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Families in Britain: an evidence paper

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This document is for discussion purposes only and is
not a statement of Government policy
Young People in England
An evidence discussion paper
Young People Analysis & Strategic Analysis
Department for Children, Schools and Families
Contents
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Context – Trends in Youth Development
Drivers in Successful Youth Transitions
Where Policy Intervenes
Principles from the Evidence
2
This is a review of adolescence in contemporary England,
viewed through a developmental perspective.
Introduction
We will…
Look at the demands from
employers of new labour
market entrants.
Look at the expectations of
society from new adults.
What attributes do
adolescents need to develop?
Further…
• We take stock of how adolescents develop the skills for adulthood, and explain the
challenges they encounter.
• We define the role of Government in supporting the development of young people.
• We consider whether the fact that the lives of young people are changing rapidly matters
for adolescent development, or has significant policy implications.
3
Introduction
Structure of Report
Trends
As a starting point, we briefly review aspects of young people’s world that
have undergone significant and relevant change.
Drivers
The main body of this report discusses the drivers of successful
youth transitions into adulthood. What development is required to
exploit opportunities? And which factors influence that
development? And how do they operate?
Role of
Government
We examine how government intervention
impacts on different groups of young people in
supporting making better transitions.
Principles
Principles and areas
emerging from the
evidence for possible
future intervention.
4
Adolescence is not strictly defined by chronological age,
but we can identify a number of stages and changes
Stages
Pre-adolescence
Age 9 to 13
Middle
adolescence
Age 14 to 16
Late adolescence
Age 17 to 19
Begins with the onset of
puberty and is marked by
the most rapid growth spurt.
The time when the need for
independence becomes
increasingly apparent.
The time during which
teenagers start to
disengage with their
families and begin to shift
to economic and emotional
independence.
Introduction
Changes
Physical
Development in this stage is unrivalled by any other point
in development except infancy. Puberty triggers a surge
of growth and sex hormones.
Brain
Development
The brain re-organises: some areas get less efficient,
such as working memory, while others, such as
recognising emotion, get stronger.
Intellectual
Adolescence is a distinct phase in the development of
thinking skills. Thinking changes from concrete thinking
(e.g. yes and no) to formal operations including
abstraction and forming hypotheses.
Psycho-social
Adolescence is the stage when young people start developing
personal identity; trying on different roles to work out who they
are and how they fit within society. This can involve tensions
within families as young people seek independence and a
separate identity.
Asmussen et al. (2007) Supporting parents of teenagers
Blakemore S-J & Choudhury, S (2006) Development of the adolescent brain: implications for executive function and social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
5
The role of Government in young people’s lives has to balance
the needs of the individual, society and the economy
Introduction
There is no single “route” through adolescence, but it does needs correct
pace in order to benefit society and the individual.
– Too fast: young adults are less likely to have the skills needed to be self-sufficient
sustainably.
– Too slow: the financial burden on family and society may become excessive.
The principle of self-responsibility is strong and Government has a critical
role in promoting opportunity and information so that everyone can to do best
for themselves.
However, important inequalities amongst young people exist, and
Government has an important role in targeting support to those with either
fewer opportunities or inability to fully exploit them.
Some activities of young people impact adversely on other members of
society, such as anti-social behaviour. It is right for government to intervene
to stop it; exactly as happens with other people.
6
Contents
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Context – Trends in Youth Development
Drivers in Successful Youth Transitions
Where Policy Intervenes
Principles from the Evidence
7
We briefly look at trends in some of the main changes that have occurred in
the lives of young people and how they view life today.
We do so under these headings:
Demographic
Learning
Economic
Social
Technological
….Finally, we characterise the voice of young people
8
Trends in Youth
Development
The demographic landscape for adolescents is changing
Demographic
Population projections (England)
There are 3.3 million 15-19 year olds in
England.
3,500
The proportion of 15-19 year olds in the
population will fall over the next decade
from 1 in 16 to 1 in 19 - the lowest ever
share.
Minority ethnic groups are 14% of 15-19
year olds, compared with only 5% of over
50s.
3,400
0- 4
3,300
Population (000s)
From a recent high point, this number is
currently falling and will continue to do
so over the next 10 years, before
bouncing back.
5- 9
10-14
3,200
3,100
15-19
3,000
2,900
2,800
2,700
2008
2012
2016
2020
2024
2028
2032
Year
Sources: ONS (2009) Population estimates by ethnic group, mid-2007 (experimental).
GAD (2009) Population Projections 2008 estimates
9
Trends in Youth
Development
More young people than ever are attaining in learning…
Attainment at age 16 has risen steeply yearon-year for over the last 20 years since the
introduction of GCSEs…
Learning
…and by age 19 a further fifth of young
people gain Level 2 and half gain Level 3
Trends in GCSE/O-level attainment 1963-2009
Attainment at 19 2004-08
90%
80
80%
GCSEs
introduced
70
70%
60
End o f KS4
percentage
50
15 year olds
40
5 A*-C
GCSEs/O
Levels
30
5 A*-C GCSEs
inc' E+M
percentage
60%
17.2%
50%
40%
30%
50.3%
49.2%
42.0%
20%
20
21.3%
21.0%
19.2%
18.9%
45.4%
52.2%
46.7%
53.0%
55.3%
48.1%
49.8%
10%
10
0%
2007
2009
1999
2001
2003
2005
1991
1993
1995
1997
1983
1985
1987
1989
1975
1977
1979
1981
1967
1969
1971
1973
1963
1965
0
19 in
2004
19 in
2005
19 in
2006
19 in
2007
19 in
2008
Year
L2 by 16
Source: GCSE and Equivalent Results in England, 2008/09 and DCSF time series
L2 16 to 19
L3 by 19
DCSF Level 2 and 3 Attainment by Young People in England Measured Using Matched
Administrative Data: Attainment by Age 19 in 2008
10
…however, despite progress over the last decade, social gradients
persist in attainment…
Trends in Youth
Development
Learning
1 in 5 young people in the poorest households gain 5 or more A*-C GCSEs (inc.
English & Maths) compared to three quarters of those from the richest homes - a
gap of over 50% pts.
GCSE threshold attainment by parental income quintile
GCSE average point scores by parental income quintile
100%
500
90%
450
80%
400
70%
350
60%
300
50%
250
40%
200
30%
150
20%
100
10%
50
0%
0
Poorest
20%
Middle
20%
5+ GCSEs
Richest
20%
Poorest
20%
Middle
20%
Richest
20%
5+ GCSE inc E&M
Source: Chowdry et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
11
Trends in Youth
Development
…and in post-16 participation in learning.
Participation Rate in Ful-Time Education at 16 (%)
Participation rate in FT Education at 16 by
socio-grouping
100
90
Higher professional
Lower Professional
80
Intermediate
Lower Supervisory
70
60
Routine
50
40
30
20
SEG
NS-SEC
10
0
1989
1991
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
…although taking a longer view, the relationship
between family income and staying on has
decreased substantially over the years.
