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Higher Education in Korea

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Feb. 2009.
Hye-Jung Lee, Ph.D.
Center for Teaching & Learning
Seoul National University, Korea
Higher Education in Korea
1
South Korea at a Glance
 Area: 99.6 K Sq. Km (107th)
 Population: 48 Million (27th)
 Economy and ICT (World rank)
- OECD member economy in 1996
- Economy (11th)
- Broadband diffusion (2nd)
- Home PC diffusion (3rd)
- Internet use 78%
- Average hours of internet use
13.7 hr/week
Higher Education in Korea
2
I. Overview
I
Overview
Higher Education in Korea
3
Education in General

Socio-cultural context
- Homogeneity of Korean society: prevalence of the egalitarian ideal
- Confusion tradition: meritocracy, “education fever”

Formal Education
- Primary(6) - Middle(3) - High School(3) – Universities/Colleges(4)
- Primary & Secondary: 10,948 schools, 7.8M students, 389K teachers
- Universities/Colleges: 376 institutions, 3.5M students, 60K+ FT teachers

Non-formal Education & Training
- Public/private job training institutions; private tutoring institutions,
adult education centers; in-plant training institutions, etc.
Higher Education in Korea
4
Budget
 One year budget (2008) : 35.9 trillion Korean won
: 5.06% of the GNP
: 19.6% of total Government budget

the Biggest portion
: Elementary & Secondary Education 86.2%
: Higher Education 12.3%
5
Statistics
Public educational expenditures (% GDP)
Higher Education in Korea
6
School System
7
Types of Higher Education Institutions
 University
 Industrial University
 University of Education
 Junior College
 Open University
 Technical College
 Cyber College & University
 College in the Company
 Miscellaneous Schools
 Others
пЃ¬ Enrollment rate 70.5% (2008)
Higher Education in Korea
8
Types of Higher Education Institutions
пЃ¬ Junior College(2 or 3 yr)
 817,994 students in 152 Junior colleges (2006)
 13 national/public, 139 private
пЃ¬ University(4 yr)
 43 national/public, 178 private
 6 year program : medicine, oriental medicine, dentistry
 2,434,112 students in 221 colleges and universities (2006)
пЃ¬ Others(4 yr)
 1 Broadcast & Correspondence University
(300,000 enrollments each year)
 18 Cyber Colleges & Universities
(28,000 newly entrance each year)
Higher Education in Korea
9
Types of Higher Education Institutions
пЃ¬ Cyber Colleges & Universities
Division
School corporations
Bachelor's degree programs
Non-forSchool
profit
corporations
Foundations
Associate
bachelor's
degree
programs
Name of institution
Year of
establishment
Location
Kyunghee Cyber University
Sejong Cyber University
Daegu Cyber University
Wonkwang Digital University
Hanyang Cyber University
Busan Digital University
Korea Cyber University
Gukje Digital University
Seoul Cyber University
Cyber Hankuk University of Foreign Studies
Korea Digital University
Asia-Pacific Digital University
Youngnam Cyber University
Seoul Digital University
Open Cyber University
2001
2001
2002
2002
2002
2002
2001
2003
2001
2004
2001
2001
2009
2001
2001
Seoul
Seoul
Gyeongbuk Province
Jeonbuk Province
Seoul
Busan
Gyeongbuk Province
Gyeonggi Province
Seoul
Seoul
Gyeonggi Province
Seoul
Pusan
Seoul
Seoul
Digital Seoul Culture Arts University
2002
Seoul
World Cyber College
2001
Gyeonggi Province
Yeungjin Cyber College
2002
Daegu
Higher Education in Korea
since 2009
Law of Higher
Education
Law of Lifelong
Learning
10
Statistics
Schools, Students, and Teachers
Higher Education in Korea
11
Statistics
Percentage of Female Students by Year
40 %
35 %
30 %
25 %
Higher Education in Korea
12
Statistics
Enrollment Rate
Elite
Mass
Universal
70 %
50 %
30 %
10 %
Higher Education in Korea
13
Statistics
International Comparison: Tertiary attainment for age group 25-34
Higher Education in Korea
14
Statistics
International Comparison: Tertiary attainment for age group 55-64
Higher Education in Korea
15
Statistics
Advancement Rate: High School пѓ Higher Education (Total)
90 %
70 %
50 %
30 %
Higher Education in Korea
16
Statistics
Advancement Rate: High School пѓ Higher Education
General High School пѓ Higher Education
Vocational High School пѓ Higher Education
Higher Education in Korea
17
Statistics
Number of Students in Higher Education Institutions by Field of Study (2008)
Higher Education in Korea
18
Statistics
Employment Rate of the Graduates of Higher Education Institutions by Year
Higher Education in Korea
19
Statistics
Changes in Admission Rate by Year
Higher Education in Korea
20
Statistics
Degrees Awarded by Year
Higher Education in Korea
21
Statistics
University Graduates by Field of Study (%)
Education Humanities
Social
& Art
Sciences,
Business,
Law
Services
Engineering, Manufacturing
Agriculture
Health &
Welfare
Physical
sciences
Korea
5.2
21.4
22.3
2.9
27.4
2.6
7.1
3.5
U.S.A.
13.2
14.4
41.4
3.5
6.3
2.3
9.6
1.4
Germany
8.0
14.7
27.4
1.8
17.6
1.9
15.2
5.0
Hungary
20.0
8.7
38.7
8.4
9.1
3.7
8.5
0.7
Poland
11.5
6.5
40.0
3.6
7.3
1.7
1.9
1.2
* Source : Education at a Glance (OECD Indicators, 2002)
Higher Education in Korea
22
Statistics
Students Studying Abroad by Year
Higher Education in Korea
23
Statistics
The Rank of Korea’s Major Universities in International Evaluation (The Times)
Higher Education in Korea
24
I. Overview
II Issues and Challenges
Higher Education in Korea
25
Trajectory of Educational Expansion
Step-by-step attainment of universal education:
primary в†’ secondary в†’ higher education

