19th Century Imperialism Imperialism вЂў Imperialism means control by a powerful nation over an underdeveloped or weaker area. вЂў The powerful nation is usually characterized by an advanced economy, strong government, and considerable military strength. вЂў The underdeveloped area is characterized by untapped natural resources, a primitive economy, weak government, and limited military power. вЂў Since World War II imperialism has also been called colonialism. Types of Imperialism вЂў Concession. An underdeveloped country grants to foreign business interests specific economic privileges, or concessions, such as to build railroads, open mines, or drill for oil. вЂў Sphere of Influence. A powerful nation secured exclusive economic privileges in an underdeveloped region, thereby establishing a sphere of influence. Usually such an economic monopoly was respected by other imperialist nations Types of Imperialism 2 вЂў Protectorate. The native ruler remained in power outwardly, but the imperialist nation controlled affairs behind the scenes. вЂў Colony. A powerful nation formally took over and governed an underdeveloped area, which became its colony вЂў Mandate and Trusteeship: Under International Supervision' Following World War I an attempt was made to introduce reforms in the field of imperialism. Victorious nations in a war are granted control of colonies of the losing nation. Reasons for 19th Century Imperialism вЂў Industrial Revolution. Industrialized nations desired colonies to provide (a) a cheap and certain supply of raw materials, (b) markets reserved for the mother country's manufactured goods, and (c) large profits with minimum risk on investment of surplus capital. Reasons for 19th Century Imperialism 2 вЂў Nationalism. The advocates of imperialism used nationalist arguments to gain public support for empire building. They claimed that the parent country would (a) gain glory (b) secure essential military bases and war materials, (c) provide an outlet for surplus population, (d) safeguard missionaries spreading Christianity and other humanitarians promoting public health and education, (e) bring to the underdeveloped areas the blessings of the superior culture of the WestвЂ”a duty labeled by the British writer Rudyard Kipling as the "white man's burden." Imperialist Nations of the 19th Century Great Britain France Belgium Germany Italy United States Spain Portugal Japan Russia MODERN IMPERIALISM: INTEREST IN AFRICA (SINCE MID-19TH CENTURY) вЂў Work of Explorers. David Livingstone, Scottish missionary and doctor, spent many years (1840вЂ“1873) serving the peoples and exploring the lands of central Africa. Henry M. Stanley, American newspaper reporter, headed an expedition in 1871 that "found" the presumably "lost" Livingstone. Later Stanley undertook additional explorations. In well-publicized reports these two men, as well as other explorers, described the geography, resources, and peoples of Africa. вЂў Other Groups Interested in Africa. The glowing reports of explorers reawakened Europe's interest in Africa. Business leaders saw economic opportunities. Missionaries wanted to convert the blacks to Christianity. Nationalists dreamed of empire building unopposed by the primitive Africans. Imperialism in Africa Great Britain 1. To Protect Trade Routes to the East. вЂў In 1815 Britain acquired from Holland the Cape Colony. вЂў It included Capetown, a port at southernmost Africa that served as a supply base for British ships enroute to India. вЂў In 1875 Prime Minister Disraeli purchased from the bankrupt ruler of Egypt sufficient stock to give Britain control of the Suez Canal. вЂў By sailing through the canal, British ships eliminated the long voyage around Africa. вЂў In 1882 Britain established a protectorate over Egypt. вЂў Britain's trade route to IndiaвЂ”via Gibraltar, the Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal, and the Red SeaвЂ”became known as the lifeline of the British Empire. Imperialism in Africa 2 Great Britain 2. To Gain a Rich Empire. вЂў Cecil Rhodes, foremost empire builder in Africa, dreamed of an unbroken north-south line of British territory to be linked by a Capeto-Cairo railroad. Rhodes' ambition became British policy. вЂў By 1914 the British dominated South Africa, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), Kenya, Uganda, and the Sudan, as well as Egypt. вЂў After World War I, Britain acquired the final link for the railroad, the former German East Africa, or Tanganyika (now Tanzania). вЂў Also, by the beginning of the 20th century, British control was firmly established in Sierra Leone, Gambia, the Gold Coast (now Ghana), and NigeriaвЂ”all on the west coast of Africa. Imperialism in Africa 3 France вЂў For economic gain and nationalist glory, the French gained a considerable African domain. вЂў By 1847 the French had subdued the Moslem tribes and gained control of Algeria. вЂў Between 1881 and 1912 France acquired Tunisia, Morocco, West Africa (now Benin, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and Upper Volta), Equatorial Africa (now Chad, Central Africa, Congo, and Gabon), and Madagascar (now Malagasy). Italy. вЂў A imperialist late starter Italy