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Historical Studies in Physical Education and Sport

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Historical Studies in Physical Education and Sport
Our times and our attitudes, our games and our sports are shaped by
the past.
The Development of Popular Recreation in the U.K
Popular recreation focuses on the pre-industrial sports and pastimes
particularly of the lower class. Pre industrial (before 1800) popular recreation
reflected the society life and time in which it existed.
Recreational activities were colourful and lively and supported by a strict class
system.
• Real tennis – Aristocracy
• Mob football – Peasants
• Cock fighting – Mix of the above
Popular Recreation
continued………….
• The 1800’s �drinking house’ was central to village life; the focus for leisure
-
activities (barbaric or not) for the community. Examples of activities
include:
Badger baiting
- Billiards
- Skittles
Dog fighting
- Quoits
Prize fighting
- Bowls
The landlord was the promoter of �sports’, responsibilities included:
- Arranging the matches
- Providing prize money
- Book keeping
For example: Hambledon Cricket Club
Bat and Ball Inn
Hampshire
Popular Recreation
More examples…………
Country Pursuits (field sports)
- Hunting
- Coursing (chasing hares by trained dogs for wager)
- Shooting
Hunting grew from the search for food and developed into a status symbol for
landowners. Game Laws ensured the sole right to kill game only to the
upper class (causing lasting hostility in rural areas).
Militaristic Combat activities
- Archery
- Sparring (early from of boxing)
- Fencing
Grew from the need to defend and attack. The functional role of the activities
(listed above) was removed with the availability of guns did these skills
develop into recreational and competitive sports in their own right.
Characteristics and Cultural Factors of Popular Recreation
The unsophisticated (even uncivilised) sports and pastimes of common people
were occasional rather than regular:
WHY?
Peasants had little free time for sports and pastimes
Some sports developed from the occupation of participants e.g. competitive
rowing, which grew from work of ferrymen taking passengers across the
River Thames.
Key Feature of most Popular Recreation was wagering or betting o the
outcome
Characteristics of Popular Recreation
(and cultural factors that influenced their development)
Natural/simple: Lack of technology, purpose built facilities and money for the
masses.
Local: Limited transport and communications
Simple unwritten rules: Illiteracy, no national governing bodies, only played
locally
Cruel/violent: Reflecting the harshness of eighteenth-century rural life
Occasional: Free time for recreation
Courtly/popular: Pre-industrial Britain was predominantly a two-class society
Rural: Before the Industrial Revolution, Britain was agricultural and rural
Occupational: Work often became the basis of play
Wagering: A chance to go from rags to riches
The Development of Sports Festivals
Introduction
• Sports Festivals are examples of community activities developed
•
•
•
•
over the years
Wide range of popular sports & games prior to modern sports were
the foundation for today’s rationalised athletics
Examples – Hiring Fairs and Village Wakes
Wakes originated from the time of paganism and were a great social
occasion
Fairs were opportunities for men to test their strength and virility
and included all kinds of excess e.g. drinking, blood sports and
promiscuity
The Development of Sports Festivals
Pedestrianism
• Obvious forerunner to Athletics
• Seen as enhancement for gentlemen’s social status
• Some races attracting purses of up to 1000 guineas for athletes of
•
•
•
•
•
all backgrounds
Pioneered by Scottish landowner, Robert Barclay Allardice
1809 – Crowd of c.10,000 for 1000 miles walk in 1000 consecutive
hours
Gambling became central to Pedestrianism
People in poverty could wager their way to survival
Trickery included – Professional athletes using false names and race
fixing
The Development of Sports Festivals
Task:
What traditional festivals exist in your
area today and what do they involve?
Popular Recreation - Bathing
As well as natural playground, rivers provided:
- A ready supply of food
- A means of transport
- Place to wash
With work, play and the river so inter-related, learning to swim for
safety also become a necessity.
Link: bathing, recreation, survival and health
The English aristocracy of the Middle Ages considered the ability to
swim as part of their chivalric code.
Chivalric code = gentlemanly behaviour associated with the nobility or
aristocracy.
Popular Recreation - Bathing
continued…….
Aristocrats would sometimes sponsor outstanding lower class
swimmers to represent them in wager races (link; popular
recreation characteristic – wagering).
