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Causes of the Industrial Revolution

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Causes of the Industrial
Revolution
Agrarian Revolution
• The Dutch learned ways to optimize
land. Built dikes to claim land from the
sea.
• British farmers mixed different soils,
which increased crop yield.
– The seed drill by Jethro Tull put seeds in
rows.
Result: Better Food Production
Population Explosion
•
•
•
•
Great Britain from 5 to 9 million people.
France from 18 to 26 million people.
Europe as a whole 120 to 190 million.
Cause
– There was more of a decrease in death rates
than a rise in birth rate.
– This happened because diseases declined
making for healthier children.
Result: More Demand for Goods
Energy Revolution
• Harnessed new forms of energy.
• Coal power used to develop steam power.
Result: Faster Production of Goods
What’s Next
Industrial Revolution
• Great Britain
• Factors of Production
– Natural Resources
• Coal & Iron
– Human Resources
• People to mine, build factories, due to population boom.
– New Technologies
– Economic Conditions
• Trade overseas, capital, mines, railroads, factories, large
demand for goods.
– Political & Social Conditions
• Stable government and strong navy protected trade.
Agricultural Revolution allowed the Industrial Revolution to occur.
Industrial Revolution Cont…
• Enclosure Movement – Fencing off land formerly
shared by peasants, used as pasture land for
sheep (wool).
• New Technologies – Enlightenment thinkers
promoted progress in technology (seed drill,
larger fields, encyclopedia), however technology
was an effect of the Industrial Revolution not a
cause.
• Better Farming Methods – Built earthen walls,
dykes to reclaim land from the sea, mixed soils,
better homes.
Domestic System V. Factory System
• The Old Way
• Production done at
home by individuals.
• The New Way
• Could produce much
more due to increase
in population.
• Goods made by
workers and
machines in a factory.
Power, Transportation &
Communication
• Water power replaced by steam power. This
increased demand for coal and iron.
• As factories and production increased faster and
cheaper ways to move goods were needed.
– Turnpikes – privately built roads.
– Steam locomotive made it possible for railroad travel.
– Steam boats invented by Robert Fulton went 5 miles
per hour.
Renewed interest in imperialism
• Industrialization strengthened economies
and renewed confidence in Europe.
• Results
– Countries needed more materials.
– Wanted to expand markets.
– Needs parts around the world for supplies.
– Outlet for a growing population.
– Nationalism and national security.
Lifestyle Changes
• New Social Structure
– Wealthy & Middle Class lived in
pleasant neighborhoods.
– New urban population was very
secluded and lived in slums.
• No light, no sanitation, disease spread.
– People migrated from farms to cities.
– Huge population increase.
Growth of Cities
• Rapid Urbanization
– Movement from farms to cities because of
jobs.
– There were rich nice neighborhoods, but also
poor living with terrible conditions.
Working Conditions in the Factories
• 12 to 16 hour workdays, caused
accidents.
• Miners, short lives due to fumes.
• Sick or injured workers were
fined.
• Women were expected to hold
jobs and take care of the family.
• Child labor needed for families to
survive.
– Children were accepted by factories
who needed small workers.
Adam Smith
• Author of The Wealth of Nations.
– Law of Supply and Demand
• Supply affects demand
– Supply increases, Demand decreases.
– Supply decreases, Demand increases.
– Law of Competition
• Competition will increase quality decrease price.
– Free Enterprise
• Unregulated exchange of goods & services
believed to be good for everyone, not just the
rich.
– Laissez-Faire “hands-off”
• Felt natural progression should be allowed to
happen without interference; the middle class
embraced the idea.
Karl Marx
• Wrote The Communist Manifesto
with Friederich Engels.
– Class Struggle
• Have V. Have Nots
– Haves always owned the means of
production, controlling society & wealth.
– Haves were middle class.
– Proletariat were the have nots or
working class.