controlled Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, and Libya by 1914. вЂў In 1936 Italy conquered and annexed Ethiopia. Imperialism in Africa 4 Portugal. вЂў As a 16th-century maritime power, Portugal early established supply bases and trading posts on the east and west coasts of Africa. вЂў In the mid-1970's Portugal granted independence to its African territories: Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau], Mozambique, and Angola. Spain. вЂў By the early 20th century, Spain controlled Spanish Morocco (opposite Gibraltar) and Spanish Sahara on the Atlantic coast of Africa. вЂў In 1956 Spain ceded Spanish Morocco to newly independent Morocco. вЂў In 1976 Spain surrendered Spanish Sahara [now Western Sahara] to Mauritania and Morocco. Belgium. вЂў In 1876 King Leopold II and a group of Belgian capitalists founded a private company to manage the Congo region. вЂў The company reaped huge profits from rubber and ivory but shockingly mistreated the natives. вЂў In 1908 the Belgian government took control of the Congo. вЂў In 1960 Belgium granted independence to the Congo (now Zaire). Conflicts in African Imperialism Boer War вЂў Afrikaans (Dutch settlers in South Africa) called Boers, objected to British rule. вЂў Many took up arms against Britain and were eventually defeated. Khartoum вЂў Local native people (aboriginal) objected to British rule of Sudan. They chased the British out of southern Sudan. Germany challenged France over Morocco (1905, 1911), but France retained control . Imperialism in China пЃ® The imperialist nations seemed poised to annex their respective spheres of influence, thereby threatening to dismember China. Imperialism in China 2 Britain, вЂўBy the Opium War (1839-1842), вЂў(a) compelled China to allow imports of opium, a habit-forming narcotic, вЂў(b) annexed Hong Kong, вЂў(c) acquired the privilege of extraterritoriality. вЂ“This entitled a Briton accused of a crime in China to be tried in a British court. France вЂўAnnexed ( took over) Indo-China and gained a sphere of influence in southeastern China. Germany вЂўAcquired a sphere of influence in northeastern China over the Shantung Peninsula. Russia вЂўAnnexed the Amur River district, the Pacific seaport of Vladivostok, and the central Asian territory bordering Sinkiang Province; secured a lease to ice-free Port Arthur; and established a sphere of influence over Manchuria. Japan, вЂўBy the Sino-Japanese War (1894вЂ“1895) annexed Taiwan (also called Formosa) and secured a sphere of influence over Korea. вЂўIn 1910 Japan annexed Korea. вЂўBy victory in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Japan took over Russia's lease to Port Arthur and Russia's sphere of influence in southern Manchuria. Events in Imperialist China OPEN DOOR POLICY (1899) вЂў The United States was interested in China, not for territory, but for commerce. вЂў Our trade, however, was threatened by the spheres of influence and the prospect of China's dismemberment. вЂў Thus they suggested the Open Door Policy which proposed equal trade rights in China for all nations. Later it also came to mean the preservation of China's independence and territory. вЂў The "open door" was accepted by the imperialist nations in principle but not in practice. вЂў However, it earned us China's goodwill and for many years served as the cornerstone of American policy toward the Far East. BOXER REBELLION (1900) вЂў The Boxers, a Chinese society encouraged by Manchu government officials, staged an uprising to drive out all foreigners and restore China to isolation. After an international military force suppressed the rebellion, the foreign nations demanded damages from China. вЂў The United States successfully urged that China pay, not by loss of territory, but by a monetary indemnity. The other nations agreed but imposed excessive indemnities. The United States disapproved and returned half of its indemnity money to advance education in China and to enable Chinese students to attend American colleges. Imperialism in вЂў By 1763 Britain had driven its chief European rival, France, from India. Thereafter, relatively few British military and civilian personnel gradually expanded British control throughout vast, heavily populated India. The British conquest was facilitated by India's backwardness and disunity. Imperialism in India 2 FACTORS ENABLING BRITAIN TO DOMINATE INDIA 1. Military Inferiority. The Indians could not cope with the superior British military knowledge, training, and equipment. 2. Many Languages. The people of India were divided linguistically among more than a dozen main languages and over 200 dialects. Their many tongues reflected geographic and cultural separation. 3. Religious Divisions. Of India's total population, the Moslems constituted about 20 percent and the Hindus the overwhelming majority. Because of their divergent religious traditions and past conflicts, the Moslems and Hindus were bitterly antagonistic to each other 4. The British freed India of local wars, guarded its borders against invasion, and generally provided efficient rule. In response to Indian demands, Britain in 1919 permitted the Indian people limited selfgovernment. India 1. 