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British History

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British History
Part 2 – After the
Normans
Late British History
After the Normans, British history can be
divided into “Dynasties”
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Anglo-Normans
Middle Ages
Late Medieval
Tudors
Stuarts
Georgians
Victorians
(1066 – 1215)
(1216 – 1347)
(1348 – 1484)
(1485 – 1602)
(1603 – 1713)
(1714 – 1836)
(1837 – 1900)
Who were the Normans?
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The Normans were
originally Vikings
(“North Men”) from
Scandinavia
They settled in a part
of France called
Normandy
The Normans were
the last people to
successfully invade
England
The Norman Conquest (1066)
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In 1066 the Anglo-Saxon King of England
died without an heir
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Two people claimed the Kingdom:
1. Harold, The Earl of Wessex
2. William, The Duke of Normandy
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Harold had himself crowned King but his
position was not secure.
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By August 1066 William had assembled a
force of about 5,000 knights for invasion
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William defeated Harold at the Battle of
Hastings (Oct 14 1066).
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This resulted in profound political,
administrative, and social changes in the
British Isles.
William the Conqueror
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William was crowned in
Westminster Abbey on
Christmas Day 1066.
However, native revolts
continued until 1071.
England was divided among
180 Norman “tenants in chief”
(basically “Lords”)
William brought about many
changes in British culture
Anglo-Normans (1066 – 1215)
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Military conquest followed by settlement
and firm administration led to the
Normanisation of England, Wales and
lowland Scotland.
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William's victory brought England into
closer contact with western Europe.
Cultural and economic links with France
and continental Europe were reestablished.
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Stone castles became a common sight,
serving as administrative centres as well
as military and economic strongpoints.
What the Normans did…
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There were considerable changes
in the social structure of the
British kingdoms as a new
aristocracy was introduced
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However, the Anglo-Saxon central
and local governments and
judicial system were retained
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The “English” language
disappeared in official documents,
it was replaced by Latin, then by
Norman-French.
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Written English slowly reappeared
in the 13th century.
Knights & Feudalism
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Feudalism originated in France, and
was brought to England by the
Normans
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The obligations and relations between
lord, vassal and fief form the basis of
feudalism
1.
Lords (Land owners),
Vassals (Knights)
Fiefs (Land).
2.
3.
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In exchange for use of the fief, the
vassal would provide military service to
the lord.
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Knights were supported by peasants
who worked to produce food and
ideologically supported by the church.
The Domesday Book (1086)
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The Domesday Book was the result of
a great survey by William I
He sent officials to 13,418 places to
find out who lived there and what they
owned.
The purpose of the survey was for tax
collection, or possibly as a way of
resolving disputed titles and lands.
Domesday was the most complete
record of any country at that time and
continued to be consulted on legal and
administrative matters into the Middle
Ages.
The Middle Ages (1216-1347)
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During the thirteenth century,
England and Scotland developed
clearer self-identities.
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In England's case, this was as a
result of the loss of most of her
continental possessions which
focused the monarchy's attention
closer to home.
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There were large constitutional
changes and the period saw the
beginning of parliament to advise the
king.
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Wales was conquered by the military
campaigns of Edward I but his wars
in France, Scotland and Ireland were
less successful.
The Beginning of Parliament 1236 - 1307
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The first reference to a 'parliament' was made in 1236
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In 1254, the first meeting of a parliament took place
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Representatives were two knights from each shire.
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Parliament developed through the reign of Edward I to a role
beyond that of 'high court'.
Late Medieval (1348 – 1484)
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This period was dominated by the long
period of conflict known as the Hundred
Years' War
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Profound social and economic changes
were brought about by the Black Death
(bubonic plague).
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The popular and successful Edward III
reigned for fifty years, presiding over a
mixed period of success for England in
France.
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Parliament continued to develop and
English rather than French became the
language of daily use.
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A new dynasty - the Stewarts - was
established Scotland. They would
eventually rule England
The Black Death (1348)
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In 1348, the bubonic plague arrived in
Britain through the southern coast ports.
Known as the Black Death, the disease
was spread by fleas living in the fur of
rats.
The plague reached London by
September 1348 and Scotland, Wales
and Ireland in the winter of 1349.
Between 10-30% of the population died
The plague returned periodically until
the seventeenth century. The first few
outbreaks severely reduced the fertility
and density of the population.
Labour became scarcer
Poorer land was simply abandoned,
and many villages were never reoccupied.
Tudors (1485 – 1602)
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Known as the “Early Modern” period of British
history.
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The Tudors ruled in England and the Stuarts in
Scotland. In both realms, as the century
progressed, there were new ways of approaching
old problems.
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Henry VIII of England and James IV of Scotland
were both cultured, educated Renaissance princes
with a love of learning and architectural splendour.
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Henry broke away from the Catholic Church to
form the Church of England (of which he had
himself proclaimed Head).
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The early modern period was an era where
women exercised more influence:
Catherine de Medici in France, Elizabeth and Mary
in England and Mary in Scotland ruled as their
male counterparts had done before them.
Circumnavigation of the globe 1578 - 1580
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On 13 December 1577, Francis Drake,
on board his ship the Pelican, left
Plymouth on a voyage that would take
him round the world.
In August 1578, Drake passed through
the Magellan Strait (the south of South
America) and entered the Pacific
Ocean.
By June 1579, Drake had landed on
the coast of modern California (which
he claimed for England as 'New
Albion').
On 26 September 1580, the navigator
returned to Plymouth in his ship,
renamed as the Golden Hind.
The following April, Drake was knighted
by Elizabeth I on board ship.
