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Teaching EAL students - Graduate School of Education

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Supporting Students With
English As An Additional
Language
Produced as part of the Partnership Development Schools (PDS) Strategy Phase 3
2008-09 (Lead PDS: The Park Community School. Contact Chris Ley
(cley@parkcommunity.devon.sch.uk)
AIMS
• To consider the factors affecting students from
different countries
• To extend the knowledge of strategies to support
EAL students
•To gain a basic understanding of language
acquisition
1.
BEM - VINDOS
Portuguese
2.
WILLKOMMEN
German
3.
‫رحب‬.
Arabic
4.
প্রেসিডেন্ট
5. hoЕџ geldiniz
Bengali
Turkish
6.
ж¬ўиїЋ
Chinese
7.
साइमंड्स
Hindi
8.
‫پاکستان‬
Urdu
9.
‫هلمند‬
Farsi
10. गिरिजाप्रसाद
Nepalese
Terms and Definitions
EAL - ENGLISH AS AN ADDITIONAL
LANGUAGE
BME - BLACK MINORITY ETHNIC
ASR L1 -
ASYLUM SEEKER/REFUGEE
FIRST LANGUAGE
Children of
medical staff at
Derriford
Children of
students at the
university
Refugees and
asylum
seekers
Children of mixed
nationality
marriages
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EAL Pupils in
Plymouth
Schools
Children of
established
ethnic minority
communities
in Plymouth
Children of EU
Nationals
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Whatever their diverse backgrounds, they share a
common and 'distinctive task' which is to 'catch up'
with a moving target by learning an additional
language whilst simultaneously learning National
Curriculum content, skills and concepts
Despite continuing and increasing global mobility,
there is very little systematised provision to support
learners in this task
There is no 'national curriculum' for English as an
additional language, nor a distinct national
assessment system
Barriers To Learning For EAL Students
CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS
OF GIRLS AND BOYS
School
Family
LACK OF BI-LINGUAL
RESOURCES
Educational
Setting
Child or Young
Person
Wider
World
EXPERIENCE OF
TRAUMATIC EVENTS
Community
LIMITED ACCESS TO
ACTIVITIES AND FACILITIES
BARRIERS TO LEARNING FOR EAL STUDENTS
FAMILY
�LOSS’ OF A FAMILY MEMBER
п‚· LACK OF EXTENDED FAMILY
п‚· CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS OF GIRLS AND BOYS
п‚· ASPIRATIONS OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS
п‚· MIXED DISCIPLINARY APPROACHES
п‚· LACK OF FATHER OR AUTHORITY FIGURE
п‚· LACK OF MOTIVATION
SCHOOL OR
EDUCATIONAL п‚· LOW SELF-ESTEEM
п‚· LACK OF BI-LINGUAL RESOURCES
SETTING
 PRIOR EDUCATION (ZERO – HERO!)
WIDER WORLD п‚· LACK OF POSITIVE ROLE MODELS
п‚· RACISM / ISLAMAPHOBIA
п‚· EXPERIENCE OF TRAUMATIC EVENTS
п‚· NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TOWARDS MIGRANT WORKERS
п‚· MEDIA CONSTRUCTED IMAGE OF COUNTRIES
п‚· LENGTHY AND ONGOING ASYLUM CLAIMS
COMMUNITY
п‚· LIMITED ACCESS TO ACTIVITIES AND FACILITIES
 CULTURE OR �IDENTITY’ CRISIS
п‚· POOR HOUSING
п‚· ANXIETY AROUND AUTHORITY FIGURES
It will be helpful to know this information
about EAL pupils in your classroom.
• Country of Origin
• First Language
• Other Languages Spoken in Family
• Immigration Status
• Number of Years in the UK
• Religion
• Education History
• Ethnicity
A number of factors will have an impact on the
development of pupils' language skills and their ability
to apply these skills to their learning across the
curriculum:
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the age at which pupils enter the educational system
their previous experience of schooling and literacy in
their first language;
their knowledge, skills and understanding of
languages and the school curriculum;
home and community expectations and understanding
of the education system;
support structures for learning and language
development at home and at school
EAL students are not a homogeneous group.
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Some pupils are born in the UK but enter school speaking little or
no English and have limited or no experience of literacy in their
first language.
Some pupils are born in the UK but enter school speaking little or
no English. However, they have some experience of literacy in
their first languages.
Some pupils arrive between the ages of 5 and 16 without literacy
or oracy skills in English but with age equivalent skills in literacy
and oracy in their first languages, and sometimes in other
languages as well.
Some pupils enter the school system between the ages of 5 and
16 without literacy or oracy skills in English and with limited or no
literacy skills in their first language due to disrupted schooling.
In addition, some pupils have suffered emotional and
psychological stress as a result of family loss or social and
economic disruption to their lives in their countries of origin.
There are steps involved in
learning a new language.
The stages in learning a new language
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Listening and absorbing. (Silent Period)
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Responding to instructions.
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Imitating and copying.
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Trying out ВЅ word phrases.
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Naming words.
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Action words.
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Putting names and actions together.
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Trying out whole sentences with mistakes.
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Correcting mistakes themselves.
How Long Does It Take ?
• 1-2 years for BICS ( basic
interpersonal communication skills) –
context embedded
• 5-7 years for CALPS (cognitive academic
language proficiency) – context reduced
Ref: Jim Cummins (1984) Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Teaching New Language
When learning new words, EAL pupils need to:
See them
Hear them
Read them
Write them
Put them in a sentence
Revise them
Use them in another context
According to Krashen three conditions are
necessary to promote language acquisition
Comprehensible input
where meaning is made clear through the use of
context clues (body language, visual support).
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A stress-free environment
where the learner is able to take risks and learn
from mistakes as well as successes.
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The right to be silent
where the learner is allowed time to listen and
tune in to the language before attempting to
speak
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Instant Support Strategies
Draw pictures
Highlight key
part of sentence
structure
Label diagrams
Use the
internet Provide
opportunities
to practise key
words in
different
contexts.
Explain,
model
language
Listen attentively
to the child
Simplify text and
focus on key words
Develop bi-lingual
key vocabulary lists
Pre-teach key
words and give
them emphasis
through voice tone
Translate
Use a bilingual
or picture
dictionary
Use visual
aids
Make eye contact
Give time to plan and to talk
Cue them in
GEORGE
Help them sequence
Check understanding
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Filling in gaps in sentences (cloze activities).
Labelling: diagrams, sketches and pictures in English
and/or first language.
Sorting: listing key words in alphabetical order; writing �true’
or �false’ about a sentence.
Sequencing: sketches/drawings and key words/sentences.
Copying key sentences that contain the main ideas of the
lesson. For example, the five key points of the lesson.
Dictionary exercises using both English and dual
language dictionaries.
Matching activities: sentence halves; sketches/drawings
with words and phrases; key words and definitions.
Copying key words from the board or a prepared sheet of
key words and phrases to translate and refer to.
Re-ordering sentences based on topic.
Compiling a picture glossary of vocabulary related to the
subject.
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Bilingualism is an asset.
The first language is key to an EAL pupil’s identity,
learning and acquiring an additional language.
Cognitive challenge can and should be kept
appropriately high through the provision of linguistic and
contextual support.
Language acquisition goes hand in hand with cognitive
and academic development with an inclusive curriculum
as the context.
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