Key Event
Charles II established a series of fashionable swimming contests on the
Thames and the 1st open air swimming bath was built in London
1784.
Popular Recreation - Rowing
Rowing: Functional activity for warfare, fishing and travel
In the days when there were few bridges across the River Thames
ferrymen were in demand. The wealthy employed watermen.
Watermen: men who earned their living on or about boats.
Key Qu: To what extent does early rowing fit with the characteristics of
popular recreation?
It was neither cruel nor violent, did not lack rules and was not
unorganised. However, it was of local importance and it is perhaps
the best example of an occupation that became a recreation.
Games in Popular Recreation - Cricket
Social classes played together reflecting the feudal/class structure of
the village.
Patrons (similar to modern day sponsor or agent) employed estate
workers as gardeners and gamekeepers primarily for their
cricketing talents. Early clubs emerged from these rural village
sides.
There are three main aspects of the story of early cricket
1.
The Bat and Ball Inn
A pub in Hambledon, nicknamed �the cradle’ of cricket as it was where
the game was encouraged and developed from 1750. Large
crowds of up to 2,000 spectators watched and wagered on the
outcome of matches.
Games in Popular Recreation – Cricket
continued…………
2. Martlebone Cricket Club
Gentlemen who developed the laws of cricket in 1774 formed the While
Conduit Club, which became Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in
1788. The rise of MCC forced the decline of Hambledon. Players
were now employed by MCC as coaches and players. MCC became
the main club in England and took on the role of the governing
body.
3. The William Clarke XI (professional touring side, attracting huge
crowds taking on teams of 22 opponents)
William Clarke developed cricket from a fragmented localised sport to a
national success.
Games in Popular Recreation – Cricket
continued…………….
Cricket was a popular recreation because: it attracted widespread
wagering played by both ale and female predominantly rural
associated with feasts and festival days. Rules could be locally
adapted.
On the other hand:
- It was predominantly non-violent
- It had an early rule structure
- National touring sides from 1840’s
* Task: you should assess the extent to when early cricket fits the
accepted model of popular recreation.
Games in Popular Recreation - Real Tennis
Real (or royal tennis) originated in France became popular in Britain in the
1400’s.
An exclusive game for kings, nobles and merchants who played on purpose
built highly sophisticated courts (varied in size and shape). The game had
complex rules and required high levels of skill. Those not eligible to play
real tennis would copy their social superiors and play their own versions
(tennis, fives, racquets) against church or pub walls.
Racquets
Originated in Fleet Prison, London and ended up being played by upper-class
public school and university students. Prison inmates were not hardened
criminals but debtors and often gentlemen of high social standings so they
were allowed to exercise in the prison yard.
Games in Popular Recreation – Mob Football
Mob Football e.g. Ashbourne Game
A variety of games involving kicking and throwing a ball were regular
features of English pre-industrial society. Mob football recognised as
little more than massive brawls involving brute force between
hoards of young men.
Throughout history kings, government and local authorities have
frowned on mob games because they caused:
- Damage to property
- Injury to young men/making them unfit for army training
- Disrespect for to Sabbath
- Social unrest (riots)
Shove Tuesday became a traditional day for mob games, seen as an
opportunity for fun and excitement before the seriousness of Lent.
Task: If you were watching an ancient Shrove Tuesday game of mob
football, what characteristics of the game would you expect to see?
Mob Football
Continued………….
Mob Games can be recognised by their lack of:
- Set rules
Set Pitch
Specific boundaries
- Set position
Ref/Umpire
Regularity
- Skilfulness (lack of skill mainly displays of force + violence)
Task: How did mob football reflect pre-industrial Britain?
19th Century Public School Developments of
Athleticism
Public Schools – controlled by a group of trustees and not privately
owned
Characteristics of 19th Century Public Schools
• Boarding – Time available increasingly spent on games
• Expanding – As numbers increased, houses were formed
• Non-local – Regional games adopted and adapted by individual
schools
• Spartan – Harsh treatment and living conditions prepared boys for
rigorous competition
• Controlled by Trustees – Influential people investing in and
promoting the school towards sporting success
19th Century Public School Developments of
Athleticism
• Endowed – Well endowed schools in receipt of money or property
for improved facilities and coaching professionals
• Fee-paying – Influential pupils contributing towards facilities
development
• Gentry – Influential families bringing money and influence
• Boys – Great energy and enthusiasm channelled into games
19th Century Public School Developments of
Athleticism
Task:
Make the comparisons between the
characteristics of Boys Boarding
Schools in the modern institution?