The Stuarts (1603 – 1713)
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King Charles I was unable to work
with Parliament so he attempted
to rule without it.
This lead to a civil war, and the
execution of Charles I.
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England became a republic (no
Kings or Queens) for a short time
until the restoration of the
monarchy 1660.
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Shortly afterwards, a devastating
plague swept through the country
followed by the Great Fire of
London 1666.
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Compromise between the crown
and Parliament finally achieved a
balanced government and the two
kingdoms of England and
Scotland were joined in the 1707
Act of Union.
The Gunpowder Plot (1605)
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On 5 November 1605, a plot
was discovered to blow up
parliament with gunpowder
stored in the cellar.
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Guy Fawkes was one of the
conspirators. He was captured
and executed.
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King James I declared 5
November a day of national
celebration.
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“Guy Fawkes Day” is still
celebrated today
The Rise of the Industrial Revolution
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From 1430, people in Europe discovered sea routes to Asia and
America.
England made great gains from overseas trade.
England became wealthy and people invested in the making of
machines and setting up factories.
The large overseas market encouraged people to produce more
products quicker and of better quality, so they invested in the
production of machines in England.
A banking system developed - the banks lent money to
“industrialists” who used the money for industrial development,
which led to the Industrial Revolution.
The fast growth of science and technology since the 17th century
helped the rise of the Industrial Revolution. It led to population
growth, the basis for the invention of machines and the
Agricultural Revolution.
Why the Industrial Revolution started
in Britain
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Britain was able to succeed in the Industrial Revolution
because of its plentiful resources.
Britain had a dense population for its small geographical size.
The agricultural revolution made a supply of labour readily
available (urbanisation).
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Local supplies of coal, iron, lead, copper,
tin, limestone and water power, resulted
in excellent conditions for the
development and expansion of industry.
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The stable political situation in Great
Britain from around 1688
The First Steam Engine (1712)
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One the most significant
inventions of the Industrial
Revolution was the steam
engine.
This was originally invented for
draining mines, but was rapidly
put to use in factories and later
on the railways.
The first successful engine was
built in 1712 by Thomas
Newcomen and developed over
the next ninety years by James
Watt and Richard Trevithick
The Georgians (1714 – 1836)
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The Georgian period was one of change.
There was a new dynasty and the infrastructure of Britain was changing.
Agricultural developments were followed by industrial innovation.
This, in turn, led to urbanisation and the need for better communications.
Britain became the world's first modern society.
With these changes came
increased population and
increased wealth (for some).
Politically, the Georgian period
was a period of confrontation.
Britain became involved in
conflicts with India, her American
colonies and continental Europe.
Because of its financial, naval and
military strength, the British
government tended to prevail.
The Napoleonic wars 1803 - 1815
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After the French Revolution, Napoleon I of France began a series
of European wars. He wanted to rule all of Europe.
In 1805, Napoleon's planned invasion of Britain from France failed
at Trafalgar.
Napoleon then decided to invade Russia but was defeated by the
Russian resistance, losing some 380,000 men.
Britain, Prussia, Russia,
Austria and Sweden
formed a new coalition,
which defeated Napoleon.
He returned to Paris in
1815, but was finally
defeated at Waterloo by
Wellington and his
Prussian allies, on 18
June.
Colonisation of the Antipodes - penal
colonies 1788
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The colonisation of Australia and New Zealand began with the
desire to find a place to put prisoners after the original American
colonies were lost.
The first shipload of British convicts landed in Australia in 1788, on
the site of the future city of Sydney.
The majority of these convicts
were young men, many of
whom had committed only petty
crimes.
New South Wales opened to
free settlers in 1819. By 1858,
transportation of convicts was
abolished.
The union with Ireland and adoption
of the Union Flag 1801
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Because of fighting between Catholics and Protestants in Ireland,
the Prime Minister, William Pitt, concluded that direct rule from
London was the only solution.
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After bribery of the Commons
and gentry, Britain and Ireland
were formally united, with
seats for 132 Irish members in
Parliament
The red cross of St Patrick was
incorporated in the Union flag
to give the present flag of the
United Kingdom
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The Victorians (1837 – 1900)
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During Queen Victoria's reign, the
revolution in industrial practices
continued to change British life.
With it came increased urbanisation
and a burgeoning communications
network (Railways, canals,
telegraph).
The industrial expansion also
brought wealth and, in the nineteenth
century, Britain became a champion
of Free Trade across her massive
Empire.
Both industrialisation and trade were
glorified in the Great Exhibitions,
However by 1900, Britain's industrial
advantage was being challenged
successfully by other nations such as
the USA and Germany.
The Empire witnessed renewed
conflict, although Victoria' reign can
be seen as the imperial Golden Age
Irish famine 1845 - 1850
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When the potato crop failed (a staple of the Irish diet),
over 1,000,000 Irish citizens died.
A further 1-2,000,000 emigrated (mainly to Britain and
the United States).
The Irish rural economy
had come to rely on the
potato too much as a
cheap and available
source of food.
The crisis was not
helped by poor weather,
epidemic disease and a
slow response from the
British government.
Education Act 1870
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This �act’ provided mass
education on a scale not
seen before.
The State became more
involved in the running of
schools.
Elected school boards were
given powers to enforce
attendance of most children
below the age of thirteen
By 1874, over 5,000 new
schools had been founded.
The British Empire
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The British Empire was the world's first global
power
It was a product of the “European Age of
Exploration” following the discovery of the
Americas in the 15th century.
By 1921, the British Empire governed a
population of about 470–570 million people
(1/4 of the world's population)
It covered about 37 million square kilometers,
almost a third of the world's total land area.
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