Relationship between family income and staying
on in education post 16 across cohorts
Additional liklihood of staying on post 16 for a doubling of famliy
income
The proportion of 16 year olds participating in
education and training is at the highest ever rate,
though gaps between social groups persist…
Learning
0.16
Clearly as we move to full
participation with RPA, socioeconomic differences in
participation will disappear
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
NCDS 1958 BCS 1970
BHPS 1
1975-1980
BHPS 2
1981-1986
BHPS 3
1987-1990
LSYPE
1989/90
2007
Year
Sources: Participation in Education, Training and Employment by 16-18 Year Olds in England SFR 12/2009; YCS cohorts 3 to 13
Gregg and Macmillan (2009) Family Income and Education in the Next Generation: Exploring the income gradients in education for the current cohorts of youth. CMPO Working Paper 09/223
12
Aggregate snap-shot statistics mask extensive diversity in the
pathways young people follow post-GCSE.
Trends in Youth
Development
Learning
• 3 out of 5 young people continue in full-time education continuously to 18 or beyond.
• The remaining 41% follow many routes post-16, often cycling between periods in learning, work
(with or without training), unemployment and inactivity.
�Education to job without training’ – 5% of
young people who stay in full time education in
the first year only to leave to a job without
training.
�Job with training’ – 8% of young people
spend most of their time in jobs with training,
a small number with short periods of other
activity.
�Education to work with training’ – 6% of
young people who study in full-time education
at 16, then move into a job with training,
however some with a short period NEET.
Here the LSYPE & YCS have been used to categorise the routes
taken by young people in the two years following compulsory
education. This pie chart represents eight stereotypical pathways
based on individual monthly activity data.
Source: DCSF using LSYPE and YCS
�Return to education’ – 5% of young people
who enrol in full time education at 17, having
spent spells in a variety of activities at age 16.
�Increasing job without training’ – 8% of young
people spend most of their time in jobs without
training, with some spending the first year NEET
or other activities.
�Becoming NEET’ – 5% of young people who
complete or drop out of a course of full-rime
education spend most of the remainder of their
period NEET. Some start jobs only to leave them
quickly.
�Mainly NEET’ – 5% of young people cycle
between NEET and other activities (mainly work
with out training). Some young people spend the
full two years NEET.
�Continuous education’ - 59% of young people remain in
full-time education for two full years after compulsory
education.
13
Trends in Youth
Development
Greater participation in learning has extensively altered the
relationship young people have with the labour market…
Economic
The transition out of education and into full time
work has become more problematic for young
people, who have been hit particularly hard
recently by the recession.
Over 300,000 16 & 17 year olds in full-time
education are also in part-time employment,
though they are becoming a diminishing minority.
ILO unemployment by age
Employment rate of 16-17 year olds in
FT Education
Recession
45%
50%
16-17 (not in
FTE)
40%
Recession
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
18-24 (not in
FTE)
15%
Employment rate
ILO unemployment rate
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
10%
25-49
5%
5%
Source: ONS Labour Market Statistics
N09
S08
J07
M06
M05
J04
N02
S01
J00
M99
M98
J97
N95
S94
J93
0%
M92
J09
N09
M08
J06
M07
S05
J04
N04
M03
J01
M02
S00
J99
N99
M98
M97
J96
S95
J94
N94
M93
0%
M92
50 and over
14
…and this has happened at the same time as changes to
independent living. More educated young people are staying at
home longer…
The expansion of higher education has seen
more young people leave home at age 18 - but
adults in their 20s are now more likely to live with
their parents than they were 20 years ago
Percentage of young adults living with their
parent (s) by age and gender
Berrington et al. (2009) in Population Trends 138, ONS
Trends in Youth
Development
Social
The trend is most marked for those with higher
qualifications suggesting more returners home
after university.
Percentage of males and females aged 22-24
living with parents) in 1988 and 2008
according to highest educational qualification
15
Trends in Youth
Development
…and starting families later.
Social
Average age of mother at first birth, 1938-2007
28.0
27.0
Parents are getting older, as
they start families later in
life…
age of mother
26.0
25.0
24.0
23.0
22.0
19
38
19
41
19
44
19
47
19
50
19
53
19
56
19
59
19
62
19
65
19
68
19
71
19
74
19
77
19
80
19
83
19
86
19
89
19
92
19
95
19
98
20
01
20
04
20
07
21.0
70
60
(LSYPE Sweep 5 / YCS Sweep 2)
50
40
Rate per 1000
…although a significant minority
become pregnant as teenagers.
By age 17/18, 3% of young
people have children of their own
Adolescent fertility rate: births per 1 000
women aged 15-19, 2005
30
20
10
Japan
Korea
Switzerland
Netherlands
Denmark
France
Sweden
Italy
Belgium
Luxembourg
Greece
Spain
Norway
Finland
Germany
Czech Republic
Austria
Canada
Ireland
Australia
Poland
Iceland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Hungary
New Zealand
United Kingdom
Turkey
United States
Mexico
0
Source: ONS Social Trends 2009; World Development Indicators 2008.
16
Digital age has profoundly changed what young people do, how
they see themselves and communicate with one another...
90%
12-15 year olds use a mobile phone (2007).
55%
12-15 year olds who used the internet at home had
created a page or profile on a social networking site
(2007).
75%
said that they couldn't live without the internet.
45%
said that they felt happiest when online.
32%
agreed with the statement: 'I can access all the
information I need online, there is no need to speak
to a real person about my problems'.
82%
said they had used the internet to look for advice
and information for themselves and 60% had for
other people.
37%
said that they would use the internet to give advice
to others on sensitive issues.
Trends in Youth
Development
Technological
The growth of Twitter in recent year exemplifies
the explosion of social networking.
Media Literacy Audit, Ofcom (2009); Youthnet’s Life Support: Young people’s needs in a digital age report.
Twitter.com
17
...but despite this technological change, what 14-19 year olds say
most worries them feels remarkably familiar.
Trends in Youth
Development
Voice of Young People
In the past 6 months, what have been the 3 most challenging
issues you have come across in your life?
School work & Exams
51%
25%
Educational choices
11%
Education next step / Going to uni / moving
22%
Career choices / Getting a job
Money
17%
20%
Relationships (love)
15%
Relationships (friends)
14%
Relationships (family)
Health (self)
Death (coping with)
6%
5%
Sex / Pregnancy
5%
None
Relationships
Net 44%
Health
Net 20%
3%
19%
Other
Driving lessons/learning to drive,
growing up, travel
Careers
Net 34%
8%
Health (others)
Body issues (weight / eating)
Education
Net 74%
3%
Top 15 responses shown
Source: DCSF Digital Comms presentation, quant online survey of 1000 14-19s
18
Trends in Youth
Development
Young people today embody many of the values of modern Britain
Young people are liberal and racially tolerant. They
are proud to be British and perceive Britain as
providing opportunity for self-improvement…
It is easier for people like me to get on and improve
things for themselves than it was for my parents
78%
Britain today is a place where people are usually
treated fairly no matter what background they come
from
55%
These days newspapers usually make young people
out to be much worse than they actually are
78%
There is too little respect for religion and religious
values in Britain today
56%
Britain is a free country where everyone’s rights are
respected no matter what their background
Source: LSYPE wave 5; YCS Cohort 13, Sweep 2
60%
On voting – 51% likely to vote in general
election.