Technical and Social Developments
Stage 1 – Bullying and Brutality 1790-1828
At this time: English society contrasted the high culture (regency
period) with the low culture (blood sports and bare knuckle
fighting). Both ends of the spectrum were mirrored in the public
schools. A time of �boy culture’ phases of chaos if things didn’t go
their way.
All recreational activities were organised by the boys for pure
enjoyment and to relieve the boredom of academic work. However
with increasing numbers of upper-class boys enrolling from a variety
of different preparatory schools, bringing with them customs and
recreations from all over the country.
These different customs and traditions mixed and moulded into
schoolboy games and future traditions. Games ad sports was seen
as a medium for social control, instilling order, stability and good
behaviour through sportsmanship. However, this was not always the
case, there was no master involvement outside the classroom.
Technical and Social Developments
Stage 1 – Bullying and Brutality 1790-1828
continued………….
This era was one of �institutionalised’ poplar recreation and activities
ranging from childlike to barbaric. Hoops and marbles took place
alongside bare knuckle fights and mob football. Eton and
Charterhouse were birthplaces of unique and ferocious mob football
games.
Cricket, the rural game already organised and played by both classes in
society was immediately adopted by the schools because of it’s
inclusion ethic.
Technical and Social Developments
Stage Two (1828 – 1842)
Dr Thomas Arnold and social control
A Time of change, both in society (reform and social control) and at
large and in the English public schools.
- Parliament and criminal laws were changing (e.g banning cruelty to
animals)
- Transport and communication improving
- With life and society becoming more orderly, the freedom and wild
escapades of Stage 1 became more and more out of place.
Dr Thomas Arnold
(Head of Rugby School from 1828 – 1842)
Regarded as a man who reformed the English public school system at a
time when it was out of control.
Dr Thomas Arnold (initiated) and other liberal headmasters (copied)
reformed the public schools by:
• Changing the behaviour of boys
• Changing the severity of punishments by masters
• Role of sixth form
• Academic curriculum
Main Aim: preach good moral behaviour. This was part of muscular
Christianity or the belief in having a strong, robust, hearty soul with a
strong, fit body.
Stage 2
………….. continued
It was fine to play sport and to play hard but always for the glory of
God – not for its own sake or for any extrinsic values.
• Arnold used games as a vehicle for establishing social control.
• Arnold also established a more trusting and sympathetic relationship
with sixth form while his masters gradually adopted status of sixth
form increased the powers of discipline and in return required them
to positive role models.
• Sixth form = link between masters and boys
• Growth of the house system
House System
The House system became the focus of boys personal, social, recreational and
sporting existence. The House System ultimately set an environment of
healthy competition and cohesive attitudes.
Technical and Social Developments
Stage 3 – Athleticism + the �Cult’ (1842 – 1914)
Public school is of mellowed building magnificent games fields, colours,
caps, cricketers = All symbols of athleticism
Athleticism: The combination of physical effort and moral integrity or
playing hard but with sportsmanship.
Athleticism reached cult proportions: a craze or obsession of playing
team games. Compulsory games for the development of character
became compulsory at Clifton and at Uppingham. At grammar
schools games were central to school life.
Voluntary free time activities (not yet as part of the curriculum)
included:
*Rowing
*Football
*Cricket
*Various racquet games
Stage 3 – Continued………
On leaving university, these young men would go into adult life taking
the �games ethic’ with them.
Task: Consider what some academics have said about the emergence
of athleticism in this stage.
The ex-public school boy was expected to have a well rounded
character, impeccable manners and enviable personal qualities.
Having led a team on the games field, it was assumed that he could
lead a regiment on the battlefield.
1850 onwards: Games were purposefully deliberately assimilated into
the formal curriculum of the public school.
