Government of the United Kingdom February 21,2014 What is the difference between The United Kingdom, Great Britain and England? вЂўThe United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland includes the four territories: England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. вЂўGreat Britain includes the major island of and has three regions: England, Wales, and Scotland. вЂўEngland is a region of Great Britain and The UK. It has the largest population with five sixths of the entire state. The Official name of the state is вЂњThe United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandвЂќ Common Government Terms вЂў The Crown вЂ“ all encompassing term including the all the powers of government (king and queen, Parliament, cabinet, and civil servants) вЂў West minster вЂ“ district of London where many government buildings are located вЂў # 10 Downing St. вЂ“ prime ministerвЂ™s residence and address вЂў Whitehall вЂ“ street where many executive offices are located along with the House of Commons and House of Lords Westminister Hall The UK a Democratic Regime ( remember there are two main democratic regimes parliamentary and presidential) Parliamentary System вЂў Legislative and Executive Branch are not separate вЂў Head of state (monarch) and Head of Government (Prime Minister) are held by two separate individuals вЂў Write two more differences between this democratic regimes. вЂў Which do you prefer? Why? Presidential System вЂў Legislative and Executive are separate branches of government вЂў Head of State and Head of Government are positions of one person the President PS: There is a hybrid system called the Semi-Presidential System. These governments Have a combination of both systems. Examples of Semi Presidential Systems exist in France and Russia. Leadership of the UK of Great Britain and Northern Irealnd вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў The Monarch Head state вЂњPsychological cement to hold a country togetherвЂќ No real political power вЂњReigns but does not ruleвЂќ вЂў The Prime Minister (PM) вЂў Picks the Cabinet вЂў Well disciplined Party Whip вЂў Head of Government вЂў Winning elections вЂў Campaigning through media вЂў Patronage вЂў Making and balancing policies Head of State: Queen Elizabeth II http://hcaa.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/queenelizabethii.jpg Head of Government: David Cameron http://www.gastronomydomine.com/uploaded_images/gordon_brown_fat-749381.jpg Branches of Government in the UK вЂў Executive = Prime Minister and Cabinet вЂў Legislative = House of Commons and House of Lords вЂў Judicial = Courts Executive Branch вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Prime Minister Head of Government Head of the majority party in HOC Usually get their way and are thought to be powerful because of strong party loyalty Can call elections at any time Must maintain the support of party Take questions once weekly that are televised Direct activity of the cabinet Diplomats and world leaders вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Cabinet Has about twenty members Can be from HOC or HOL, though most are from HOC Appointed by the Prime Minister Responsible for individual government departments Provide answers to Parliament during the question time. Collective Responsibility вЂ“ idea that cabinet must appear unified and take responsibility for policy If Cabinet official can not support a decision of government they must resign and return to legislature (3 of BlairвЂ™s ministers resigned over the war in Iraq) Why Do PMs Not turn into Dictators? вЂў Elections are every five years (try to keep blocks of support among population) вЂў Has to keep the support of the party in order for party to stay in power in Parliament British Cabinet вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Lord Chancellor (member of House of Lords) Foreign Secretary вЂ“ conducts foreign policy Home Secretary вЂ“ oversees the Judiciary Chancellor of Exchequer (treasury) вЂ“ financial policy and head of the central bank Environment Education Transport Social Security Agriculture Employment Northern Ireland Welsh Scottish National Heritage What is the Parliament? пЃ¶It is not George ClintonвЂ™s Band (P-Funk). пЃ¶ It is the legislative branch of the English government that selects the Prime Minister (PM) and the Cabinet. Both the PM and Cabinet officials are also members of Parliament (MPs) пЃ¶It is a bicameral legislature which consists of the House of Commons and House of Lords MOVIE http://www.richard-seaman.com/Wallpaper/Travel/Europe/DigitalHousesOfParliament.jpg Parliament (House of Commons) House of Commons House of Lords Parliament (House of Lords) Work in the Parliament How are MPs chosen? вЂў In the House of Commons there is an election every five years or Parliament may be dissolved вЂў MPs represent a single district called a constituency вЂў MPs are elected in first past the post system вЂ“ or single member plurality districts. MPs win on plurality, who has the most votes not necessarily the majority. (Remember the term first past the post ) вЂў This supports a strong two-party political system in the UK (Labour and Conservative) like in the US. (Remember DuvergerвЂ™s Law pg. 85 textbook) вЂў MPs are not required to live in the district they represent and many make their homes in London вЂў MPs in the House of Lords are inherited positions (heredity peers like dukes, earls, barons, ect.) these positions were eliminated in 1999 and life peers who are appointed by the Crown once recommended by PM generally outstanding citizens, law lords, and top officials from The Church of England. MPs in the HOL are shielded from public scrutiny in terms of legislation. Similar to U.S. Supreme Court Justices. Functions of House of Commons MPs (Members of Parliament) are expected to : пЃ¶ Support their party пЃ¶ Assess the political reputations of other MPs to be cabinet ministers пЃ¶ Share the problems they see with policy of ministers outside of chambers (must look like you are a party loyalist at all times) пЃ¶ Talk about legislation, but do not write legislation. (Legislation is written by cabinet ministers) пЃ¶ Vote on legislation proposed by the government пЃ¶ Have oversight in seeing how policy is carried out пЃ¶ Publicize government policy to the general public пЃ¶ Can check the PM with a vote-of-no-confidence пЃ¶ MPs vote with their party 90% of the time Inside the House of Commons Red = Majority Party Blue = Minor Party Other Colors = Small Minor Parties Functions of House of Lords вЂў Made up of inherited seats and Church of England bishops and law lords вЂў Limited power вЂў Amend legislation from Commons. But the MPs in the House of Commons can easily delete amendments with simple majority вЂў Delay legislation (financial bills 30 days and other 2 years) вЂў Debate topics that are to controversial for elected MPs Inside the House of Lords http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/03/18/weekinreview/18cowell.600.jpg Judicial Branch вЂў No judicial review вЂў Parliament is always supreme and any measure created by legislature is constitutional вЂў Judges on Court are selected by the Lord Chancellor and serve until retirement вЂў Civil and criminal courts and court of appeals вЂў In 2009 the Supreme Court was created in the UK to be the last court of appeals.