Voting
Agree
Young people are perhaps surprisingly
politically engaged
Only 11% said they definitely wouldn’t
vote…
…but this rose to over one quarter for
those with the lowest qualifications.
Community
Cohesion
Statement
Voice of Young People
74% of young people agreed that people
from different racial, ethnic and religious
backgrounds get on well together in their
local community
80% Pakistani YP say that being British
is important to them.
19
Contents
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Context – Trends in Youth Development
Drivers in Successful Youth Transitions
Where Policy Intervenes
Principles from the Evidence
20
There is no one single, linear, successful youth transition to
adulthood. Transitions occur at different ages and at different rates.
A conceptual model…
Childhood
14
Drivers in successful
Youth Transitions
Employers’ Demands
16
19
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Adulthood
Economic and wider
Outcomes
Young Person's
Attitudes and Behaviours
Parental Attitudes
Family Resources
Friends and Peers
Community
School
21
What do we mean by cognitive and social & emotional skills?
Cognitive skills are the basic mental abilities we
use to think, study, and learn…
…Social and Emotional skills cover a much wider
range. They are sometimes referred to as �soft
skills’ or �life skills’.
They include a wide variety of mental
processes used to:
Examples of skills and characteristics that
commonly fall under this heading:
• Analyse sounds and images;
• Recall information from memory;
• Make associations between different pieces
of information; and
• Maintain concentration on particular tasks.
• Optimism
• Confidence / self confidence
• Perseverance and persistence
• Planning and organising
• Dependability
• Self-esteem
• Emotional intelligence
• Self management
• Team work
• Locus of control
• Managing relationships
• Managing stress
• Self-efficacy
They can be individually identified and
measured.
Cognitive skill strength and efficiency
correlates directly with students' ease of
learning.
22
Cognitive skills are ultimately the single most important driver of
economic outcomes…
In general, higher qualifications carry higher returns and academic
qualifications earn more than their vocational counterparts…
Economic
Outcomes
…and qualifications are associated with higher
employment rates.
Wage* returns to academic and vocational qualifications
Employment rate by highest qualification level
60%
Vocational degrees
include “professional”
qualifications such as
accountancy, law, etc.
50%
40%
100%
90%
80%
30%
70%
Female
Male
20%
60%
50%
10%
40%
0%
30%
-10%
Academic
NVQ or SVQ (level 2)
BTEC (1st / gen
diploma level)
NVQ or SVQ (level 3)
RSA (advanced
diploma or certificate)
Vocational degree
1-4 A*-C GCSEs (or
equivalent)
5+A*-C GCSEs (or
equivalent)
2+ Alevels
First / foundation
degree
Higher degree
-20%
HNC or HND
20%
10%
0%
NQF Level 4
and above
NQF Level 3
NQF level 2
Below level 2
No Quals
Vocational
Source: Jenkins et al (2007): The Returns to Qualifications in England, Updating the
Evidence Base on Level 2 and Level 3 Vocational Qualifications. CEE Discussion
Paper no. 89.
*Wage returns are interpreted as the average percentage increase in wages or the chance of being employed as result of holding a particular qualification
compared to other people that do not hold that qualification. They are a more sophisticated way to analyse the economic value of skills as they take account of
other factors that also might affect wages or employment chances. Examples of these include, gender, age, ethnicity, hours worked and region.
23
…and the labour market seems to be absorbing the increase in
supply of qualifications, with average returns remaining stable…
Returns for academic qualifications have remained fairly
stable over time…
Economic
Outcomes
…the same applies for vocational qualifications
Average wage returns 1997-2006
Average wage returns 1997-2006
60%
60%
50%
50%
Vocational degree
40%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
First / foundation
degree
A-level, voc A-level,
equiv (more than
one)
30%
20%
GCSE, vocat GCSE
([>4 in total])
Higher degree
GCSE, vocat GCSE
(<5 in total)
HNC or HND
10%
BTEC etc (highest
@ 1st / gen
diploma level)
0%
NVQ or SVQ
(highest @ level 3)
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
-10%
NVQ or SVQ
(highest @ level 2)
Source: Jenkins et al (2007): The Returns to Qualifications in England, Updating the Evidence
Base on Level 2 and Level 3 Vocational Qualifications. CEE Discussion Paper no. 89.
06
20
05
20
04
20
03
20
02
20
01
20
00
20
99
19
98
19
19
97
-20%
24
…and demand for cognitive and social and emotional skills is likely
to continue.
The level of skill required to do a job is
generally rising…
Employers’ demands
Economic
Outcomes
…and the type of skills demanded are also
changing, from manual skills, to abilities in
communication and self-management.
Changes in qualifications required 1997-2006, million jobs
Projected change in skill requirements to 2010
8%
8
1997
2001
2006
2010
6%
7
millions of jobs
1999
6
4%
5
2%
4
0%
3
-2%
2
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4+
Sources: Felstead et al (2006) Skills at work; IER estimates base on Census and LFS data
Verbal
Client
Comm
Numerical
Level 1
Horizontal
Comm
No
qualifications
Planning
0
Manual
-4%
1
25
Employers’ demands
Employers have clear demands on young entrants to the labour
force – including social and emotional skills.
In preparation for the world of work, satisfaction of
employers towards young people remains reasonably
good, and is improving…
Employers’ views on the preparedness of
young people for work
National Employers Skills Survey 2009; National Employers Skills Survey
2007. Results from 79,000 employers
Economic
Outcomes
… although it is with personal attributes that greatest
shortcomings are identified.
Employers’ views on the shortcomings of
young people’s preparedness for work
Personal attributes are defined in NESS as: Lack of motivation/enthusiasm/commitment; work ethic/poor attitude to work; time keeping skills/punctuality;
poor attitude (inc. manners/respect); not prepared to work long hours; discipline; social/people skills; common sense; initiative; confidence; responsibility;
personal appearance/presentation.
26
14
Social and emotional skills are also important in determining
outcomes, including cognitive skills
There is significant interdependence between cognitive and
social /self-regulation skills – with achievement in maths…
16
19
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Economic and wider
Outcomes
Recent research has shown that attentiveness and locus of
control are almost as important as cognitive skills for
educational attainment and economic outcomes…
The relative importance of cognitive and social and
emotional at age 10 on likelihood of attaining minimum
educational qualifications at age 261
Relative Impact of Different Skills on Numeracy
Achievement1
Each marker refers to an
individual study. The black
markers are studies with
statistically significant results
12
10
6
Estimated coefficient
Marginal effect
8
4
2
0
-2
social and emotional skills
Cognitive skills
-4
Maths
Reading
Attentiveness
Locus of Control
Olevel
Cognitive
Self-esteem
Alevel
Extraversion
Anti-social
behaviours
Peer relations
Degree
social and emotional
1) Duncan et al, 'School Readiness and Later Achievement.', Developmental Psychology 43:6. Filled triangles indicate
statistically significant coefficients (2008). Results based on results from 6 surveys across different countries.