Technical and Social Developments
Stage 3 – Athleticism + the �Cult’ (1842 – 1914)
The development of athleticism in girls’ public schools
Athleticism reaching cult proportions in boys’ public schools , there was
a delay in the development of opportunities for the upper-middle
class girls.
Reasons:
- Traditional role of women (education – seen as a threat to the
behavioural norms of society)
- Anxiety - over wearing of slightly revealing clothing for physical
exercise.
- It was not considered necessary to give girls the same opportunities
as boys.
- Unladylike – it was thought inappropriate for women to be
competitive or lively
- Medical concerns – strenuous physical activity would
complicate/prohibit child bearing
Technical and Social Developments
Stage 3 – Athleticism + the �Cult’ (1842 – 1914)
Examples of great pioneers of and for physical education in the mid to
late 19th century are:
- Frances Mary Blues
- Dorothea Beale
- Madame Bergman Osterberg
Task: In which of the three stages of development would you place the
following (some fit in more than 1 stage)
* Muscular Christianity
* House System
*Mob Activities
*Values
* Hooligans
*Social Control
* Character development
* Dr Thomas Arnold
* Recreation
Technical developments: the emergence of structured and
organised popular recreational activities and their
development into recognised sports
Swimming: (beginning of the 19th century) - bathing in public schools
was spontaneous, unorganised and centred around natural facilities
(rivers and ponds). Boys had swum in the open at home and
brought this culture to school. However there was no master input
or supervision.
As the century progressed, athleticism developed. Swimming became
more structured and regulated with natural facilities such as Duck
Puddle at Harrow being transformed into major bathing facility
equipped with changing huts, diving boards, and with swimming
instructors and arranged competitive events.
Increasingly headmasters regarded swimming as a necessary athletic,
also believing that water immersion was therapeutic.
Technical developments: the emergence of structured and
organised popular recreational activities and their
development into recognised sports
Rowing: viewed as a vehicle for the promotion to set desirable values
into school boys. The adoption of rowing by Eton, Shrewsbury,
Westminster, Oxford and Cambridge dates from 1800. Other schools
that had river access soon followed.
The first inter-school race was between Westminster and Eton and the
University Boat Race was first rowed at Henley in 1829
Fear of drowning caused the sport to become more formalised from
the 1840’s and participants were required to pass swimming tests.
Technical developments: the emergence of structured and
organised popular recreational activities and their
development into recognised sports
Athletics: Eighteenth-century public school boys took the sports of their
local village wakes and fairs back to school. Predominantly played
for fun and to relieve the boredom of school life.
By the 1870’s athletic sports day had become both a major social
occasion and a symbol of a more modern age.
School sports day represented an era of technical development, more
friendly social relationships between boys and masters, and a
developing interest in skilfulness over brute force.
Sports Day were highly organised with elaborate programmes, press
coverage, large numbers of spectators and military band.
Technical developments: the emergence of structured and
organised popular recreational activities and their
development into recognised sports
Football: earliest days of public school history, impromptu, natural
forms of football were played. Boys brought games from home
which developed into school games.
During the second phase of public school development, with rebellion
almost over and fighting on the decline, football became the place
to settle disputes and to show courage and determination. Ironically
football helped the social class that had traditionally tried to kill it off
and for the 1st time in British History it became respectable.
By the 1860’s, transport and communication had greatly improved;
more contests could be organised, however there were
disagreements in inter-school matches as each school had different
rules.
Technical developments: the emergence of structured and
organised popular recreational activities and their
development into recognised sports
Cricket: popular rural game by the mid 1700’s, cricket was soon
adopted b the public schools. Headmasters were happy to accept
the game as its standardised rules, lack of violence and involvement
by the gentry made it respectable. I also occupied boys and kept
them out of mischief.
During the 1850’s and 60’s, cricket grew with William Clarke XI touring
the country to entertain and inspire.
Cricket in public schools was now associated with:
- Regularity as inter house and school game
- Compulsory participation
- Grand social occasions
- The belief that it instilled a range of character building qualities.
Technical developments continued…
Court and Racquet Games: Fives – was hugely popular in the public
schools but failed to become a national game of any standing. This
was because:
- It had a tradition of being played as a recreational game in free
time
- Different versions of the game
- Limited scope for developing character
- The more sophisticated game of racquets was already established.
