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The History of Scotland

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The History of Scotland
п‚— Ancient Scotland
п‚— Birth of a Nation
п‚— Stewart Scotland
п‚— North Britain
п‚— Modern Scotland
Ancient Scotland
п‚— Around 10 000 BC the ice that had covered Scotland
for a long time began to melt.
п‚— Trees and bushes began to grow, and animals such as
bears wolves and wild pigs came searching for food.
Ancient Scotland
п‚— The first settlers were hunters and gatherers from
Ireland, Germany and the rest of EuropГ©.
п‚— They decided to stay and lived as nomads in Britain.
п‚— Nomads are people who live in and move to different
places, in search of food and shelter.
п‚— Around 7000BC they had spread to most parts of the
country.
Ancient Scotland
п‚— Around 4000BC hunter and gatherers stopped living
as nomads and settled down and became farmers.
п‚— They grew crops like oats and barley, which they later
stored to survive the harsh winters.
п‚— They also learned how to tame animals and thereby
didn’t need to hunt as much.
Ancient Scotland
п‚— Between 1200BC to AD200 Scotland got closer and
merged with a civilization that flourished throughout
EuropГ©, called Celtic.
п‚— The name Celtic was given by the Greeks and Romans
who fought against these people.
п‚— Celtic culture first developed in central EuropГ©, and
later spread to the British Isles.
Ancient Scotland
п‚— Around AD80 the Romans invaded and conquered
Scotland.
п‚— The Romans realized it would be impossible to control
all the land, so they withdrew.
 The Romans built Hadrian’s Wall to protect
themselves from the Scottish Celts.
Ancient Scotland
п‚— Before the Romans came, the people of Scotland
worshipped many different gods and goddesses.
п‚— With the Romans this new religion called Christianity
came along, and things like bishops monks and saints
became part of everyday life in Scotland.
Ancient Scotland
п‚— Vikings from Scandinavia came to the northern part of
Scotland, around AD800.
п‚— First just to plunder and and steal treasures and
jewelry.
п‚— But around AD1000, they had settled down and ruled
much of northern part of Scotland.
Birth of a Nation
п‚— For thousands of years, Scotland was not a united
nation.
п‚— But between AD800 and 1300 warriors and kings
created the first Scottish nation.
п‚— The new threat came not from Vikings or Romans
now, but from the English…
Birth of a Nation
п‚— The last of the Viking kings to have any real power in
Scotland was Norway’s Magnus the Lawgiver, who
returned the power to the Scottish people in 1266.
Birth of a Nation
п‚— The first real towns in Scotland were built around 1150.
п‚— Towns like Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and
Inverness were founded by kings, great nobles or
monasteries as trading centres.
Birth of a Nation
п‚— The way people lived was much determined by the
environment.
п‚— In the Lowlands people mostly worked on great estates
owned by kings lords or monks.
п‚— In the Highlands people were more independent, but
instead they belonged to different clans and its
clanchiefs. For example McDougals, McSorley and
others.
Birth of a Nation
п‚— In 1296, the English king Edward I invaded and
defeated Scotland.
п‚— Scotland now belonged to England and had no king.
Birth of a Nation
• One of the most famous and important Scots to resist
the English was William Wallace.
• William Wallace and his army beat the English at
Stirling Bridge, which was a great upset for Edward I.
• Later, William Wallace and his army got defeated at
Falkirk 1298
• William Wallace was later executed, but to this day he
is considered to be a great hero.
Birth of a Nation
п‚— Inspired by William Wallace, Robert Bruce I fought
against the English and won an amazing and
surprising victory at Bannockburn in 1314.
п‚— This ensured the freedom and independence of the
Scottish people for another 400 years.
Stewart Scotland 1300-1600
• Between 1300 to 1600 Scotland was transformed.
• It turned from a weak country troubled with fights
between warlords into a confident nation ruled by
intelligent kings and queens.
• Named ”Stewart Scotland” because of the dynasty
(ruling family) that reigned during this era and
started with Robert the Steward, who became king in
1371.