1) Feinstein (2000), The relative importance of academic, psychological and behavioural attributes developed in
childhood. 2) Carneiro et al, (2007), The Impact of Early Cognitive and social and emotional Skills on Later
Outcomes;
27
Young peoples’ attitudes and behaviours are key and they are
shaped by a variety of influences
A conceptual model…
Childhood
14
Drivers in successful
Youth Transitions
Employers’ Demands
16
19
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Adulthood
Economic and wider
Outcomes
Young Person's
Attitudes and Behaviours
Parental Attitudes
Family Resources
Friends and Peers
Community
School
28
14
There are strong associations
between children’s beliefs regarding
their own ability and their academic
attainment….
…but losing self-belief is also
associated with increased likelihood
in engagement in risky behaviours.
There are also strong associations
between whether a child believes
they have control over their own
economic destiny (locus of control)
and their academic attainment…
Effect size (% of standard deviation) for KS4;
Marginal percentage point effect for other outcomes
Individual child attitudes are critical. Levels of self-belief are
related to attainment, whereas changes are more closely
associated with engagement in risky behaviours…
30%
16
19
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Economic and wider
Outcomes
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
Impact of child self-belief on various
outcomes at age 16
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Key Stage 4
Smoke
frequently
Drink
frequently
Belief in ow n ability (scale) (Age 14)
Tried Cannabis
Anti-social
behaviour
Lost belief in ow n ability (Age 14 - 16)
Source: Chowdry et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
*Goodman and Gregg ed.s (forthcoming) Children’s educational outcomes: the role of attitudes and behaviours, from early childhood to late adolescence.
29
14
Engaging in multiple �risky’ behaviours is also associated with low
educational attainment…
Source: LSYPE
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Economic and wider
Outcomes
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
B ehaviour
Internalising
1
-0.8
2
-4.5
-50.3
3
1
behaviour
E xteranalisin g
However, multiple
engagement in risky
behaviours is associated with
up to a 20% reduction in
GCSE points. A reduction in
8-12 entire GCSE grades.
19
Social and
emotional skills
Impact of engagement in multiple risky
behaviours on GCSE attainment
N o . o f B eh av io u rs at ag e 14
Engaging in only one or two
risky behaviours is
associated with a small and
statistically insignificant
reduction in attainment (< 1
GCSE grade = 6 GCSE
points)
16
Social and
emotional skills
-5.5
2
-3.1
3
-3.3
4
-72.1
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
C o n trib u tio n to G C S E P o in t S co re (a g e 16)
Note: 6 points represent 1 grade in 1 subject, although 16 points are given for the lowest pass (grade G)
30
14
…and undertaking self-developmental activity is associated with
better educational attainment and fewer risky behaviours.
Young people engaging in self-development activities, including
sport, on average achieved 10%-20% higher GCSE point
scores….
3-4
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Economic and wider
Outcomes
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
Externalising risky
behaviour
1.2
82.5
46.9
1
Social and
emotional skills
Impact of socialising activities and self development
activities on engagement in risky behaviours
97.6
2
19
Social and
emotional skills
….Self-development activities are correlated with fewer risky
behaviours, whereas there is a positive correlation with
socialising activities
Mean number of risky behaviours
young person engages in
No. of Self-Development
Activities at age 14
Impact of engagement in multiple selfdevelopment behaviours on GCSE
attainment
16
Social and
emotional skills
Internalising risky
behaviour
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0
Contribution to GCSE Point Score (age 16)
1
2
3
So cialising activity
4-5
0
1
2
3-4
Self-develo pment activity
N o . o f a c t iv it ie s
Source: LSYPE
Note: 6 points represent 1 grade in 1 subject, although 16 points are given for the lowest pass (grade G)
31
Parental attitudes and behaviours, along with family processes,
matter a great deal for older children.
•
Good parenting matters for older children too.
•
Most families function as supportive unit
–
e.g. 74% eat together most nights (age 13/14)
•
Teenagers rely on their parents for
psychological and emotional support.
•
Sharing problems is strongly associated with
post-16 transitions.
–
–
•
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
Parental Attitudes
Young people, who get on badly with their parents are
associated with a lower likelihood of being in FT
education
Young people who “never talk to mum about
things that matter” are twice as likely to become
NEET as those who talk at least once a week
(15% versus 8%)…
…and 15% less likely to be in full-time
education.
Overwhelming evidence from LSYPE that
these sort of behaviours matter for attainment
through KS4, over and above earlier age
effects.
Source: LSYPE
32
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
Parents act as an important source of support and guidance.
Parental Attitudes
Happy adolescents feel most
able to talk to their parents
about things that matter…
People that young people are likely to
talk to about things that matter to them,
by self-reported well-being
“Who are you most likely to tell your
problems to?”
…but only 1 in 5 unhappy or
depressed adolescents felt
able to talk to their parents.
Percentage
Having someone to talk to
matters. 26% feeling much
more unhappy than usual had
no-one to talk to.
…disaggregated by how young person feels.
45%
Parent
40%
Friend from School/College
35%
Your Girlfriend/Boyfriend
30%
No-one
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Not at all
No more than usual
Rather more than
usual
Much more than
usual
Have you recently felt unhappy or depressed?
Source: LSYPE, wave 4
33
Parental expectations to stay on in learning post age 16 have
become a social �norm’…
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
%
percentage
Parental expectations have risen across all social
class background, with gaps narrowing in latest
born cohort
Professional
Skilled
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
Parental Attitudes
Although high social class parents have
the highest learning aspirations for their
children, the picture is reversed once
adjusted for prior attainment.
Unskilled
Direct influence of parental education on
parental expectations for education has
reduced for the later born cohorts.
Boys
Girls
1958
Boys
Girls
1970 cohort
Boys
Girls
1989 LSY PE
The role of academic attainment in
influencing expectations among teenagers
and parents has reduced for later born
cohort. Therefore, it suggests that social
change has made further education a
norm.
Sources: Schoon and Polek (2009) High Hopes in a Changing World: Social disadvantage and educational expectations in three age cohorts
34
…but there are socioeconomic differences in parents’ assessment of
the likelihood of this happening
Most parents would like their young person to
continue in education beyond the age of 16...
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
Parental Attitudes
…but the extent to which parents think it is likely
their young person will enter HE varies
significantly by income
% of parents who said education when asked what
they would like YP to do when they leave school?
Proportion of parents who thought it was likely their
child would enter Higher Education
0.6
100%
90%
0.5
proportion
percentage
80%
70%
60%
50%
0.4
Very likely
0.3
Not likely
0.2
40%
30%
0.1
20%
0
10%
Poores t
2
3
4
Riches t
0%
Poorest
Source: LSYPE
2
3
4
Richest
35
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
Socio-economic differences in financial and other resources in
families impacts on access to services that aid attainment
Although there are strong differences in educational
outcomes by family income, the causal impact of
income is only modest, albeit significant
Family Resources
Indicative ways in which differential access to
resources affects attainment is shown through the
gradients in use of private tuition and in access to
computer or internet access.
Access to material resources by socioeconomic position
100%
90%
80%
70%
percentage
UK evidence suggest that a onethird reduction in family income
increases the propensity to achieve
no A-C GCSEs by between 1 and 3
percentage points…
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Bottom
2
Private Tuition
3
Computer Access
4
Top
Internet Access
Differential access to family resources also impacts on affordability of participation in learning
post-16 and may contribute to the significant drop-off in aspiration toward HE for young
people and their parents from lower social-class families between the ages of 14 and 16.