Racquets and Squash: at first played informally by school boys.
Ironically attaining a high social status in public schools, far beyond
its beginnings in a prison. By 1850 two standardised courts were
built at Harrow.
Many argue that racquets led to the invention of the more compact
and less expensive game of squash
Technical developments continued…
Lawn Tennis: invented by and for the middle classes as a social
experience. It also became a vehicle for the emancipation (freedom
from restrictions) of women. It is not surprising that it was not
welcomed by the boys’ public schools at a time when manliness and
courage were all important.
Why did the boys’ public schools reject lawn tennis?
- Courts took up comparatively large space for the number of boys it
occupied
- Did not require the courage or physicality of football or cricket
- Could not rival the contemporary status of cricket or football
- Had a rep of being �pat ball’ and suitable only for girls
- As a new invention it was treated with some suspicion
Rational Recreation in an Urban Industrial Society
Characteristics of Rational Recreation
• Regional national/international
• Codification, administration
• Respectable, fair play
• Regular
• Exclusive/Elitist
• Urban/Sub-Urban
• Control of Gambling
• Purpose Built Facilities
Rational Recreation in an Urban Industrial Society
Characteristics of Popular Recreation
• Local
• Simple, unwritten rules
• Cruel/Violent
• Occasional
• Courtly/Popular
• Rural
• Wagering
• Natural/Simple
Rational Recreation in an Urban Industrial Society
Task:
Aim to identify 3 additional changes which have occurred over
the last few years
Urban Industrial Factors which influenced the
development of Rational Sport
•
•
•
•
Industrial Revolution – Changes in working conditions
Urban Revolution – Changes in living conditions
Increased free time
The Railways – Excursions and trips, following your own team and
going to the countryside
• Changing Role of Women – Tennis used as a vehicle for
emancipation for middle class
• Middle Class Emergence – Changes in attitudes, tastes manners and
expectations
Urban Industrial Factors which influenced the
development of Rational Sport
• Changing Working Conditions – Improved over time
• Paid Holidays for Working Class – By end of century; benevolence of
employers; provision of factory facilities
• Saturday Half Day
• Agrarian Revolution – Changes in Agricultural Methods
Urban Industrial Factors which influenced the
development of Rational Sport
Individual Activities Included:
• Swimming
• Athletics
• Gymnastics
Games Activities Included:
• Football
• Cricket
• Tennis
The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in
Post – Industrial Communities
• The emergence of sport for the masses, particularly spectator sport,
excursion trips and paid holidays were hard won
• In early 19th century, rural peasants migrated to towns and cities in
search of regular work, with sport or recreation being last thing on
minds of industrial working class
Things looking up…
• Factory Acts improved working conditions; kind factory owners
began to look after their staff to increase loyalty and morale in the
workplace.
• By 1890, workers had won their Saturday Half Day
The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in
Post – Industrial Communities
Swimming as a rationalised activity had several threads which
consisted of:
• The Water Cure and Regency Spa Movement
• Victorian Sea Bathing
• 19th Century Public Baths for the middle and working classes
The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in
Post – Industrial Communities
• The Water Cure was otherwise known as the therapeutic effect of
immersion in water, which existed in inland spa’s such as Bath and
Cheltenham
• During the Victorian era, beaches were designated as socially
exclusive and bathing machines were towed to the water giving
bathers some privacy
• By the 1870’s, the new rail network brought the working class to the
seaside who copied activities of their social superiors
• Swimming became fashionable for the middle and amateur class
with competitive events being organised
The Rationalisation of Bathing and Swimming in
Post – Industrial Communities
• 18th and 19th century industrialisation and urbanisation led to
overcrowding and disease
• In 1846, central government attempted to improve this with it’s
wash house acts
• This was whereby loans were offered to major towns if they built
public baths
The Emergence of Track and Field Activities as a
new form of Urban Festival
• Due to the steady urbanisation of England, rural fairs came to an
end followed by professional athletics being established in big
industrial cities
• The Amateur Athletics Association (AAA) was established in 1880
which helped increase working class involvement in sports
• The organisation was responsible for opening up the sport to all
levels of society without compromising it’s image
The Emergence of Track and Field Activities as a
new form of Urban Festival
The Modern Olympic Movement
• A French aristocrat named Baron Pierre de Coubertin who was
