing on the
resources of multiple cultures to develop an
ethics of care and hospitality’ (Sidhu &
Dall’Alba, 2013, p.428)
�The Story Never Stops Beginning and
Ending…’
�By embarking on a more personal journey
of internationalisation in higher education,
lives can be enhanced through learning
and teaching strategies that celebrate
diversity and are respectful and inclusive.
Such strategies can challenge all of us to
come to terms with our �histories and
cultural inheritances’ so that fewer people
are disadvantaged by particular systems
and �future hauntings’ can be prevented’
(Trahar, 2011, p.147)
�The Story Never Stops Beginning and
Ending…’
As an educator I believe I have a
responsibility:
 To challenge what can be �rhetoric and
bland mission statements’ of
internationalisation
п‚Ў To do what I can to effect social justice
п‚Ў To continue to encourage less emphasis on
�international students’ and more emphasis
on �us’
 To continue to question myself – and be
open to others’ beliefs, values, actions
I continue to believe in the possibilities of
internationalisation of higher education
 The fellow traveller’s journey continues…
References
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Altbach, P. & Knight, J. (2007) The internationalization of higher education: motivations
and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11 (3/4), 290 – 305
Brown, L. (2009) International Students in England: Finding Belonging through Islam.
Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 29 (1), 57 – 67
Cheung, A.B.L. (2012) How Hong Kong universities balance the global and the regional.
In B. Adamson, J. Nixon & F. Su(Eds.) The Reorientation of Higher Education:
Challenging the East-West Dichotomy (pp95-112). Hong Kong, Comparative Education
Research Centre, University of Hong Kong/Springer.
Clifford, V. (2009) Engaging the disciplines in internationalising the curriculum.
International Journal for Academic Development, 14 (2), 133-143.
Freire, P. (1972) Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Great Britain Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2013) The wider benefits
of international higher education in the UK.
Hong Kong University Grants Committee (2012) UGC Annual Report 2011 – 2012.
Kenway, J. & Fahey, J. (2006) The research imagination in a world on the move
Globalisation, Societies and Education, 4 (2), 261-274.
Kreber, C. (2009) Different perspectives on internationalization in higher education.
New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 118, 1-1
Leask, B. (2009) Using formal and informal curricula to improve interactions between
home and international students. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13 (2),
205-221
Lin, J-H., Peng, W., Kim, M., Sung, Y.K. & LaRose, R. (2011) Social networking and
adjustments among international students. New Media and Society, 14 (3), 421-440
References
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Maringe, F. & Woodfield, S. (2013) Emerging internationalization models in an uneven
global terrain. Compare, 43 (1), 9-36
Mertova, P. & Green, W. (2010) Internationalising teaching and learning: Perspectives
and issues voiced by senior academics at one Australian university.
http://www.proceedings.com.au/isana/docs/2010/paper_mertova.pdf
Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (2011) Internationalisation policy for higher
education Malaysia 2011
Oxfam Development Education Program. (2006). Education for global citizenship: a
guide for schools. Retrieved 19 October 2010 from
http://www.oxfam.org.uk/education/gc/files/education_for_global
_citizenship_a_guide_for_schools.pdf
Ryan, J. & Viete, R. (2009) Respectful interactions: learning with international students
in the English-speaking academy. Teaching in Higher Education, 14 (3), 303-314
Sawhir, E., Marginson, S., Deumert, A., Nyland, C. & Ramia, G. (2008) Loneliness and
International Students: An Australian Study. Journal of Studies in International
Education, 12 (2), 148 -180.
Seidler, V. (2010) Embodying identities: culture, differences and social theory. Bristol:
The Policy Press
Sidhu, R.K. & Dall’Alba, G. (2013) International Education and (Dis) embodied
Cosmopolitans. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44 (4), 413 -431
Trahar, S. (2007). Teaching and learning: The international higher education
landscape. Some theories and working practices. Available to download at
http://escalate.ac.uk/3559
References
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Trahar, S. (2011). Developing cultural capability in international higher
education: A narrative inquiry. Oxon, England/New York, NY: Routledge
Trahar, S. (2013) Autoethnographic journeys in learning and teaching in
higher education European Educational Research Journal, 12 (3), 367-375
Turner, Y., & Robson, S. (2008). Internationalizing the university. London,
England: Continuum.
Документ
Категория
Презентации
Просмотров
4
Размер файла
1 297 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа