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Global Responses to the Rise of the West

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Global Responses to the
Rise of the West
Mr. Millhouse
AP World History
Hebron High School
History of Imperialism
World in 1900
British Empire in 1900
“The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”
Dutch Empire
German Empire in 1914
India “The Jewel in the Crown”
1661 1st British trade center at Bombay
– 1690 British establish center at Calcutta
1707 Start of Mughal decline
1756-1763 Seven Years’ War
– British East India Co. uses sepoys
1857 Sepoy Rebellion
1858 Beginning of the British Raj
Indian Resistance to British Rule
Reforms
– Ram Mohan Roy
Cooperation
– Indian National Congress (1885)
Nationalism
– Radical movement centered on
Hinduism
– Called for independence and
revolts
– Paved path for Gandhi, etc.
Ram Mohan Roy
Impact of British rule in India
Positive:
– Western education
– Social reforms
• Keep the caste system
– Technology
• Railroads
• Telegraph lines
– Brought into the global
market economy
Negative:
– Move towards cash crops
lead to famines
– Drain India of resources
– Taxes used to pay for
army and generous
salaries for
administrators
– Increase in chronic
poverty
British Railways in India
Left: the Darjeeling Express
Above: Queen Victoria station
Famine in India 1877
French Empire
Light Blue: 1st French colonial empire; Dark Blue: 2nd French colonial empire
French in Vietnam
1600s Jesuit priests arrive in Vietnam;
French trade with Vietnam follows
1802 French help Gia Long unite Vietnam
1820-1841 Minh Mang replaces Gia Long
and begins to persecute Christians
Persecutions plus pressures in Europe
provided justification for French conquest
By 1890s France controlled Vietnam (later
would add Cambodia and Laos)
Vietnamese Resistance
Guerrilla warfare – “Save
the King Movement”
Vietnamese Nationalist
Party (VNQDD)
– Fail to create mass
movement
– Replaced by Communist
Party of Vietnam (Viet
Minh)
• Dominated by Ho Chi Minh
Bastille Day in Vietnam
Imperialism in Africa
Left: Africa in 1878
Right: Africa in 1914
Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
British Imperialism in South Africa
1st Dutch settlement at Cape Town
British annex Cape Town
Boers begin Great Trek
Diamonds discovered in Orange Free
State
1885 Gold discovered in Transvaal
1899-1902 Boer Wars
1652
1815
1830
1867
Images of Britain in Africa
British in Imperialism in Egypt
1798 Invasion of Egypt by Napoleon
1805 Muhammad Ali and his successors
modernize Egypt
– Borrow heavily from England and France
– Build Suez Canal
1882 Nationalist uprisings threaten
Egyptian government
– Egypt becomes a protectorate of Great Britain
Suez Canal
Egyptian Responses
Reforms
– Muhammad Ali
Nationalism
– Arabs see British control of
Egypt as double colonization
– Dinshawi incident (1906)
Islamic Fundamentalism
– Mahdi
Legacy of the Mahdi
Mahdi army of Muqtada al-Sadr in Iraq
Ottoman Empire in the 19th c.
Called the “Sick Man of Europe”
Why? Just a few examples…
– Power struggles between government, religious experts,
Janissaries, and other elites
– Ayan (landlords) skimmed tax revenue
– Import of European manufactures caused a decline in
the artisan class
– Empire became economically dependent on Europe
– External threats from Egypt, Austria-Hungary, Russia,
and Balkan nationalism
• Greece gained its independence in 1830
Ottoman Territorial Losses
Ottoman Reforms
Early reforms of Selim III (1789-1807)
resisted by Janissaries
Janissaries slaughtered by Mahmud II in 1826
Tanzimat Reforms
–
–
–
–
Modernize military and bureaucracy
University education focusing on math & science
Western technology (telegraphs, railroads, etc.)
Constitution of 1876
Few changes for lower class & women
Resistance to Reforms & Revolt
Religious conservatives
– Ulama
Individual sultans
– Abdul Hamid (1878-1908)
– Overthrown in 1908
Ottoman Society for Union Progress
– “Young Turks”—Nationalism
– Establish a parliamentary system
– Led Ottoman Empire into WWI
The Qing Dynasty (1644-1912)
Founded by a Manchu warlord
Traditional Chinese dynasty
Qing Golden Age
– Kangxi (1662-1722)
– Yongzheng (1722-1735)
– Qianlong (1735-1796)
Dynasty in declines after the death of
Qianlong
– White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804)
China: Decline of a Civilization
Internal Breakdown
Opium War
Taiping Rebellion
Self-Strengthening Movement
Failure of Force
– Sino-Japanese War
– Boxer Rebellion
– Chinese Revolution of 1912
The 1st Opium War (1839-1842)
The 1st Opium War (1839-1842)
The 1st Opium War (1839-1842)
Lin Zexu destroying opium. In the summer of 1939, Lin Zexu confiscated
and destroyed 2.6 million pounds of opium. It took 500 laborers 22 days to
destroy all of the opium.