2. Economic Control. Britain profited greatly from India, called the "brightest jewel of the British Empire." British manufacturers and workers depended upon India to purchase their textiles and machines. British merchants sought India's exports of raw jute and tea. British investors developed India's mineral resources, built railways, and established factories. By the mid-20th century, India was an important Asian producer of textiles, iron and steel, and cement. By industrializing India, the British provided employment for many Indian workers. Also, the British government improved the country by public works: schools, roads, hospitals, and irrigation and sanitation projects. The Indian masses, however, continued to live close to the starvation level. The population almost doubled between 1850 and 1900, and job opportunities could not keep up with the increase in population. Handicraft workers could not compete with factories, and factory workers received extremely low wages. Farmers, the overwhelming majority in the population, were beset by uncertain rainfall, crude cultivation methods, high rents, and heavy taxes. India 3 1. Social Control. The British had little respect for the native Indian culture, particularly the barbaric practices of slavery, suttee (the Hindu custom of burning the widow on the funeral pyre of her deceased husband), and female infanticide (killing unwanted baby girls). The British halted these practices. Also, they instituted modern health methods, thus lowering the death rate, began English-oriented educational programs, and introduced the English language and English concepts of law, justice, democracy, and nationalism. However, the funds that the British made available for health and education were hardly adequate for India's massive needs. Japan OPENING OF JAPAN (1853вЂ”1854) вЂў In the mid-17th century, feudal Japan withdrew into isolation and for 200 years remained unaffected by Western civilization вЂў In 1853вЂ”1854 Commodore Matthew C. Perry, heading an American naval squadron, convinced Japan to open its ports to American trade. вЂў Soon afterward the leading European powers demanded and received similar trade rights. Westernization of Japan 1. Government. The nobles removed the shogun (the highest lord) from power and transferred full governmental control to Emperor Mutsuhito. He assumed the reign name Meiji, meaning enlightened peace. Mutsuhito's reign (1867вЂ”1912) and the accompanying transformation of Japan became known as the Meiji restoration. Under the Meijii restoration Japan began to become like western nations. They modeled their government like BismarckвЂ™s Germany The emperor's authority was further strengthened by Shintoism, the state religion, which began to preach his divine origin. 2.Military. The government created a powerful British-type navy and Prussian-type army. 3. Education. The state began a compulsory public education system, and the Japanese became a highly literate people. 4. Agriculture. The nobles voluntarily surrendered their feudal privileges. The peasant farmers were no longer bound to the soil, and many became landowners. 5. Industry. The government encouraged a sweeping program of industrialization. Japan soon produced textiles, steel, machinery, and ships, and became a major trading and manufacturing nation. Japanese Imperialism Reasons. (a) With Japan deficient in natural resources, Japanese industrialists needed supplies of raw materialsвЂ” especially cotton, iron ore, and oil; they also wanted secure markets for their manufactured goods. (b) Japanese nationalists sought honor for the emperor and glory for the military forces. They thought that colonies would raise Japan to the rank of a "major power." (c) Densely populated and lacking arable land, Japan wanted colonial outlets for its surplus population. (d) Japan's location placed the country within easy reach of eastern Asia's underdeveloped nations. Japan Early Imperialist Events a. Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). Japan overwhelmed China and acquired Taiwan and a sphere of influence in Korea. (In 1910 Japan annexed Korea.) b. Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). Japan, to the world's surprise, defeated Russia. By the Treaty of Portsmouth (New Hampshire), Japan acquired the southern half of Sakhalin Island, Port Arthur, and Russia's sphere of influence in southern Manchuria. (For promoting the peace treaty, American President Theodore Roosevelt received the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize.) c. World War I (1914-1918). Although contributing little to the Allied victory, Japan acquired Germany's concessions on China's Shantung Peninsula and mandates over the former German islands in the Pacific. Imperialism in the Pacific Ocean пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Because of the long trip to China and India over the Pacific Ocean, imperialist nations needed stop-off points along the way to refuel. The United States acquired Hawaii, the Philippines, and Wake Island. Great Britain used Australia as a prison and later as a colony. Germany, France, Holland and Portugal also acquired islands in the South Pacific.