* Trow, “Forms and Phases of Higher Education”: Elite(<15%) → Mass(15-50) → Universal(>55%)
110
Elite
Mass
Universal
90
70
50
30
10
-10
1970
1975
Primary
1980
1990
1995
Lower Secondary
2000
2003
Upper Secondary
Higher Education in Korea
2005
2006
Tertiary
26
Mobilization of Private Resources
< Private School Enrollment Share(2006) >
(Unit: %)
Primary Schools
98.8
1.2
Middle Schools
18.7
High Schools
81.3
51.9
48.1
Universities/
Colleges
74.6
0%
20%
40%
Private
Higher Education in Korea
25.4
60%
80%
100%
National/Public
27
Shrinking School Pop. Amidst Ageing
Low
Fertility
Ageing
Total fertility rate
No. of birth
Proportion, over 65 and 75
No. of the elderly
Higher Education in Korea
28
College Admission Dominates K-12 Education
 College-Entrance-Driven System
- Extreme competition at high schools to enter top 4~5
universities
obstructing the well-rounded growth of students
в†’ Inordinate expansion of private education aggravating equity
imbalance between different SES groups
(private education costs: 1.9% of GDP in 2002)
в†’ Large volumes of study abroad leading to educational trade deficit
Higher Education in Korea
29
Increasing “Education Exodus”
Korean Students Studying Abroad
’97
’99
’01
’03
’04
’05
Countries
69
71
72
73
83
86
# Students
133,249 120,170 149,933 159,903 187,683 192,254
* Foreign student share in the U.S.(2006): Korea 93,728/ India 76,708/ China 60,850
Trade Deficit in Education
’01
’02
’03
’04
’05*
Exports
10.8
16.9
14.8
15.9
10.2
Imports
1,070.0
1,426.6
1,854.7
2,493.8
3,371.4
(Unit : million US$)
Higher Education in Korea
30
Excess supply in graduate students
Unemployment rate (engineering) : 9.8%(’97) пѓ 16.6%(’03)
139 of 200 4-year universities offer doctoral degree
Korea
US
44%
4% 13%
53%
Associate
39%
19%
Bachelor
Master
Higher Education in Korea
20%
8%
Doctorate
31
HE is not pertinent enough
Extent of dissatisfaction: CEO’s view on HE
75%
Creativity
87%
Practice&field exp
68%
Field experience of
faculty
Federation of Korean Industries,
2002.
72%
Curriculum
70%
instructions
Mismatch between jobs and majors
Jr.College
University
(%)
Badly
Mismatched
Mismatched
Matched
Well Matched
33.3
25.4
15.8
15.0
26.7
27.9
24.1
31.6
Source: Office of Statistics, 2003
Higher Education in Korea
32
Stakeholders are disconnected
Limited university-industry partnership


