Causes of the Industrial Revolution Agrarian Revolution вЂў The Dutch learned ways to optimize land. Built dikes to claim land from the sea. вЂў British farmers mixed different soils, which increased crop yield. вЂ“ The seed drill by Jethro Tull put seeds in rows. Result: Better Food Production Population Explosion вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Great Britain from 5 to 9 million people. France from 18 to 26 million people. Europe as a whole 120 to 190 million. Cause вЂ“ There was more of a decrease in death rates than a rise in birth rate. вЂ“ This happened because diseases declined making for healthier children. Result: More Demand for Goods Energy Revolution вЂў Harnessed new forms of energy. вЂў Coal power used to develop steam power. Result: Faster Production of Goods WhatвЂ™s Next Industrial Revolution вЂў Great Britain вЂў Factors of Production вЂ“ Natural Resources вЂў Coal & Iron вЂ“ Human Resources вЂў People to mine, build factories, due to population boom. вЂ“ New Technologies вЂ“ Economic Conditions вЂў Trade overseas, capital, mines, railroads, factories, large demand for goods. вЂ“ Political & Social Conditions вЂў Stable government and strong navy protected trade. Agricultural Revolution allowed the Industrial Revolution to occur. Industrial Revolution ContвЂ¦ вЂў Enclosure Movement вЂ“ Fencing off land formerly shared by peasants, used as pasture land for sheep (wool). вЂў New Technologies вЂ“ Enlightenment thinkers promoted progress in technology (seed drill, larger fields, encyclopedia), however technology was an effect of the Industrial Revolution not a cause. вЂў Better Farming Methods вЂ“ Built earthen walls, dykes to reclaim land from the sea, mixed soils, better homes. Domestic System V. Factory System вЂў The Old Way вЂў Production done at home by individuals. вЂў The New Way вЂў Could produce much more due to increase in population. вЂў Goods made by workers and machines in a factory. Power, Transportation & Communication вЂў Water power replaced by steam power. This increased demand for coal and iron. вЂў As factories and production increased faster and cheaper ways to move goods were needed. вЂ“ Turnpikes вЂ“ privately built roads. вЂ“ Steam locomotive made it possible for railroad travel. вЂ“ Steam boats invented by Robert Fulton went 5 miles per hour. Renewed interest in imperialism вЂў Industrialization strengthened economies and renewed confidence in Europe. вЂў Results вЂ“ Countries needed more materials. вЂ“ Wanted to expand markets. вЂ“ Needs parts around the world for supplies. вЂ“ Outlet for a growing population. вЂ“ Nationalism and national security. Lifestyle Changes вЂў New Social Structure вЂ“ Wealthy & Middle Class lived in pleasant neighborhoods. вЂ“ New urban population was very secluded and lived in slums. вЂў No light, no sanitation, disease spread. вЂ“ People migrated from farms to cities. вЂ“ Huge population increase. Growth of Cities вЂў Rapid Urbanization вЂ“ Movement from farms to cities because of jobs. вЂ“ There were rich nice neighborhoods, but also poor living with terrible conditions. Working Conditions in the Factories вЂў 12 to 16 hour workdays, caused accidents. вЂў Miners, short lives due to fumes. вЂў Sick or injured workers were fined. вЂў Women were expected to hold jobs and take care of the family. вЂў Child labor needed for families to survive. вЂ“ Children were accepted by factories who needed small workers. Adam Smith вЂў Author of The Wealth of Nations. вЂ“ Law of Supply and Demand вЂў Supply affects demand вЂ“ Supply increases, Demand decreases. вЂ“ Supply decreases, Demand increases. вЂ“ Law of Competition вЂў Competition will increase quality decrease price. вЂ“ Free Enterprise вЂў Unregulated exchange of goods & services believed to be good for everyone, not just the rich. вЂ“ Laissez-Faire вЂњhands-offвЂќ вЂў Felt natural progression should be allowed to happen without interference; the middle class embraced the idea. Karl Marx вЂў Wrote The Communist Manifesto with Friederich Engels. вЂ“ Class Struggle вЂў Have V. Have Nots вЂ“ Haves always owned the means of production, controlling society & wealth. вЂ“ Haves were middle class. вЂ“ Proletariat were the have nots or working class. Karl Marx