inspired by sport started the Olympic Games in 1896, with his aim
to foster athleticism and friendship between nations
• However, by the time the games came to London in 1908, all his
ideas had largely been crushed
• This conflict was captured in the film �Chariots of Fire’ (1981). This
follows the preparations and Olympic fortunes of two British athletes
in the Paris Games of 1924
The Rationalisation of Games
Association Football
• Following the formation of the Football Association (FA), Soccer
became both an amateur game for gentlemen and a professional
game for the �people’ (Working Class)
• It soon became clear, that football was a regular spectator
attraction rather than an annual festival occasion
• Therefore, due to players becoming unable to agree time off work,
the FA reluctantly accepted professionalism
The Rationalisation of Games
Cricket
• In the 1870’s, county cricket took over from the touring XI’s as a
spectator attraction – while county communities needed and
respected professionals, they kept them firmly in their social place
• E.G – They had different names, Pro v’s Amateur. They even had
different eating arrangements and did not even travel to matches
together or share a changing room
The Rationalisation of Games
Lawn Tennis
• The Middle Classes were excluded from real tennis so they looked
for their own alternative
• The game was perfect for upper middle class suburban gardens
• The working class were excluded and had to wait for public
provision, which delayed their participation
It’s role in the emancipation of women…
• Lawn tennis helped remove stereotypes of Victorian times, as
women could participate on their own or with men and wearing
whatever they wanted
The Rationalisation of Games
Task:
Explain some changes which have occurred in one of these
games since the turn of the 19th century
The development of drill, physical training and physical
education in elementary schools
End of the 19th century
Background information
- In 1886, the army rejected 380 out of each 1000 recruits on physical
grounds.
- Board schools (state schools) established by the Foster Education
Act 1870, previously the education of the poor had been a parish
responsibility.
- Restricted space for play and physical exercise
- Many schools in industrial towns had no playing facilities.
Elementary school drill
Objectives:
- Fitness for army recruits
- Discipline
- To do for working-class children what games was doing for public
school boys
The development of drill, physical training and physical
education in elementary schools continued………..
Content
- 1870 = military drill
- 1890’s = Swedish drill
- 1900 = the Bored of Education stated that games were a suitable
alternative to Swedish drill
Methodology
- Authoritarian / Command response, taught by army noncommissioned officers (NCO’s) in 1870’s. By the 1890’s taught by
qualified teachers.
The development of drill, physical training and physical
education in elementary schools continued………….
The Model Course 1902
Background Information
- Military needs became more powerful than educational theory.
- Girls and boys instructed together: failed to cater for age or gender
- Children treated as soldiers
- Taught by NCO’s or teachers who had been trained by them
- Dull + repetitive content
- Set against the backdrop of poor diets, bad housing and other forms
of social deprivation.
All of the above contributed to the lowered the status of the
subject.
The development of drill, physical training and physical
education in elementary schools continued………….
The Model Course 1902
Military based content was imposed as a result of Britain’s
poor performance in the Boer War
Objectives:
Content:
- Fitness (for military service)
Military drill
- Training in handing weapons
Exercises
- Discipline
Weapon training
Methodology:
- Command – response (�Attention’, �Stand at ease’, Marching etc)
- Group response/ no individuality
- In ranks
The development of drill, physical training and physical
education in elementary schools continued………….
Early Syllabuses of Physical Training (PT) 1904 and 1909
Background Information:
- Revisions of the 1902 model course
- School medical service was established which identified the
necessity of raising the general standard of physical health among
the children of the poor.
- Emphasis on exercise in the open air and the use of suitable
clothing
- 1909 – local authorities required to train teachers to deliver the
syllabuses
- Still large numbers and poor facilities
Early Syllabuses of Physical Training (PT) 1904 and 1909
continued………….
Objectives:
- Obedience and Discipline
- Enjoyment
- Alertness, decision-making, control of mind over body
- 1909 – therapeutic effects of exercise (with emphasis on respiration,
circulation and posture)
Content:
- Recreative aspects to relive dullness, tedium and monotony of
former lesson
- Introduction of dancing steps and simple games
- Inclusion of Danish and rhythmic swinging exercises
Early Syllabuses of Physical Training (PT) 1904 and 1909
continued………….