Stewart Scotland 1300-1600
п‚— The Black Death (the plague) was a deadly disease,
carried by rats, which killed many Scots during the
14th century.
Stewart Scotland 1300-1600
п‚— Many sea-based indistries developed during this era,
much due to the fact that Scotland is surrounded by
sea.
п‚— Such industries were fishing, salt-making and carrying
goods by cargo ship.
Stewart Scotland 1300-1600
п‚— Until around 1600 most Scottish people could not read
and write.
п‚— Before 1600 most schools were run by churches, but
after the Reformation schools were taken over by and
run by town councils.
п‚— By time, education got more available for the Scots and
more and more people learned how to read and write.
Stewart Scotland 1300-1600
п‚— Scottish people had followed the Catholic Church led
by the Pope in Rome until the Reformation.
п‚— You could pay the Church to forgive your sins and
guarantee that you would go to heaven.
п‚— A lot of people protested against this, these people
were called Protestants, and suddenly a new branch
of Christianity was created.
Stewart Scotland 1300-1600
п‚— Mary Queen of Scots refused to be part of this new
Protestantism.
п‚— She wanted to be a Catholic so she abdicated as queen,
and she is now the most famous queen in Scottish
history.
North Britain
п‚— In 1603 King James VI of Scotland inherited the
English crown, which made Scotland and England
much closer to each other.
п‚— In 1707 Scotland and England were united and
Scotland became more a part on Britain.
п‚— Since Scotland is in the northern part of Britain, you
could say that it was North Britain.
North Britain
п‚— In the 16th century witches were seen as a threat to
society, and beacause of that, witchcraft became a
crime.
п‚— Innocent women were accused of being witches, and
some were killed.
п‚— Witch-hunting became less common after around
1650.
North Britain
п‚— The massacre at Glencoe in 1692 was a horrible thing,
but Scottish society was about to change.
п‚— People looked to England and France for a more polite
and civil society.
 People wanted to leave Scotland’s history of bloody
clan battles and ”primitive” life behind.
North Britain
п‚— Around 1750, new people from all over Scotland moved
to Edinburgh.
п‚— People as different as artists, architects, designers,
boooksellers, scientists, publishers, teachers and
students.
п‚— They gathered in coffee houses and salons.
п‚— This meant that the Enlightenment had started in
Edinburgh and Scotland.
North Britain
п‚— Scottish engineers and inventors changed the world by
helping to create the Industrial Revolution.
п‚— From around 1750-1850, millions of ordinary men and
women stopped working at home and on farms,
instead they began to work in huge factories.
Modern Scotland
п‚— Between 1750-1850, Scotland was transformed from a
poor rebellious region to the workshop of the world.
п‚— In 1999, the Scottish parliament met again for the first
time in almost 300 years.
Modern Scotland
п‚— In 1851 only one out of five Scots lived in big cities like
Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen.
п‚— People lived very differently, there was a great gap
between Scotland’s rich and poor.
Modern Scotland
п‚— The majority of Scottish people lived hard an
unpleasent lives, but others had a much more
comfortable existence. They were the middle-class.
п‚— Only 3 in 1000 belonged to the upper-class during the
19th century.
Modern Scotland
п‚— During the 19th century, ordinary men and women did
not have the right to vote.
п‚— They could not choose their political leaders or make
their views known.
Modern Scotland
п‚— Many Scots fought in the First World War in 1914-18.
п‚— In many towns and villages all the young men of
fighting age (between 16 and 40) went to war together
– and died together.
Modern Scotland
п‚— In 1939, Britian and its allies went to war with
Germany.
п‚— Fighting in the Second World War until 1945, young
Scottish menwere conscripted (forced by law) to join
the army, navy and the new air force.
Modern Scotland
п‚— In 1999 Scotland got their own parliament and a bit
more independence from Great Britain.
п‚— The Scottish Parliament now has the power to raise or
lower taxes and manage Scotland’s health care,
education, transport, farming and the environment.
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