Gregg and Blanden, 2004 “Family Income and Educational Attainment: A Review of Approaches
and Evidence for Britain”,
Chowdry et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the
Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
36
As young people get older they spend more time with their peers,
particularly those from more socially disadvantaged groups.
During adolescence, young people want to
spend more time with peers.
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
Friends and Peers
“I’d rather spend time with friends than family” by age
30%
Parents help to moderate young people’s peer
and community contexts. For example,
parental values and practices indirectly
determine their teenagers’ choice of peer
group or �crowd’.
percentage
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
12 to 15
16 to 19
The importance of the peer group appears to
peak at age 15 and is particularly influential for
boys. Young people in the UK, in particular
boys, spend more time with their peers than
almost all other OECD countries.
percentage
Interaction with friends, by lone parent/working status
…with young people from lower SEGs spending
more time with peers than those from higher SEGs3
Young people in lone parent families working
more than 16 hours per week are most likely
to frequently spend time at friends’ houses
and have their friends over to theirs.
Sources: Young People in Britain: The attitudes and Experiences of 12 to 19 Year Olds, NatCen (2004); Currie at al, 2004;
DWP, 2005 (based on 11-15 year olds); Asmussen et al. (2007)
Number of days had
friends round last week
Number of days visited
friends at home last week
37
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
The majority of young people have good peer relations,
helping them to develop themselves throughout adolescence…
Friends and Peers
Good peer relations are integral to the development of
internal (personal) skills.
Young people are more likely to be satisfied by
their friendship networks1
Making and keeping friends requires an assortment of
internal skills including functional skills such as:
As these competencies develop friendships change and
can become more stable and reciprocal. 5
Strong positive peer friendships cushion young people
from the stresses associated with experiences like
bullying or even the divorce of parents, as friends provide
important help and advice about how to manage
problems. 3
Has a satisfactory friendship network
Do you have a satisfactory friendship network?
80
70
60
percentage
• problem solving;
• aspects of self-regulation including perspective
taking ability, affect recognition;
• self-belief; and
• social & behavioural skills such as communications
skills, understanding others and so on.
50
40
30
20
10
0
16-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
Age Range (Years)
They can also produce feelings of personal well-being
and prevent loneliness. 3
Sources: Office of National Statistics 2005; Sullivan 1953; Hodges et al 1999; Rubin et al 1998 ; Epstein 1986; SavinWilliams & Berndt (1990); Hartup (1993); Armsden & Greenberg (1987); Buhrmester and Yin (1997)
38
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
…however, a significant minority struggle to form or maintain peer
relationships.
…and young people from lower socio-economic
backgrounds are marginally more likely to be
bullied
Although most young people have friends, up to
18% of today’s young people have no �best friend
who they can really trust’1…
100%
Friends and Peers
Young people who said they had
a friend they could really trust
80%
Young people bullied in the past 3
years (years 9, 10 or 11)
70%
90%
60%
80%
50%
percentage
percentage
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
40%
30%
20%
20%
10%
10%
0%
0%
1996
2006
Higher
professional
Low er
professional
Intermediate
Low er
supervisory
Routine
If a young person’s peer influences are primarily negative, the
likelihood of adjustment difficulties later on are increased. For
example, a lack of friendships at an early age is linked to later
depression.
Good Childhood Enquiry (2005); Gifford-Smith et al 2002; LSYPE
39
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
..and not having good friendship and peer relationships is
associated with poorer outcomes.
Association between different types of
bullying and impact on GCSE score
Any form of being bullied is
associated with reduced
attainment.
0
-20
GCSE Points Score
Overall, being bullied in KS4
is correlated with a reduction
in attainment of 2 GCSE
grades.
Friends and Peers
-40
-60
-80
Source: LSYPE wave 4
Actual
Violence
Threatened by
Violence
Money or
Possessions
Taken
Exclusion
Name Calling
Happiness and well-being is much
lower for those experiencing bullying.
-100
All Bullying
Those bullied are less likely to be in
full-time education and more likely to
become NEET
40
Neighbourhood characteristics in and of themselves
appear to have little influence on outcomes, except NEET
Impact of multiple deprivation on chances of
being NEET (relative to 20% most deprived
neighbourhoods)
0.0%
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
Community
Deprived individuals living in deprived
areas are more likely to be NEET at age
17 than deprived individuals living in nondeprived areas.
Marginal effect (% point)
-0.5%
However same study finds no evidence
that neighbourhood deprivation (after
controlling for other factors) consistently
affects Key Stage 4 scores or any
behavioural outcomes at age 16…
-1.0%
-1.5%
…though the literature is more mixed
about the impact of neighbourhoods on
behavioural outcomes.
-2.0%
-2.5%
2nd IMD quintile
3rd IMD quintile
4th IMD quintile
Top IMD quintile
Source: Chowdry et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
41
Relatively little of the difference in pupils’ attainment can be
explained by differences across schools…
25%
Voluntary-Aided schools have the best
GCSE results, but they also have a higher
quality intake
Percentage of between-school
variation in Key Stage 2 and 4
Key Stage 2 and 4 attainment by
school type
taking into account prior attainment and other pupil
characteristics
20%
percentage
15%
10%
28.5
350
28
340
27.5
330
27
KS2 APS
Higher between-school variation
in primary reflects the fact that
the primaries have a large
number of institutions, each with
a small number of teachers and
pupils, and secondary which has
a smaller number of institutions,
each with a large number of
teachers and pupils.
School
26.5
320
26
310
25.5
300
25
290
24.5
5%
24
280
Average capped GCSE and equivalents point score
per end of KS4 pupil
About 8% of the variation between pupils in
Key Stage 4 is attributable to school
differences.
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
Community Voluntary Voluntary Foundation Academy
School
Aided Controlled School
School
School
0%
KS2
KS4
KS2 APS of Y7 intake 2003/4
Capped APS KS4 2007/08
42
DCSF (2009) DCSF (2008) The Composition of Schools in England
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
…but good teachers do seem to matter.
School
Being taught by a high-quality (75th
percentile) rather than low-quality (25th
percentile) teacher adds 0.425 of a GCSE
grade per subject.
Impact of teacher quality on GCSE
attainment
1.2
Rivkin et al. (2005) find the gap in GCSE
points between a poor and non-poor
student is 6.08 GCSE points…
…so if a poor student had good teachers for
all 8 subjects and the non-poor student had
poor (25th percentile teachers) for all 8, this
would make up 3.4 points (56%) of the
difference.
Source: Burgess et al (2009) Do teachers matter? Measuring the variation in teacher effectiveness in England
GCSE points per subject
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Difference betw een 25th and
75th percentile
Difference betw een 5th and 95th
percentile
43
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
The most damaging behaviour of all to a young person’s prospects
is disengagement from school, manifested in absence…
Persistent absence from school is costly and
damaging to educational outcomes…
…and young people who play truant are more likely to
be NEET for longer durations
100
GCSE attainment of persistent absentees
50.0%
90
Association between NEET duration and truancy in
year 11
45.7%
45.0%
80
40.0%
There is a penalty of 3 GCSE points
for a 1% increase in absence over
the Key Stage
35.0%
30.0%
6 points = 1 grade in 1 GCSE subject
25.0%
Therefore 8% increase in absence
over the key stage is equivalent to
the FSM penalty (25 points)
20.0%
15.0%
70
percentage
percentage of pupils acheving 5+ A*-C GCSEs incl' English and maths
School
60
50
40
30
20
10.0%
6.4%
5.0%
10
0
None
0.0%
other pupils
Source: DCSF internal analysis, LSYPE
persistent absentees
1 - 3 months
Persisient Truancy
4 - 12 months
Occasional Truancy
12 months +
No Truancy
44
…with disengagement clearly associated with earlier poor attitudes
towards school.