Methodology:
- Still formal
- Still in ranks with marching
- Still unison response to commands
- A kinder approach by teachers
- Some freedom of choice for teachers
The development of drill, physical training and physical
education in elementary schools continued………….
The Syllabus 1919
Background Information:
- Set against huge loss of life in WW1 and in post-war flu epidemic
- The syllabus was progressive in terms its broader content and childcentred approach.
Important Note: The Fisher Education Act 1918 promoted holiday and
school camps, school playing fields and school swimming baths.
Objectives:
- Enjoyment and play for the under 7’s
- Therapeutic work for the over 7’s
The 1919 Syllabus
continued……….
Content:
- Exercises and �positions’ same s 1909
- Special section for games for the under 7’s
- Not less than half the lesson on �general activity exercises’ – active
free movement, including small games and dancing
1919 syllabus – the first �child centred’ syllabus, but some teachers
stayed with their old ways.
Methodology:
- More freedom for teachers ad pupils
- Less formality
Syllabus of Physical training 1933
(the last syllabus to be published under George Newman’s direction)
Background Information:
The industrial depression of the 1930’s left many of the working class
unemployed
This syllabus- had one section for the under 11’s and one for the ove
11’s
Influences:
- The Hadow Report 1926 identified the need to differentiate between
ages for physical training.
- A detailed, high quality and highly respected syllabus
- Newman stated that good nourishment, effective medical inspection
and treatment and hygienic surroundings were all necessary for a
good health as well as a comprehensive system of physical
training…..for the normal development of the body.
Syllabus of Physical training 1933
Objectives:
- Physical fitness
- Good posture
Content:
- Athletics
- Therapeutic results - Good Physique
- Development of mind and body (holistic aims)
- Gymnastic and games skills
- Group work
Methodology:
- Still direct style for the majority of the lesson
- Group work/tasks throughout
- Encouragement for special clothing/kit
- 5 x 20 minute lesson a week recommended
- Outdoor lessons recommended for health benefits
- Some decentralised parts to the lesson
Decentralised = the teacher acts as the guide, with children working at their
own pace answering tasks in an individual way
Revision Questions
1.
2.
3.
What is meant by the words objectives, content and
methodology?
Compare the content of the 1902 model course with that of the
moving and planning the programme.
Wit which syllabuses would you associate the following words or
phrases? (Some maybe linked to more than one syllabus)
Child-centred
Boer War
Dr George Newman
Therapeutic
Army NCO’s
Army assault apparatus
Play for the under 7’s
Butler Education Act
Note: Dr George Newman role was overseeing the publication of the
three Board Education syllabuses between 1909 and 1933
Physical Education and Modern Trends
Moving and Growing and Planning the Programme
• The (Butler) Education Act 1944 aimed to ensure equality of
educational opportunity and to provide playing fields for all schools
• The Second World War required �thinking soldiers’ which influenced
the need for �thinking children’. Assault course obstacle equipment,
influenced apparatus design as well as encouraging individual
interpretation of open tasks
Background:
- The Butler Education Act 1944 aimed to ensure equality of
education of educational opportunity.
- Local authorities were required to provide playing fields for al
schools.
- School leaving age was raised to 15 years
Physical Education and Modern Trends
This influenced the problem solving approach…
1. Moving & Growing (1952)
2. Planning the Programme (1954)
Influences:
The 2nd World War, required thinking soldiers and the subsequent
perceived need for increasingly thinking children.
Assault course obstacle equipment, influenced apparatus design
Modern educational dance methods influenced the
creative/movement approach
Introduction of problem solving approach to learning (open tasks)
Also… The extensive post war rebuilding programme lead to an
expansion of facilities
Physical Education and Modern Trends
Objectives
• Physical, Social and Cognitive Skills
• Variety of experiences
• Enjoyment and Personal Satisfaction
Methodology
• Child centred and enjoyment orientated
• Progressive
• Teacher guidance rather than direction
Content
• Agility exercises
• Swimming
• Movement to Music
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