Karl Marx
• Haves and Have Nots continued…
– Violent Revolution
• Have nots fighting back against haves for their
share.
– Classless Society
• Struggles of the past end as wealth & power is
shared.
– Marx believed this revolution would take place
in an industrialized society first, but instead it
took place in an agrarian society.
Karl Marx, and governments
created by his manifesto
Socialism
People as a whole,
instead of individuals owned
& operated the means
of production.
Utopian Socialism
Goal of society should
be the happiness of
its people .
Democratic Socialism
Socialism within the democratic
system – with a legislature
parliamentary government that
provides certain economic
benefits for their citizens.
Communism (Marxism)
(Authoritarian Socialism)
Have nots could overthrow the haves
setting up a classless society where
power would be shared equally.
New Industrial Powers
• Who caught up?
– Belgium, Germany, France & the U.S.
• How?
– These countries had a more abundant supply of coal,
iron & other resources than Britain.
• Specific Examples
– Russia did not industrialize because of political and
social conditions.
– Germany was the most industrialized by 1900.
– The U.S. was most industrialized worldwide.
New Technologies
• Interchangeable Parts
– Could be used with other products, easier to repair and
assemble.
• Assembly Line
– Making products faster and cheaper.
• Steel
– Harder & more durable than iron.
• Other Inventions
– Aspirin, perfumes, margarine, dynamite.
• Electricity
– Developed in the late 1800’s.
• Thomas Edison – 1st electric light bulb in the 1870’s.
• 1890’s electricity took over for steam.
The World becomes smaller
• Railroad
– Connect inland cities to seaports.
• Steam Boats
– Replaced sailing ships.
• Automobile
– Nikolaus Otto’s internal combustion
engine.
• Communication
– Telegraph and radio.
Big Business/Regulations
• Large Businesses
increased
• Corporations –
businesses owned by
many investors who
buy shares or stock.
• This moved industries
toward monopolies.
• Laws put into place to
prevent monopolies &
regulate large
corporations.
• Why?
– Monopolies hurt
competition.
Reforms
• Working Conditions
– Workers began to protest low wages, long hours and
the fact that strikes and unions were illegal.
– Germany
• Unions legalized first in 1869.
• Reduced workday – coal mining 8 hr. days.
– Great Britain
• Factory Act 1833
– 9-12 year olds no more than 8 hour work day, 17 year old no
more than 12.
• 1842 Miners Act
– Women & Children no longer could work underground.
Reforms
• City Life
– Improvements made: sewers, sidewalks,
skyscrapers (steel allows this).
– Reduced disease cut death rates.
– Crime and alcoholism were a problem.
– Poor were crowded creating slums.
• Government
– Made unions legal, and most countries made
all men eligible to vote.
Reforms
• Rights of Women
– Still fighting restrictions such as: could not
vote, barred from most schools, little or no
protection from law, father or husband
controlled her property.
– In the later 1800s women got suffrage.
• The Growth of Schools
– Late 1800s public schools created, included
high school as education improved.
– Universities expanded, but predominately
attended by the wealthy.
Social Darwinism
• Survival of the fittest.
– Applied to business and
competition.
– Led to Racism, claiming that
the countries did well due to the
white race.
• Led to such ideologies as Nazism
and Fascism.
Romanticism
• Writers, artists and composers who
rebelled against Enlightenemnt lessons.
– Examples: The Hunchback of Notre Dame &
The Three Muskateers.
– Emphasized human emotion and imagination
over reason.
Realism & Impressionism
• Realism - Attempted to represent the world as it
was, looking at the harsher side of life.
– Oliver Twist: Story of nine year old orphan.
– A Doll’s House: Described as a feminist novel, Nora is
caught in straight jacket of social rules.
• Impressionism – Creating visuals on objects in
different lights, this created what appeared to be
a completely different visual.
– Monet, Degas led to post-impressionists Van Gogh &
Gauguin.
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