Deaf Education If your child was Deaf, what would YOU do? A bit of historyвЂ¦ вЂў Up until the 1860s Sign Language was used to educate the Deaf. вЂў Then some parents and educators felt that the Deaf children should also learn how to talk which lead to the creation of pure oral schools. The Milan Conference вЂў Twenty years later there was an even bigger push for schools to use oral methods instead of manual methods. вЂў In 1880 the second International Congress of Education of the Deaf met in Milan, Italy вЂў There were a total of 164 participants. вЂў Only 5 were American вЂў Only 1 was Deaf (James Denison) вЂў The 5 represented 51 schools with a total of over 6,000 students. вЂ“ This was more than the total of all the other 159 participants combined вЂў Despite their opposition (plus one educator from Great Britain), those present at the conference voted that Sign Language was no longer to be used when educating Deaf children. вЂў As a result many Deaf schools became more oral. вЂў Some refused to change completely and opted for a combination of both sign language and speech. вЂ“ This was called the combined system. вЂў For the next 100 years there was a вЂњwar of methodsвЂќ in which both sides of the education debate fought vigorously. вЂ“ It still continues today вЂњFor a Deaf Son.вЂќ Indiana School for the Deaf вЂў Attempts were made to suppress sign language until the 1960вЂ™s when a linguistic study by William Stokoe proved that ASL was a language in and of itself. Laws regarding educating the Deaf вЂў IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) was signed into law in 1990. (formerly Educ for all HC children act) вЂ“ Should be designed to meet the unique learning needs of children with disabilities. (pre-K - 21 years old) вЂ“ Should prepare students for further education, employment & independent living. Individualized Education Plan (IEP) вЂ“ Anyone with a disability (Deaf or other) must have an IEP. вЂў Specifies what services and how often вЂў Specifies current levels of achievement вЂў Specifies how disability affects academic achievement вЂў Specifies accommodations & modifications that will be provided Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) This part of the law states that children are to be educated with non-disabled students unless the nature or severity of their disability would be better served in an different environment. This is not always the best option for Deaf children and we will look at why. Why is it difficult to educate the Deaf? вЂў Students start out behind their hearing counterparts because they have limited language. (only 5-10% acquire ASL from Deaf parents) вЂў Most of the money for their education is spent on teaching them to talk instead of other curricula. Deaf Education ProgramsвЂ¦ вЂў Curriculum focuses on: вЂ“ Teaching speech вЂ“ The psychology of deafness вЂ“ how to adjust to the hearing world вЂ“ Audiology вЂ“ Spoken English development Deaf Education Programs вЂў Curriculum DOES NOT focus on: вЂ“ Deaf people interacting with each other вЂ“ The role that ASL plays in the development of Deaf children вЂ“ Teaching them how to understand or produce ASL Different Approaches to Deaf Education вЂў Methods of teaching are really just policies of how teachers and students should communicate with each other instead of HOW they should be taught. вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Oralism Simultaneous Communication (Sim-Com) Cued Speech Mainstreaming Oralism вЂў Spoken English is the sole mode of instruction. вЂ“ The assumption is made that students will acquire English through seeing and hearing it. This will вЂњhelpвЂќ them fit in better with the hearing world. вЂ“ Even students with some residual hearing donвЂ™t do well because some of the sounds canвЂ™t be seen visually. (60%) вЂ“ They miss out on other curricula because they spend so much time on speech. Oralism contвЂ¦ вЂў They are expected to learn from a person who is speaking a language they do not understand nor have access to. вЂў They suffer socially as well because they are forbidden to sign and canвЂ™t communicate easily with others. вЂў They canвЂ™t вЂњoverhearвЂќ conversations so they also miss out on general cultural knowledge, socioeconomic experiences, and other interactions that help them develop cognitively. Simultaneous Communication вЂў Also called Sim-Com вЂў Been around since the 1970s. вЂў Is a little more accepted by the Deaf community because it allows signs. вЂў The mode of communication is spoken English supported by simultaneous signs. (Sign Supported Speech вЂ“ SSS) вЂў Special signs are developed so that it represents English. Sim-Com cont. вЂў SSS is sometimes referred to as вЂњsign languageвЂќ but it is not a language. Unlike ASL and English it doesnвЂ™t have: вЂ“ Natural development over time вЂ“ Acquisition by children who are exposed to it. вЂ“ Grammatical structure that makes it unique to any other language Signing Exact English вЂў Every English word and parts of a word has its own sign. вЂў ASL вЂ“ STORE I GO-TO вЂў SEE вЂ“ I am go+ing to the store. вЂў Uses the same sign for each