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The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain

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Industrialization Takes off
• Textiles marketed around the world. British
goods heavily demanded around the world, but
especially in North and South America.
• The British textile industry helped Great Britain
take the lead in banking, new industrial
development. Other industries ship building,
china, ironmaking, and other finished goods.
• Coke was replacing charcoal in iron and steel
• The Urbanization of Europe about 25% lived in
towns in western Europe. Irish potato famine.
• Many Canals built 1750-1850.
Railroads and Steamboats
• 1814 George Stephenson perfected a locomotive,
(The Rocket)- 29 mph.
• Stockton and Darlington Line opened in 1825,
Manchester too Liverpool opened in 1830.
• The investment in infrastructure and capital
goods left consumer goods in short supply.
• Proletarianization of the workers loss of the
ownership of the means of production.
• Robert Fulton perfected the steamboat ( The
• The Cunard line built. Steam ships of iron and
• The Communications Revolution Volta - the
Battery, Marconi - radio, Morse - telegraph.
The Spread of Industry
• Many industries began to follow a practice called
confection or making standard sizes in mass
quantities. Standard sizes and styles were mass
• Confection made the production of goods a more
impersonal task. Workers only made or produced
a portion of the final product.
• In the Mid-1820s children and women began
working in the factories. They could be
intimidated and paid lower wages then adult
• Wages for skilled men went up and men were
now supervising women and children that were
not part of their family. Abuses of workers
occurred prompting legislation.
The Effects of Machines on Work
• Machines allowed unskilled
workers to become productive.
• Women and children worked
for lower wages. ( Older skilled
workers became unemployed).
• Wages were paid for hours or
goods produced. Wages were
determined by supply and
• The owner of the factory owned
the means of production.
Factory Rules and Regulations
• The English Factory Act of 1833
forbade the employment of
children under the age of 9.
Children from 9 -13 could not
work more than nine hours and
must receive two hours of
• In 1847 Parliament mandated a
10 hour work day.
• The wage economy meant that
families were not as tightly
bound together as they had been.
Development of the Middle Class
• Bankers, merchants, doctors,
lawyers, became middle class.
• The middle class became
wealthy during the industrial
• Women’s role in the economy
changed to one of lesser status.
• Domestic service was a common
job for working women.
• Middle class women became
nurses, teachers, social workers.
The New Industrial Economy
Eli Whitney
• Capitalism - When the
individual controls the factors
of production.
• Commercial capitalism trading goods and services.
• Industrial capitalism production and manufacturing
of goods.
• Division of Labor - breaking
work up into steps.
• Whitney- interchangeable parts.
The Rise of the Corporation
Model T
• Mass Production - manufacturing
a large number of identical items.
• Henry Ford’s assembly line manufactured the Model T Ford.
Cheap, reliable transportation.
• Sole proprietorship - business
owned and run by one person.
partnership is owned by two or
more people.
• corporation - owners buy stock,
Board of directors, shares.
Business Cycles
• J.P. Morgan - U.S. financier who
helped create Standard Oil and
U.S. Steel.
• monopolies - control of the total
production of a good or service by
a single firm.
• cartel - a combination of
corporations set up to control a
good or service.
• Business cycle - alternating
periods of prosperity and decline.
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