Supporting Students With English As An Additional Language Produced as part of the Partnership Development Schools (PDS) Strategy Phase 3 2008-09 (Lead PDS: The Park Community School. Contact Chris Ley (firstname.lastname@example.org) AIMS вЂў To consider the factors affecting students from different countries вЂў To extend the knowledge of strategies to support EAL students вЂўTo gain a basic understanding of language acquisition 1. BEM - VINDOS Portuguese 2. WILLKOMMEN German 3. вЂ«Ш±ШШЁвЂ¬. Arabic 4. а¦Єа§Ќа¦°а§‡а¦ёа¦їа¦Ўа§‡а¦Ёа§Ќа¦џ 5. hoЕџ geldiniz Bengali Turkish 6. ж¬ўиїЋ Chinese 7. а¤ёа¤ѕа¤‡а¤®а¤‚а¤ЎаҐЌа¤ё Hindi 8. вЂ«ЩѕШ§Ъ©ШіШЄШ§Щ†вЂ¬ Urdu 9. вЂ«Щ‡Щ„Щ…Щ†ШЇвЂ¬ Farsi 10. а¤—а¤їа¤°а¤їа¤ња¤ѕа¤ЄаҐЌа¤°а¤ёа¤ѕа¤¦ Nepalese Terms and Definitions EAL - ENGLISH AS AN ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE BME - BLACK MINORITY ETHNIC ASR L1 - ASYLUM SEEKER/REFUGEE FIRST LANGUAGE Children of medical staff at Derriford Children of students at the university Refugees and asylum seekers Children of mixed nationality marriages пЃЅ EAL Pupils in Plymouth Schools Children of established ethnic minority communities in Plymouth Children of EU Nationals пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ Whatever their diverse backgrounds, they share a common and 'distinctive task' which is to 'catch up' with a moving target by learning an additional language whilst simultaneously learning National Curriculum content, skills and concepts Despite continuing and increasing global mobility, there is very little systematised provision to support learners in this task There is no 'national curriculum' for English as an additional language, nor a distinct national assessment system Barriers To Learning For EAL Students CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS OF GIRLS AND BOYS School Family LACK OF BI-LINGUAL RESOURCES Educational Setting Child or Young Person Wider World EXPERIENCE OF TRAUMATIC EVENTS Community LIMITED ACCESS TO ACTIVITIES AND FACILITIES BARRIERS TO LEARNING FOR EAL STUDENTS FAMILY п‚·вЂ�LOSSвЂ™ OF A FAMILY MEMBER п‚· LACK OF EXTENDED FAMILY п‚· CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS OF GIRLS AND BOYS п‚· ASPIRATIONS OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS п‚· MIXED DISCIPLINARY APPROACHES п‚· LACK OF FATHER OR AUTHORITY FIGURE п‚· LACK OF MOTIVATION SCHOOL OR EDUCATIONAL п‚· LOW SELF-ESTEEM п‚· LACK OF BI-LINGUAL RESOURCES SETTING п‚· PRIOR EDUCATION (ZERO вЂ“ HERO!) WIDER WORLD п‚· LACK OF POSITIVE ROLE MODELS п‚· RACISM / ISLAMAPHOBIA п‚· EXPERIENCE OF TRAUMATIC EVENTS п‚· NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TOWARDS MIGRANT WORKERS п‚· MEDIA CONSTRUCTED IMAGE OF COUNTRIES п‚· LENGTHY AND ONGOING ASYLUM CLAIMS COMMUNITY п‚· LIMITED ACCESS TO ACTIVITIES AND FACILITIES п‚· CULTURE OR вЂ�IDENTITYвЂ™ CRISIS п‚· POOR HOUSING п‚· ANXIETY AROUND AUTHORITY FIGURES It will be helpful to know this information about EAL pupils in your classroom. вЂў Country of Origin вЂў First Language вЂў Other Languages Spoken in Family вЂў Immigration Status вЂў Number of Years in the UK вЂў Religion вЂў Education History вЂў Ethnicity A number of factors will have an impact on the development of pupils' language skills and their ability to apply these skills to their learning across the curriculum: пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ the age at which pupils enter the educational system their previous experience of schooling and literacy in their first language; their knowledge, skills and understanding of languages and the school curriculum; home and community expectations and understanding of the education system; support structures for learning and language development at home and at school EAL students are not a homogeneous group. пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ Some pupils are born in the UK but enter school speaking little or no English and have limited or no experience of literacy in their first language. Some pupils are born in the UK but enter school speaking little or no English. However, they have some experience of literacy in their first languages. Some pupils arrive between the ages of 5 and 16 without literacy or oracy skills in English but with age equivalent skills in literacy and oracy in their first languages, and sometimes in other languages as well. Some pupils enter the school system between the ages of 5 and 16 without literacy or oracy skills in English and with limited or no literacy skills in their first language due to disrupted schooling. In addition, some pupils have suffered emotional and psychological stress as a result of family loss or social and economic disruption to their lives in their countries of origin. There are steps involved in learning a new language. The stages in learning a new language пЃЅ Listening and absorbing. (Silent Period) пЃЅ Responding to instructions. пЃЅ Imitating and copying. пЃЅ Trying out ВЅ word phrases. пЃЅ Naming words. пЃЅ Action words. пЃЅ Putting names and actions together. пЃЅ Trying out whole sentences with mistakes. пЃЅ Correcting mistakes themselves. How Long Does It Take ? вЂў 1-2 years for BICS ( basic interpersonal communication skills) вЂ“ context embedded вЂў 5-7 years for CALPS (cognitive academic language proficiency) вЂ“ context reduced Ref: Jim Cummins (1984) Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Teaching New Language When learning new words, EAL pupils need to: See them Hear them Read them Write them Put them in a sentence Revise them Use them in another context According to Krashen three conditions are necessary to promote language acquisition Comprehensible input where meaning is made clear through the use of context clues (body language, visual support). пЃЅ A stress-free environment where the learner is able to take risks and learn from mistakes as well as successes. пЃЅ The right to be silent where the learner is allowed time to listen and tune in to the language before attempting to speak пЃЅ Instant Support Strategies Draw pictures Highlight key part of sentence structure Label diagrams Use the internet Provide opportunities to practise key words in different contexts. Explain, model language Listen attentively to the child Simplify text and focus on key words Develop bi-lingual key vocabulary lists Pre-teach key words and give them emphasis through voice tone Translate Use a bilingual or picture dictionary Use visual aids Make eye contact Give time to plan and to talk Cue them in GEORGE Help them sequence Check understanding пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ Filling in gaps in sentences (cloze activities). Labelling: diagrams, sketches and pictures in English and/or first language. Sorting: listing key words in alphabetical order; writing вЂ�trueвЂ™ or вЂ�falseвЂ™ about a sentence. Sequencing: sketches/drawings and key words/sentences. Copying key sentences that contain the main ideas of the lesson. For example, the five key points of the lesson. Dictionary exercises using both English and dual language dictionaries. Matching activities: sentence halves; sketches/drawings with words and phrases; key words and definitions. Copying key words from the board or a prepared sheet of key words and phrases to translate and refer to. Re-ordering sentences based on topic. Compiling a picture glossary of vocabulary related to the subject. пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ Bilingualism is an asset. The first language is key to an EAL pupilвЂ™s identity, learning and acquiring an additional language. Cognitive challenge can and should be kept appropriately high through the provision of linguistic and contextual support. Language acquisition goes hand in hand with cognitive and academic development with an inclusive curriculum as the context.