word regardless of the meaning вЂў Can you can a can or corn? Signing Exact English вЂў Many initialized signs were introduced at this time in order to clarify which exact English word was being said. Still based on words instead of concept. вЂ“ We, Our, Path, Road, etc PSE вЂ“ Pidgin Signed English This code is a mixture of ASL signs and English word order. A lot of times, Deaf people will вЂњcodeswitchвЂќ to PSE when talking to hearing people. Sim-Com cont. вЂў It is IMPOSSIBLE to speak English and sign ASL at the same time because they have different grammatical structures. вЂў Either the signs are randomly omitted or the English вЂњflowвЂќ is altered. (example) вЂў вЂў TELL SAY HORSE RABBIT NO вЂў вЂў ALL OUTSIDE DIFFERENT COLOR вЂў ZERO ORANGE SORRY OUTSIDE ORANGE PICK OTHER COLOR вЂў No orange. He's sorry but he's out of orange. Pick another color. вЂў ZERO PURPLE WHAT WRONG TOGETHER-WITH EASTER DEVlL. вЂў No Purple? What's wrong with this Easter Bunny? ... вЂў вЂў CAN'T HEAR YOU CAN'T HEAR YOU вЂў вЂў [-unintelligible----] YELLOW FLOWER [--] OTHER 1 Tell tellвЂ¦ the Easter Bunny В· ... He said, вЂњNoвЂќ all out. You can take a different color. Well, tell him. He can hear you. He can hear you ... Those В·are purple flowers. I said yellow flowers. Get another one. Sim-Com cont. вЂў The teachers assume the students have access to the curricula so they arenвЂ™t able to make accurate judgments of who is getting the info. вЂ“ Biased towards students with some residual hearing. They become the basis from whom the teachers make their judgments. Sim-Com cont. вЂў Students still have to be competent in English before this is an effective mode of teaching. вЂў Proponents say itвЂ™s difficult for hearing parents to learn ASL, so itвЂ™s just вЂњbetterвЂќ for everyone to use signed English. Sim-Com cont. вЂў There is NO PROOF that SSS has helped a Deaf child acquire English or be competent in it. вЂў Research DOES show that Deaf studentsвЂ™ English grammar is not comparable to their hearing counterparts. Cued Speech вЂў A visual communication system that makes the sounds of spoken language look different from each other. вЂ“ 8 handshapes in 4 different placements on the face вЂ“ Combined with mouth movement Cued Speech Cued Speech contвЂ¦ вЂў Positive: helps clarify lipreading вЂў Negative: only good in an educational setting because it wonвЂ™t work in everyday communication. (The average person вЂ“ Deaf or hearingdoesnвЂ™t know these handshapes) Mainstreaming вЂў Student(s) has an interpreter in each class in a regular public school. вЂў Positives: вЂ“ Can take a variety of classes and exposed to more curriculum at the higher levels Mainstreaming contвЂ¦ вЂў Negatives: вЂ“ The interpreter may not be qualified. вЂў Ex. Small school districts. вЂ“ The student is isolatedвЂ¦sometimes the only Deaf student in the class/school. вЂ“ The student must have good ASL/signing skills for this to be an effective learning environment. вЂў SoвЂ¦whatвЂ™s a parent with a Deaf child to do then? Bi-Lingual/Bi-Cultural Education вЂў Foundational belief: вЂ“ Deaf children should be taught/modeled/allowed to use ASL вЂ“ They will be taught English as a 2nd language and follow the principles other ESL students learn by Current Bi/Bi Programs in the U.S. вЂў There are several schools across the U.S. that have this kind of program although they have different guiding principles. Some common guiding principles areвЂ¦ вЂў Deaf students can learn if the information is given in a language the child has access to вЂ“ ASL. вЂ“ How can a child learn without language? вЂ“ Thus, the teachers and staff must be proficient in ASL. вЂ“ Evidence shows a student who signs proficiently does better in English. (true with any language) Guiding principlesвЂ¦ вЂў The earlier a Deaf child acquires language, the more opportunity he/she will have to learn about the world (linguistically and culturally). вЂ“ This makes him/her more prepared to learn in an educational setting. вЂ“ Once identified as Deaf, itвЂ™s vital to expose them to adult signers and to educate parents in ASL and Deaf culture. Guiding principlesвЂ¦ вЂў The best place for Deaf children to acquire ASL is from Deaf/native signers. вЂ“ As time goes on, they will learn from older Deaf students, Deaf peers and proficient hearing signers. вЂ“ ItвЂ™s important that some of their teachers are Deaf. Guiding principlesвЂ¦ вЂў Content classes are taught in ASL. (Science, math, etc) вЂў English is taught as a second language. As the child gets older, more emphasis is placed on English so that he/she becomes bi-lingual. Guiding principlesвЂ¦ вЂў Speech training is not ignored (esp for those who have some residual hearing), itвЂ™s just not the PRIMARY means of teaching. вЂў No child will be expected to learn acquire knowledge at the same time they are learning to understand speech. Guiding principlesвЂ¦ вЂў The goal is not to вЂњfixвЂќ Deaf students and make them like hearing students; the goal is to give them equitable access to all curriculum. вЂў The Deaf community and culture will be promoted and reinforced to all students, parents and staff.