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Historical Foundations - McGraw

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Historical Foundations
Chapter 4
Historical Foundations
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Identify events that served as catalysts for
physical education, exercise science, and sport’s
growth.
Identify some of the outstanding leaders in the
fields.
Discuss recent developments in physical
education, exercise science, and sport.
Draw implications from history of our fields for the
future of physical education, exercise science,
and sport
Sport History
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Emerged as a subdiscipline in the late 1960s
and early 1970s.
“… field of scholarly inquiry with multiple and
often intersecting foci, including exercise, the
body, play, games, athletics, sports, physical
recreations, health, and leisure.” (Struna)
How has the past shaped sport and its
experiences today?
1973: North American Society for Sport History
held its first meeting.
Sample Areas of Study...
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How did urbanization influence the development
of sports in America?
How did the sports activities of Native Americans
influence the recreational pursuits of the early
colonists?
How have Greek ideals influences the
development of sportsmanship?
How did segregation impact sports opportunities
for blacks?
What factors influenced the inclusion of physical
education in the school curriculum?
Greece
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“Golden Age” of physical education and sport
Unity of the mind, body and spirit
“Body beautiful”
Arete – the pursuit of excellence
Vital part of the education of every Greek
boy
National festivals
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Olympic Games
Rome
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Exercise for health and military purposes.
Greek gymnastics were introduced to Rome after
the conquest of Greece but were not popular
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Rome did not believe in the “body beautiful”
Preferred to be spectators rather than participants
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Preferred professionalism to amateurism.
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Exciting “blood sports”: gladiatorial combats and
chariot races. “Duel to the death” or satisfaction of
spectators.
Germany
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Period of nationalism - focus on development of
strong citizens through school and community
programs of physical education
Physical education should be included in the
school curriculum – programs emphasizes the
development of strength
Jahn (1778-1852) – Turnverein movement to
mold youth into strong, hardy citizens capable of
overthrowing foreign control
Sweden
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Scientific study of physical education
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Use anatomy and physiology to study the effects of
physical education on the body
Exercises use Swedish apparatus - Per Ling
(1776-1839)
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Design of gymnastic programs to meet specific
individual needs
3 Types: Educational gymnastics, military gymnastics,
and medical gymnastics
Teachers of physical education must have foundational
knowledge of the effects of exercise on the human
body.
Great Britain
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Home of outdoor sports
Maclaren (1920-1884)
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Eager to make physical training a science; a system
that was adopted by the British Army
Health is more important than strength
Exercise adapted to the individual
Physical education essential in school curriculum
Muscular Christianity
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Sport contributes to the development of moral
character
Reconciles sport and religion
PE in the U.S.
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Influenced by European ideals
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Systems of gymnastics (exercises)
Philosophies of physical education
Growth of influence of Ancient Asian
cultures
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Yoga
Martial arts
Relationships between the mind, body, and
spirit
Colonial Period (1607-1783)
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Colonists led an agrarian existence physical activity through performing tasks
essential to living and survival.
Colonists brought sports with them from
their native lands.
Puritans denounced play as evil;
recreational pursuits frowned upon.
Reading, writing, and arithmetic in schools,
not physical education.
National Period (1784-1861)
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Growth of private schools for females
Introduction of German gymnastics to schools
1852: First intercollegiate competition: a crew
race between Harvard and Yale.
Catherine Beecher (1800-1878)
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Calisthenics performed to music
One of the first to advocate for daily physical education
Invention of baseball
Horseracing, foot races, rowing, and gambling on
sport events popular
Civil War Period until 1900
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Turnverein societies continue to grow and include both
girls and boys
Dio Lewis
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Programs for the “weak and feeble” in society
Training school for teachers in Boston
Inclusion of gymnastic programs in the schools
Nissen - Swedish Movement Cure grows in popularity
and recognized for its inherent medical values
YMCA established; international training school at
Springfield College
Civil War Period until 1900
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Growth of American sport in popularity
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Tennis
Golf
Bowling
Basketball (Naismith)
Founding of forerunner of Amateur Athletic
Association (AAU)
Revival of Olympics in Athens
Colleges and universities develop departments
and expand programs
Civil War Period until 1900
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Expansion of intercollegiate athletics
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Abuses raise concerns
Establishment of governing bodies
Emphasis on teacher preparation, scientific basis
of PE, diagnosis and prescription of activity
Organized PE programs in elementary and
secondary schools
1885 - Founding of the forerunner of AAHPERD
“Battle of the Systems”
Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s)
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Extensive interscholastic programs - controversy
over programs for girls
Growth of intramural programs and emphasis on
games and sports in our programs
Increased concern for the physically
underdeveloped in our society
Playground movement
Higher standards for teacher training (4 year
preparation)
NCAA established to monitor collegiate athletics
World War I (1916-1919)
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Physical educators developed conditioning
programs for armed forces .