Children that enjoy school perform
better at KS4, even when accounting
for prior attainment and are
significantly less likely to engage in
risky and anti-social behaviour
School
Impact of school enjoyment on outcomes
0.1
0.05
Standard deviations
Children who are bullied perform
worse than children who are not
bullied and are more likely to
experience behavioural problems…
Young Person’s Attitudes
and Behaviours
0
-0.05
Enjoy school (age 14)
Finds school worthwhile (age 14)
-0.1
Stops liking school
Stops thinking it likely that they will apply to HE
-0.15
…but are no more likely to truant…
-0.2
KS3-KS4
Value-added
Frequent
smoker
Frequent
drinker
Ever tried
cannabis
Involved in
Anti-Social
Behaviour
Truancy
Educational or behavioural outcome (age 16)
Solid filled bars are significant at p<0.01, stippled bars at p<0.05
and unfilled bars n/s.
Source: Chowdry et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from
the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
45
Contents
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Context – Trends in Youth Development
Drivers in Successful Youth Transitions
Where Policy Intervenes
Principles from the Evidence
46
This section looks at how current policy intervention acts on each of those
drivers to produce better and more equal outcomes.
14
Childhood
Prior
Attainment
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
16
19
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Adulthood
Economic
Outcomes
Young Person's
Attitudes and Behaviours
Policy
interventions
Parental Attitudes
Family Resources
Friends and Peers
Community
School
47
14
Most of the social gradients in adolescent development are
associated with gaps generated in earlier childhood…
Percentage of 26 year olds attaining educational and
vocational qualifications by quartile position in early
development scores at age 5
60
Bottom Quartile
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Evidence from the 1970 birth cohort shows social class
gaps open early, and continue to widen…
Attainment percentile
percentile
High performing five year-olds are much more likely to
attain higher qualifications at 26
Childhood
Prior
Attainment
Attainment (percentile rank)
by SES and early ability
100
80
60
40
20
0
High SES,
High Ability
Hses,
Hab’ty
High SES,
Low Ability
Hses,
Lab’ty
Lses,
Hab’ty
Low SES,
High Ability
Lses,
Lab’ty
Low SES, Low Ability
22
42
62
Top Quartile
82
102
122
Age (m onths)
percentage
…and although there is evidence that the link between parental
income and outcomes is weakening slightly*, data from children born
in 2000 suggest the same phenomenon is still occurring
Attainment percentile
percentile
30
0
None/Misc
Lower/Middle
A-level or higher
Attainment (percentile rank)
by income and early ability
100
80
60
40
20
0
Hinc, Hab’ty
Linc, Hab’ty
Hinc, Lab’ty
Linc, Lab’ty
22
42
62
82
102
122
Age (m onths)
Feinstein, L (1999) The relative economic importance of academic, psychological and behavioural attributes developed in childhood Source: Feinstein (2003). “Inequality in the Early Cognitive Development of British Children in the 1970
Cohort,” Economica, p73-97. Blanden and Machin (2007) Recent Changes in Intergenerational Mobility *Gregg and Macmillan (2009) Family Income and Education in the Next Generation: Exploring the income gradients in education for
the current cohorts of youth. CMPO Working Paper 09/223
48
…but there is plenty of scope for progress in adolescence.
What young people and their parents do, how they think and how
they act has an important bearing on their life trajectory.
Differences in prior attainment explain about 60
per cent of the gap in test scores between young
people from rich and poor families.
Family background factors (including parental
education) account for only a relatively small
fraction of the attainment gap between young
people from rich and poor families.
This suggests that the effect of parental
education and family background on
attainment at age 16 works largely
through its influence on attainment
by age 11.
Differences in parental and young people’s
attitudes and behaviours captured at ages 14
and 16 together explain roughly one quarter of
the gap in GCSE results between young people
from rich and poor families
Goodman and Gregg [eds] (2010) Children’s educational outcomes: the role of attitudes and behaviours,
from early childhood to late adolescence.
14
Childhood
Prior
Attainment
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Explaining the gap between the poorest and
the richest at age 16: decomposition analysis
Residual Gap
7%
Missing data
4%
Parental Education
and Family
Background
6%
Child Attitudes and
behaviours
15%
Parental attitudes
and behaviours
8%
Schools
1%
Prior Abilty
59%
49
Where Policy
Intervenes
Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that
occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.
14
Childhood
Prior
Attainment
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
16
19
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Adulthood
Economic
Outcomes
Young Person's
Attitudes and Behaviours
Parental Attitudes
Family Resources
Friends and Peers
Community
School
Preventing
Disengagement
Technological
Access
Tackling Risky
Behaviours
Helping post-16
transitions
Developing social
and emotional
attributes
50
Where Policy
Intervenes
Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that
occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.
14
Childhood
Prior
Attainment
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
16
19
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Adulthood
Economic
Outcomes
Young Person's
Attitudes and Behaviours
Parental Attitudes
Family Resources
Friends and Peers
Community
School
Preventing
Disengagement
51
Where Policy
Intervenes
Much of the additional social gradient in outcomes generated
during adolescence is associated with falling aspiration and
disengagement.
There is no social gradient for young people who have
rising aspirations, but there is a strong social gradient
for those with falling aspirations…
20%
…and children with greater educational aspiration
tend to perform better in school, and have fewer
behavioural issues.
Percentage of young people changing their
HE aspirations between 14 and 16
Impact of higher education
aspirations on outcomes
30%
16%
14%
percentage
12%
10%
8%
6%
4%
2%
0%
Bottom
2
Starts thinking it likely that they will apply to HE
3
4
Top
Stops thinking it likely that they will apply to HE
Effect size (% of standard deviation) for KS4;
Marginal percentage point effect for other outcomes
18%
20%
10%
0%
-10%
-20%
-30%
-40%
Key Stage 4
Smoke frequently
Likely to apply to University (Age 14)
Anti-social behaviour
Truancy
Stopped thinking of applying to Uni (Age 14 - 16)
Many young people first their gain Level 2 qualification between ages 16 and
19. This underlines that young people can achieve and that early disengaging
young people are failing to reach their potential.
Ross, A. (2009) Disengagement from education among 14-16 year olds. DCSF-RR178 .
Chowdry, H. et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
52
This disengagement is manifested through underachievement
through Key Stage 4
Percentage of young people in education and training:
Under achievers vs. consistent achievers
100
90
80
percentage
70
60
50
40
Where Policy
Intervenes
Young people whose
attainment was average at
KS3 but dropped in KS4 were
more likely to be NEET or in
JWT at 16-17 than their
counterparts who were low
achievers at KS3. This
suggests that a lack of
engagement (driven by a
range of factors) is a critical
issue for post-16 participation
and can be more important
than attainment level alone.