вЂў Haves and Have Nots continuedвЂ¦ вЂ“ Violent Revolution вЂў Have nots fighting back against haves for their share. вЂ“ Classless Society вЂў Struggles of the past end as wealth & power is shared. вЂ“ Marx believed this revolution would take place in an industrialized society first, but instead it took place in an agrarian society. Karl Marx, and governments created by his manifesto Socialism People as a whole, instead of individuals owned & operated the means of production. Utopian Socialism Goal of society should be the happiness of its people . Democratic Socialism Socialism within the democratic system вЂ“ with a legislature parliamentary government that provides certain economic benefits for their citizens. Communism (Marxism) (Authoritarian Socialism) Have nots could overthrow the haves setting up a classless society where power would be shared equally. New Industrial Powers вЂў Who caught up? вЂ“ Belgium, Germany, France & the U.S. вЂў How? вЂ“ These countries had a more abundant supply of coal, iron & other resources than Britain. вЂў Specific Examples вЂ“ Russia did not industrialize because of political and social conditions. вЂ“ Germany was the most industrialized by 1900. вЂ“ The U.S. was most industrialized worldwide. New Technologies вЂў Interchangeable Parts вЂ“ Could be used with other products, easier to repair and assemble. вЂў Assembly Line вЂ“ Making products faster and cheaper. вЂў Steel вЂ“ Harder & more durable than iron. вЂў Other Inventions вЂ“ Aspirin, perfumes, margarine, dynamite. вЂў Electricity вЂ“ Developed in the late 1800вЂ™s. вЂў Thomas Edison вЂ“ 1st electric light bulb in the 1870вЂ™s. вЂў 1890вЂ™s electricity took over for steam. The World becomes smaller вЂў Railroad вЂ“ Connect inland cities to seaports. вЂў Steam Boats вЂ“ Replaced sailing ships. вЂў Automobile вЂ“ Nikolaus OttoвЂ™s internal combustion engine. вЂў Communication вЂ“ Telegraph and radio. Big Business/Regulations вЂў Large Businesses increased вЂў Corporations вЂ“ businesses owned by many investors who buy shares or stock. вЂў This moved industries toward monopolies. вЂў Laws put into place to prevent monopolies & regulate large corporations. вЂў Why? вЂ“ Monopolies hurt competition. Reforms вЂў Working Conditions вЂ“ Workers began to protest low wages, long hours and the fact that strikes and unions were illegal. вЂ“ Germany вЂў Unions legalized first in 1869. вЂў Reduced workday вЂ“ coal mining 8 hr. days. вЂ“ Great Britain вЂў Factory Act 1833 вЂ“ 9-12 year olds no more than 8 hour work day, 17 year old no more than 12. вЂў 1842 Miners Act вЂ“ Women & Children no longer could work underground. Reforms вЂў City Life вЂ“ Improvements made: sewers, sidewalks, skyscrapers (steel allows this). вЂ“ Reduced disease cut death rates. вЂ“ Crime and alcoholism were a problem. вЂ“ Poor were crowded creating slums. вЂў Government вЂ“ Made unions legal, and most countries made all men eligible to vote. Reforms вЂў Rights of Women вЂ“ Still fighting restrictions such as: could not vote, barred from most schools, little or no protection from law, father or husband controlled her property. вЂ“ In the later 1800s women got suffrage. вЂў The Growth of Schools вЂ“ Late 1800s public schools created, included high school as education improved. вЂ“ Universities expanded, but predominately attended by the wealthy. Social Darwinism вЂў Survival of the fittest. вЂ“ Applied to business and competition. вЂ“ Led to Racism, claiming that the countries did well due to the white race. вЂў Led to such ideologies as Nazism and Fascism. Romanticism вЂў Writers, artists and composers who rebelled against Enlightenemnt lessons. вЂ“ Examples: The Hunchback of Notre Dame & The Three Muskateers. вЂ“ Emphasized human emotion and imagination over reason. Realism & Impressionism вЂў Realism - Attempted to represent the world as it was, looking at the harsher side of life. вЂ“ Oliver Twist: Story of nine year old orphan. вЂ“ A DollвЂ™s House: Described as a feminist novel, Nora is caught in straight jacket of social rules. вЂў Impressionism вЂ“ Creating visuals on objects in different lights, this created what appeared to be a completely different visual. вЂ“ Monet, Degas led to post-impressionists Van Gogh & Gauguin.