The American Nation Chapter 5 вЂ“ Section 1 The French and Indian War Crisis in the Colonies, 1745вЂ“ 1775 Copyright В© 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. The French and Indian War Chapter 5, Section 1 вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Objectives to learn: How did the rivalry of Britain and France lead to war in North America? How did lack of unity and mistakes lead to British defeats early in the war? What turned the tide of war in BritainвЂ™s favor? How did British troops bring about the fall of New France? I. Rivalry Between Britain and France Leads to War Chapter 5, Section 1 A. European powers competed for trade and colonies around the globe. B. France and England both claimed land in North America. C. English settlers pushing westward clashed with French fur traders in the Ohio Valley. D. French wanted to maintain control of the Ohio River E. Native Americans were caught up in the conflict. Algonquins and Hurons sided with the French. Iroquois supported the English. F. In 1754, France and Great Britain began to fight in the Ohio River Valley. English settlers called the fight against France and their Indian allies the French and Indian War. II. How Britain Almost Lost the War Chapter 5, Section 1 Event What Happened Results Albany Plan of Union To get the colonists to work together to defeat the French, Ben Franklin proposed this plan for вЂњone general governmentвЂќ for the 13 colonies. The colonial assemblies turned the plan down. Fort Necessity (April 1954) Washington launched a surprise attack against the French. French and Indian forces outnumbered WashingtonвЂ™s forces. Washington surrendered. Fort Duquesne General Braddock led British and colonial troops toward Fort Duquesne. The French launched a surprise attack and defeated BraddockвЂ™s troops. Fort Oswego, Fort William Henry The French succeeded in capturing these forts. BritainвЂ™s Indian allies began to doubt the British. III. How Great Britain Won the War Chapter 5, Section 1 Who or What What Happened Results William Pitt Pitt became the new head of the British government (Prime Minister) in 1757. PittвЂ™s first goal was to win the war in North America. Pitt sent his best generals, money, and supplies to North America. Louisbourg Major General Amherst captured the fort in 1758. With the capture of the most important French fort in Canada, the tide of battle turned. Fort Duquesne The British seized it in 1758. Fort Duquesne became Fort Pitt. Fort Niagra, Crown Point, Fort Ticonderoga The British seized them in 1759. Added to British success. Quebec, important capital city of New France sat on Plains of Abraham overlooking the St. Lawrence River In the dark, British troops led by General James Wolfe quietly climbed the cliff and surprised the French under command of Marquis de Montcalm The British and French troops fought on the Plains of Abraham, outside the city of Quebec. The British won. Quebec surrendered on Sept. 18, 1759. Pictures of the French-Indian War (Seven Year War) Pictures of the Battle of Quebec III. How Great Britain Won the War Chapter 5, Section 1 IV. The Treaty of Paris Chapter 5, Section 1 A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. Britain and France signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The treaty marked the end of French power in North America. Britain gained Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans. France kept two islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. France kept some sugar-growing islands in the West Indies. Spain gave up Florida to Britain. Spain received New Orleans and all French land west of the Mississippi. Spain kept its empire in Central and South America. IV. The Treaty of Paris Chapter 5, Section 1 Exit Ticket What was the most important outcome of the French and Indian War? A. France surrendered its colonial territory in B. Britain surrendered its colonial territory in C. Spain surrendered its colonial territory in D. Native Americans were driven from Section 1 Assessment Chapter 5, Section 1 In North America, the French and the English clashed over a) land claims and fur trade. b) which Native Americans would be their allies. c) clearing the forests. d) rights to the Mississippi River. As a result of the French and Indian War a) the Iroquois deserted the British. b) the city of Pittsburgh grew up. c) France lost its empire in North America. d) France controlled shipping on the St. Lawrence River. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here. Section 1 Assessment Chapter 5, Section 1 In North America, the French and the English clashed over a) land claims and fur trade. b) which Native Americans would be their allies. c) clearing the forests. d) rights to the Mississippi River. As a result of the French and Indian War a) the Iroquois deserted the British. b) the city of Pittsburgh grew up. c) France lost its empire in North America. d) France controlled shipping on the St. Lawrence River. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.