Disengagement can be
sudden, triggered by an event
or crisis, or a more gradual
process.
30
20
10
0
Consistently high
Consistent moderate
Consistent Low
Under Acheivers
Callanan, M. Kinsella, R. Graham, J. Turczuk, O. and Finch, S. (2009) Pupils with Declining Attainment at Key
Stages 3 and 4: Profiles and impacts of underachievement and disengagement. DCSF Research Report 086
53
…and without intervention, there is the risk of downward spirals
Suzanne: Complete disengagement
In Years 7 and 8 she had done well at
school. As she got older she grew to dislike
school. She had difficult relationships with
some of her teachers and sometimes she
couldn’t answer questions in class and this
made her feel stupid. She had a good group
of friends, but in Year 9, all her classes were
split. Not being with her friends made her
not want to go to class and it was at this
point she began to truant. At the same time,
outside of school, her parents split up.
At first she only truanted a few days here
and then she was truanting for whole weeks
at a time. It was only half-way through Year
11 that the school contacted her dad about
her attendance. The school let her drop
some lessons and offered her extra classes.
She did not go because the lessons were
after school and she saw this as her time.
When it finally came to her exams, she did
not go to any of them because she felt she
had missed too much.
Source: NatCen (2009) Declining attainment between KS3 and KS4:Profiles,
experiences and impacts of underachievement and disengagement
Where Policy
Intervenes
Pathway to Suzanne’s complete disengagement
-Less support from home
-Struggling with workload
-Enjoying lessons less
because without friends
-Unreceptive to
support
-Increased workload at
KS4
-Poor relationships with
teachers
-Family breakdown
-Separation from friends
-School became aware of
truanting. Let her drop
some lessons to catch up
with coursework but too far
behind so not interested in
the support
-Truancy
-Complete
disengagement
-Connexions advice
available in years 10 &
11 but lost interest in
school by this stage
-Falls further behind
with work
-Truancy not picked up
till year 11
-Fallen behind with
work so offered help to
catch up. Sessions
after school so did not
attend
54
The evidence points to a range of factors to prevent
disengagement or re-engage young people
Evidence suggests that on-going and
early intervention prior to Year 9 is
crucial, and that re-engagement
activity has more limited success
Key success factors are:
Schools working with
parents
Positive relationships
with teachers
Study support
Engaging curriculum
Supervision of
homework
Preventing bullying
Extra-curricula
activities
Sources: NatCen (2009) Declining attainment between KS3 and KS4:Profiles,
experiences and impacts of underachievement and disengagement
Where Policy
Intervenes
A case study with early intervention
At KS3 ’Claire’ had been a high achiever. She
was initially predicted ten A-C grade GCSEs.
However, at KS4 she did not like a lot of the
subjects on offer preferring more practical
subjects. She would also have liked to have
done business studies but this was not
available. From Year 9 onwards she fell in with
a new group of friends who did not go to her
school and because they were truanting, she
truanted so that she could be with them. As a
result, she got further and further behind with
her school work and lost touch with the friends
she had at school and this in turn made it more
difficult for her to go back. Despite this, support
from her family and the help of an Educational
Welfare Officer helped her re-engage with
school in Year 11 where she also got help from
a school mentor to catch-up with what she had
missed. With this help she achieved 5 GCSE
passes, 4 of them at A-C. �Claire’ now 18, is
working full-time.
Ross, A. (2009) Disengagement from education among 14-16 year olds. DCSF-RR178 .
55
Where Policy
Intervenes
Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that
occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.
14
Childhood
Prior
Attainment
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
16
19
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Adulthood
Economic
Outcomes
Young Person's
Attitudes and Behaviours
Parental Attitudes
Family Resources
Friends and Peers
Community
School
Technological
Access
56
While material differences between families are inevitable,
effective policy can mitigate impact this has on adolescent
outcomes.
Where Policy
Intervenes
Much of the SES gap for the LSYPE
cohort is associated with differential
access to computers and the internet
in the home. Something recent policy
has sought to address through the
home access programme.
Access to material resources by socioeconomic position
100%
90%
80%
Differences in 1 to 1 tuition too.
Mitigated by personal additional
support to those at risk of underachievement
percentage
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Bottom
2
Private Tuition
3
Computer Access
4
Internet Access
Top
Although evidence on whether financial
constraint prevents post-16
participation in learning is mixed, the
introduction of EMA enabled
participation to increase from less
advantaged families to rise relatively
much faster.
Chowdry, H. et al. (2009), Drivers and Barriers to Educational Success - Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. DCSF-RR102
57
Where Policy
Intervenes
Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that
occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.
14
Childhood
Prior
Attainment
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
16
19
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Adulthood
Economic
Outcomes
Young Person's
Attitudes and Behaviours
Parental Attitudes
Family Resources
Friends and Peers
Community
School
Tackling Risky
Behaviours
58
Where Policy
Intervenes
Young people at risk of harm who are in contact with support
services are under-achieving the most…
17% of 15 year olds had been in contact with the police,
educational welfare or social services, with young
people engaging in the most risky behaviours are most
likely to be in contact with institutions and agencies.
These young people are those who experience loss of
educational attainment, particularly so if social services
or other institutions beyond the school are involved
(though causality could run in either direction)
Impact on attainment from risky
behaviours and contact with services
40
100
20
90
0
80
-20
Average KS2 to KS4 CVA
percentage in contact with…….
Contact with different services by
number of risky behaviours
70
60
50
40
-40
-60
-80
Those saying they engaged in
some risky behaviours but not
in extra contact with institutions
do not seem to suffer an
educational penalty.
-100
30
-120
20
-140
10
-160
0
0
Police
Educational
Welfare
Social Services
0
Source: LSYPE, internal analysis.
1
2
3
School
4
5
6
7
Other Services
Any Service (not
inc police)
8
SS=Social Services; EW=Educational Welfare.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Risky Behaviours
SS, EW or Other
School Only
None
59
Remedial action does not seem as effective as prevention, since
despite institutional support those engaged in multiple risky
behaviours still suffer attainment penalties.
Where Policy
Intervenes
Prevention
What matters most around risky behaviours is not engaging in them from outset.
The most important anchor points to effective policy intervention are: young person’s attitude to
school; the relationships with family; and the influence of peers
Participation in self-development activities associated with reduced risky
behaviours socialising activities (just hanging out around town / going out with
friends) associated with increased risky behaviours).
So important to encourage desired activities – e.g. youth facilities policies; positive
activities.
Remedy
Unstructured socialising activities associated with increased tendency to engage in
risky behaviours.
Difficult to reverse participation in risky behaviours, but �positive activities’ may
prevent further activities being taken up.
Increasing/taking-up self-development activity may have some benefits, and is
associated with 2+ GCSE Grades progress.
Cebulla, A & Tomaszewski, W (2009) Risky Behaviour and Social Activities, DCSF Research Report 173.
60
Where Policy
Intervenes
Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that
occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.