Low mobility between academia and business
University portion of industry's R&D investment:
2.4%(’00) → 1.7% (’03) (MOST, �04)
Low commercialization of university-based IPRs

Patent share (90~’01) : universities 0.5%, companies
78.8%, research institutes 2.9%, individuals 17.8%
Un-coordinated financial support to universities

Duplication of funding for the same purpose by several
line ministries
Higher Education in Korea
33
HE is not prepared for an aging population
<Source : National Statistical Office>
Higher Education in Korea
34
I. Overview
III Major Reform Initiatives
Higher Education in Korea
35
Major strategies

Minimum regulations to maintain social solidarity
 college admission policies with the “three-Nos” policy (no
entrance exam, no use of HS ranking, no admission with donations)

Promotion of restructuring and competition through market
discipline
пѓј use of various incentives and disincentives

Funding based on “selection and concentration”
пѓј targeted funding for specialization and regional parity

Financing learners rather than providers
пѓј learner-oriented/demand-side financing (student loans)

Improvement of HE/labor market information
пѓј manpower forcasting and assessment of skill requirements

Enhancement of networking and partnerships
пѓј with local governments and business community
Higher Education in Korea
36
Major Performance-based Funding Programs

1st-phase Brain Korea 21 (�99~�05, US$ 1.4billion)
- Enhanced university research capacity; induced competition
※ Number of BK21 science & tech SCI-level papers: 3,765(вЂ�98) пѓ 7,947(вЂ�05)

2nd-phase Brain Korea 21 (�06~�12, US$ 2.3billion)
- Cultivate 20,000 graduate-level best brains per year
※ 74 universities, 244 project units, 325 project teams(06, US$ 290million)

New University for Regional Innovation (�04~�08, US$ 1.2billion)
- Specialize local universities; skill formation for local industry
※ 109 local universities, 130 project units

“Connect Korea” Project (�06~�10, US$ 150million)
- Strengthen partnership b/w universities and industry
- Establish consortiums b/w university TLOs(Technology Licensing Offices)
Higher Education in Korea
37
пЃ¬ Brain Korea 21 Project
: efforts for improving the quality of higher education
 Goal
Cultivate high-quality research human resources by nurturing
world class research universities and regional graduate schools of excellence
 Outline
.
Phase в… Phase в…Ў
1999 ~ 2005
2006 ~ 2012
1.4 trillion KRW
2.03 trillion KRW
79,680 students,
564 project teams
in 166 universities
147,000 students,
569 project teams
in 74 universities
Higher Education in Korea
38
пЃ¬ Brain Korea 21 Project
: efforts for improving the quality of higher education
 Visible result : Research atmosphere
Before
BK21
Phase в… The number of
articles registered
in SCI
3,765
7,281
(2005)
World
Ranking
18
12
Higher Education in Korea
Phase в…Ў
10
(Goal)
39
пЃ¬ NURI Project
: New University for Regional Innovation
 Goal
Give a boost to regional economy by nurturing qualified human resources
of regional university graduates through specialized education programs
 Outline
1.2 trillion KRW is to be invested over a period of five years (2004~2008)
109 regional universities are currently participating as of 2006
131 project teams, 190,000 students
Higher Education in Korea
40
Governance Reform of Public & Private HEIs
 Public/national universities : promote autonomy through
incorporation
Current NU System
Incorporated NU System
Governance
Decisions making
– by staff & faculty Meetings,
Ministry of Ed., Congress
Decision-making by Board
composed of persons from in
and out of the university
President
Election
Direct election by faculty
members (weight on faculty
opinion)
Indirect election (based on
candidate’s track record on
management capacity)
 Private universities : increase transparency through
participation of external experts in the management
- appointing qualified external people on the Board of Trustees
Higher Education in Korea
41
Facilitation of university-industry partnerships
“Connect Korea” Project
•
•
•
•
Establishing Consortium between TLOs (Technology Licensing
Offices) in Universities
Connection between Demand (Industry) and Supply (University)
R&D and Tech. Development в†’ Transfer Results/Products в†’
Commercialization в†’ Reinvest in Technology Development
Dissemination of best practices
Researchers
Prospective
R&D Results
Connect
(TLO)
Higher Education in Korea
Firms,
Investors
Purchase R&D
Products
42
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