After the war, health statistics revealed
that the nation was in poor shape (1/3 of
men were physically unfit for armed
service).
Growth and upgrade of PE programs in
schools following war due to legislation in
some states.
Golden Twenties (1920-1929)
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Move away from formal systems of gymnastics
toward games, sports, and valuable recreation
and leisure time.
“New” physical education emphasized contribution
to the total development of the individual;
“education through the physical” vs. “education of
the physical”.
Calls for reform of collegiate athletics due to
increasing professionalism, public entertainment,
and commercialization.
Women’s programs increase staff, activities,
required participation, and facilities.
Depression Years (1930-1939)
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Economic forces lead to cutbacks in PE programs
and growth of recreational programs.
Physical educators more involved in recreational
programs for the unemployed.
Growth of interscholastic, intercollegiate and
women’s programs.
Charles McCloy (1886-1959) – advocated
“education of the physical” and stressed the
importance documenting results and measuring
progress of using scientific data
Mid-twentieth Century
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Impact of WW II physical training
programs
Physical fitness movement
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(1940-1970)
President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
Athletics
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Increase opportunities for girls and women
Increased interest in lifetime sports
Sport programs below high school level increase
Increased number of intramural programs
Mid-twentieth Century
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Professional preparation
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Colleges and universities increase programs for
teachers
American College of Sports Medicine (1954)
National Athletic Trainers’ Association (1950)
Programs for individuals with disabilities
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(1940-1970)
Special Olympics (1968)
Research grows in importance and
becomes increasingly specialized
Significant Recent Developments
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Emergence of subdisciplines
Disease prevention and health promotion
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Healthy People
Objectives for the Nation
Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health
Healthy People 2000
Healthy People 2010
Legislation promoting opportunities for girls and
women, and people with disabilities
Increased technology
School Physical Education
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Recognition of the critical role school PE in achieving
national health goals
Fitness status and physical activity of children and youth
is a concern
Congressional support for high-quality, daily physical
education
Daily PE declines from 42% in 1991 to 28% in 2003.
Only one state, Illinois, requires daily PE for all students,
K-12
National Content Standards offer a national framework
Emergence of new curricular models
Physical Fitness and Participation
in Physical Activity
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Expansion of the fitness movement and
involvement in physical activity
Shift from performance- to health-related
fitness to an emphasis on moderateintensity physical activity
Physical inactivity recognized as a major
health problem
The Growth of Sport
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Phenomenal growth of participation in
sports at all levels
Youth sports involve more than 25
million children
Interscholastic sports involve more than
6 million boys and girls
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Trend toward early specialization
The Growth of Sport
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Intercollegiate sports involves nearly
400,000 athletes
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Growth of sport as “big business” in some
institutions
Growth of recreational sport leagues and
amateur sports for adults of all ages
Professional sports continue to expand
including professional leagues for women
Girls and Women in Sport
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Rapid growth since the passage of
Title IX in 1972
Changes in governance of
intercollegiate sports
Challenges to Title IX
Changes in physical education
classes following passage of Title IX
Programs for Individuals with Disabilities
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Federal Legislation
PL 93-122 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation
Act
пЃ® PL 94-142 Education of All Handicapped
Children Act of 1975
пЃ® Amateur Sports Act of 1978
пЃ® PL 101-336 Americans with Disabilities Act
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Paralympics
Olympics
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Rebirth of the Olympics in 1896
Centennial Olympics celebrated in Atlanta in 1996
Politicization of the Olympic Games
Evolving definitions of amateurism
“Fairness” issues in the Olympics
Addition of non-traditional sports
Commercialization of the Olympics
Technology
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Computer technology and sophisticated
research equipment
Has led to record-breaking achievements
for elite athletes in nearly all sports
Facility improvement
Fitness tests data available in schools with
addition of heart rate monitors
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