14
Childhood
Prior
Attainment
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
16
19
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Adulthood
Economic
Outcomes
Young Person's
Attitudes and Behaviours
Parental Attitudes
Family Resources
Friends and Peers
Community
School
Helping post-16
transitions
61
Where Policy
Intervenes
Young people need information, advice and guidance to help
them plan successful transitions to adulthood.
Many young people are able to access
advice about planning for the future from
parents and wider social networks.
But access to such resources is not
universal, so schools and other institutions
have a pivotal role.
Frequency of talking about plans for future study Year 9
A lot
Members of family
11
Friends
10
Teachers as part of a
2
lesson
Teachers outside of
15
lessons
90%
Percentage of YP in activities at 16/17 still
in same activity at 17/18
80%
Young people from lower SEC group are
over-represented in this routes.
percentage
70%
60%
50%
40%
0%
Quite a lot
A little
Not very often
38
35
30
17
35
37
21
20%
Not at all
11
15
31
33
40%
4
10
14
41
60%
80%
100%
Navigating transition points, such as from
school to post-16 learning notably has
potential to deflect young people away from
their intentions.
30%
20%
10%
0%
FTED
Job With
Training
Job Without
Training
GST
Source: LSYPE Waves 1 and 5 and YCS Cohort 13, Sweep 2
NEET
This is particularly true for those continuing
post-16 learning in routes outside of school.
62
Where Policy
Intervenes
Specific interventions tackle the increasing social gradient that
occurs post-14 through each of the drivers identified.
14
Childhood
Prior
Attainment
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
16
19
Social and
emotional skills
Social and
emotional skills
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive Skills
Adulthood
Economic
Outcomes
Young Person's
Attitudes and Behaviours
Parental Attitudes
Family Resources
Friends and Peers
Community
School
Developing social
and emotional
attributes
63
What employers identify as weaknesses in personal attributes of
young people entering the labour market are of growing
importance and contribute to social gradients.
Where Policy
Intervenes
…but we don’t yet know how to intervene fully
effectively here.
Social and emotional attributes matter…
Social & Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL)
Behaviour & Attendance Pilots, Personal, Learning and
Thinking Skills and PSHE are school-based
interventions which could help improve social and
emotional attributes.
A high proportion of job adverts explicitly seek these
attributes rather than specific functional skills e.g. only
26% of adverts explicitly or implicitly asked for
qualifications.
This demand, coupled with distributional differences in
these attributes is believed to play a major part in the
social gradients that persist in employment and earnings
of young adults.
They are the same attributes that earlier we showed
help mediate educational attainment.
Evaluation results for SEAL in secondary schools is not
yet available and the evidence on impact of such
programmes in general remains relatively underdeveloped (we’re investing in evaluations to find out
more about what works).
Personal tutors increase pupils’ self-confidence (Bullock
& Wikeley (2008)).
Whereas trajectories of childhood cognitive development
become largely fixed at early age, evidence suggests
that ability in social and emotional behaviours remains
malleable later in life and is plastic all through
adolescence.
Provision of study support can benefit pupils’
motivation, behaviour and attitudes to learning
(MacBeath et al. (2001), MORI (2004)).
Engagement in self-development “positive” activities
can help to reduce participation in risky behaviours.
Jackson, M., Goldthorpe, J. H. and Mills, C. (2005), �Education, Employers and Class
Mobility’, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 23: 1-30.
MacBeath, J. et al (2001) The Impact of Study Support DfES Research Report 273
MORI (2004) Study Support Survey. DfES Research Report 591
64
Contents
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Context – Trends in Youth Development
Drivers in Successful Youth Transitions
Where Policy Intervenes
Principles from the Evidence
65
Principles from the
evidence
Five principles that emerge from the evidence
Be inclusive but
proportionate
Use the
strongest drivers
and levers
Engaging and
enriching
Relevant &
responsive
Use
opportunities
and incentives
66
Be inclusive but proportionate
Principles from the
evidence
All young people
have some needs
Some young people have greater needs than others. This is
particularly true for young people not able to benefit from the full
range of support that many take for granted from their parents and
wider families.
Prevention better
than cure
We know policies aimed at keeping young people on positive
trajectories are currently more effective than those rectifying
observed poor outcomes.
Precision of
targeting
Supporting those at risk of poor outcomes implies either a degree of
universal help or very good targeting is a major current challenge
that creates high deadweight and detracts from cost-effectiveness.
67
Use the strongest drivers and levers
Principles from the
evidence
Young people do not live in a vacuum.
There are many influences on the attitudes and behaviours
of young people, both positive and negative.
Parents remain the most important influence for young
people.
The importance of this
transmission
mechanism is only
likely to increase in
the future as young
people live for longer
at the parental home
Nurturing family relationships, not just for younger children,
remains an essential bond to protect adolescents’ well-being
and development.
In isolation, the impact of schools and other institutions is
much weaker. However, it will remain an important
influencing medium for young people estranged from their
families.
68
Be relevant and responsive.
Principles from the
evidence
Adolescents often don’t lead ordered, neatly sequenced lives. This
creates challenges in providing support when they need help, rather than
when the system wants to provide help.
The states and activities of young people are often very dynamic – for
instance the average duration of a period of being NEET is only 2 months.
This means support needs to be nimble if it is to tackle real need rather
than the ghost of problems past.
Dynamism creates a lot of activity, so policy needs to be discerning about
what problems justify intervention and which will self-rectify or be tackled in
the family.
One solution may be to better develop the decision-making capacity of
young people, so that they are better equipped to make informed choices for
themselves and know when to seek out support.
69
Engaging and enriching.
Principles from the
evidence
Adolescence should be enjoyable. Young people already worry a lot
about growing up, so it’s important not to add to that by being heavyhanded and impose lots of restrictions.
Policy ought to enrich their lives not take away liberties.
Giving young people a voice in asking what they want and would helps
them not only produces better policy but by respecting and empowering
them assists their development.
Young people most value experiential learning in deciding future
choices. That experiential learning also extends into other domains of
adolescent behaviour, some of which society finds less acceptable.
Policy needs a better framework for determining what the harms are to
both individuals and to society, both in the immediate and in the future, to
guide when and how to intervene.
70
Use opportunities and incentives
Principles from the
evidence
More carrot than stick. Simply
ordering young people not to do
something is ineffective and often
disrespectful.
There is scope to minimise
potential exposure to harmful
activities and behaviours by
imaginatively creating alternative,
more attractive opportunities for
young people to engage is positive
activities.
71
Principles from the
evidence
Next Steps
Many of this conclusions from this evidence update support the direction
of travel within recent major policy change for young people
Better schools -Your child, your schools, our future: building a
21st century schools system
Ensuring all people get the qualifications they need – Raising
Expectations: staying in education and training post-16
IAG Strategy - Quality, Choice and Aspiration - A strategy for
young people's information, advice and guidance
NEET Delivery Plan - Raising the Participation Age: supporting
local areas to deliver
Social development – Support for all: Families and
Relationships Green Paper.
Positive activities - Aiming High for Young People: 10 Year
Youth Strategy
It is also clear that much
remains to achieve our
social goals. Further
research stemming from
this slide pack will be
investigated further by
DCSF’s new research
centres to help formulate
better, more efficient and
effective, evidenceinformed policy in the
future.
72
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