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The American Nation
Chapter 5 – Section 1
The French and Indian War
Crisis in the Colonies, 1745–
1775
Copyright В© 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
The French and Indian War
Chapter 5, Section 1
•
•
•
•
Objectives to learn:
How did the rivalry of Britain and France lead to war
in North America?
How did lack of unity and mistakes lead to British
defeats early in the war?
What turned the tide of war in Britain’s favor?
How did British troops bring about the fall of New
France?
I. Rivalry Between Britain and France Leads to
War
Chapter 5, Section 1
A. European powers competed for trade and colonies
around the globe.
B. France and England both claimed land in North
America.
C. English settlers pushing westward clashed with
French fur traders in the Ohio Valley.
D. French wanted to maintain control of the Ohio River
E. Native Americans were caught up in the conflict.
Algonquins and Hurons sided with the French.
Iroquois supported the English.
F. In 1754, France and Great Britain began to fight in the
Ohio River Valley. English settlers called the fight
against France and their Indian allies the French and
Indian War.
II. How Britain Almost Lost the War
Chapter 5, Section 1
Event
What Happened
Results
Albany Plan of
Union
To get the colonists to work together
to defeat the French, Ben Franklin
proposed this plan for “one general
government” for the 13 colonies.
The colonial assemblies turned the
plan down.
Fort Necessity
(April 1954)
Washington launched a surprise
attack against the French.
French and Indian forces
outnumbered Washington’s forces.
Washington surrendered.
Fort Duquesne
General Braddock led British and
colonial troops toward Fort
Duquesne.
The French launched a surprise
attack and defeated Braddock’s
troops.
Fort Oswego,
Fort William
Henry
The French succeeded in capturing
these forts.
Britain’s Indian allies began to doubt
the British.
III. How Great Britain Won the War
Chapter 5, Section 1
Who or What
What Happened
Results
William Pitt
Pitt became the new head of the British
government (Prime Minister) in 1757. Pitt’s
first goal was to win the war in North
America.
Pitt sent his best generals, money,
and supplies to North America.
Louisbourg
Major General Amherst captured the
fort in 1758.
With the capture of the most
important French fort in Canada, the
tide of battle turned.
Fort Duquesne
The British seized it in 1758.
Fort Duquesne became Fort Pitt.
Fort Niagra,
Crown Point,
Fort
Ticonderoga
The British seized them in 1759.
Added to British success.
Quebec, important
capital city of New
France sat on
Plains of Abraham
overlooking the St.
Lawrence River
In the dark, British troops led by
General James Wolfe quietly
climbed the cliff and surprised the
French under command of Marquis
de Montcalm
The British and French troops
fought on the Plains of Abraham,
outside the city of Quebec. The
British won. Quebec surrendered on
Sept. 18, 1759.
Pictures of the French-Indian War (Seven Year
War)
Pictures of the Battle of Quebec
III. How Great Britain Won the War
Chapter 5, Section 1
IV. The Treaty of Paris
Chapter 5, Section 1
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
Britain and France signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763.
The treaty marked the end of French power in North America.
Britain gained Canada and all French lands east of the
Mississippi River except New Orleans.
France kept two islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
France kept some sugar-growing islands in the West Indies.
Spain gave up Florida to Britain.
Spain received New Orleans and all French land west of the
Mississippi.
Spain kept its empire in Central and South America.
IV. The Treaty of Paris
Chapter 5, Section 1
Exit Ticket
What was the most important outcome of the French and Indian
War?
A. France surrendered its colonial territory in
B. Britain surrendered its colonial territory in
C. Spain surrendered its colonial territory in
D. Native Americans were driven from
Section 1 Assessment
Chapter 5, Section 1
In North America, the French and the English clashed over
a) land claims and fur trade.
b) which Native Americans would be their allies.
c) clearing the forests.
d) rights to the Mississippi River.
As a result of the French and Indian War
a) the Iroquois deserted the British.
b) the city of Pittsburgh grew up.
c) France lost its empire in North America.
d) France controlled shipping on the St. Lawrence River.
Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
Section 1 Assessment
Chapter 5, Section 1
In North America, the French and the English clashed over
a) land claims and fur trade.
b) which Native Americans would be their allies.
c) clearing the forests.
d) rights to the Mississippi River.
As a result of the French and Indian War
a) the Iroquois deserted the British.
b) the city of Pittsburgh grew up.
c) France lost its empire in North America.
d) France controlled shipping on the St. Lawrence River.
Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
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