The 1st Opium War (1839-1842)
Legacy of the Opium War
“Unequal Treaties”
– Opens 5 ports to trade
with Britain
British gain control of
Hong Kong
British gain
extraterritoriality
Does NOT address
sale of opium
Chinese hero, Lin Zexu
Causes of the Taiping Rebellion
Anti-Manchu sentiment
– Strongest among southern
laborers who were mostly Han
Chinese
– Caused by a myriad of
problems
• Natural disasters, economic
collapse, government corruption
and the defeat in the Opium War
Leadership of Hong Xiuquan
– Brother of Jesus?
Statue of Taiping leader Hong
Xiuquan
Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)
Hong Xiuquan’s army was able to seize 44 Chinese cities including
the Southern capital of Nanjing (picture above).
Aftermath of the Taiping Rebellion
Self-Strengthening
Movement
– Modernize the army
– Improve infrastructure
– Relied on foreign investment
Resisted by Neo-Confucian
scholars and Dowager
Empress Cixi (1861-1908)
Sino-Japanese War (18941895)
Dowager Empress Cixi, “the
Dragon Lady”
Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895
Western Spheres of Influence
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
Fall of the Qing Dynasty
Death of Dowager Cixi
Sun Yat-sen’s 3 Principles of
the People
– Nationalism, Democracy, and
People’s Welfare
Qing falls in 1912
– End of the imperial system
Sun Yat-sen
Replaced by the Republic of
China
– Sun Yat-sen named 1st president
Decline of Tokugawa Shogunate
By early 19th century, Japanese society was
in turmoil
–
–
–
–
Declining agricultural productivity
Harsh taxes on peasants
Periodic crop failures, famine, and starvation
Samurai and daimyo are in debt to merchants
Some Positives
– Highest literacy rate outside of the West
Challenge of the West
Arrival of Matthew
Perry (1853)
– Unequal Treaties
• Similar to the treaties
signed by the Qing
dynasty
– Perry’s “Black Ships”
steam into Tokyo Bay
– Force the Japanese to
establish trade and
diplomatic relations with
the U.S.
Japanese depiction of Admiral
Matthew Perry
Internal Conflict
Shogunate’s deals with West viewed as
dishonorable
– Popular slogan: “Revere the emperor, expel the
barbarians”
Demands for reform include lowering rice
prices & expulsion of foreign “barbarians”
Revolution?
– Two minor wars between supporters of
emperor and supporters of the shogun
– January 3, 1868, the last shogun abdicated and
the shogunate was destroyed
Modernization: Meiji Restoration
Abolish feudal order
– Daimyo removed from power
– Samurai class is abolished
Constitutional government
– Constitution of 1889 establishes constitutional
monarchy with legislature
– Emperor commanded armed forces, named
prime minister, and appoint the cabinet
– Suffrage limited—only 5% could vote in 1890
New Meiji Government
Left: Structure of Meiji
Governement; Above:
Mutsuhito, the Meiji
Emperor
Modernization: Meiji Restoration
Japanese industrialization
– Modernize the military, transportation,
communication, education, etc.
– Creation of zaibatsu
• Combination of state initiative and private
investment
• Consolidates economic power into the hands of a
few powerful families
• Many companies started by men of samurai origins
Japan’s Economic Growth
Social Developments
No reforms to ease burdens on rural
population
Massive population growth
– Strained resources and kept labor costs low
Role of women
– Maintain inferiority of women in the home
– High-school education for women (1899)
– Silk industry relied upon women working in
factories
Japanese Imperialism
Sino-Japanese War
– Japan gains influence
over Korea & Manchuria
Russo-Japanese War
– Japan’s navy leads to
victory over Russia
Japan annexes Korea in
1910
Latin American Independence
Factors
– Creole leadership
• Simon Bolivar
– The Enlightenment
– Napoleon’s conquest of
Spain
• Mask of Ferdinand
– Native unrest
• Father Miguel de
Hidalgo
– Distance
Problems After Independence
Political rivalries
– Centralists vs. federalists
– Liberals vs. conservatives
– Caudillos
• Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
– Victorious at the Alamo!
• Juan Manuel de Rosas (Argentina)
– Role of the Catholic church
– Creoles vs. natives
– Western interference
Santa Anna
Economic Problems
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Economic Imperialism?
– Britain replaced Spain as the dominant
economic force in Latin America
– Economy continued to depend upon exports
– Britain dominated until 1860
Modernization theory vs. Dependency
theory
U.S. Intervention in Latin America
Mexican-American War
(1846-1848)
– Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Spanish-American War
– U.S. gains Puerto Rico, the
Philippines, Guam
– “Independence” for Cuba
Roosevelt Corollary (1904)
Panama Canal
– Completed August 1914
U.S. Imperialism
U.S. Imperialism
“Big Stick” foreign policy
Mexico (1821-1876)
1821-1850’s marked by
political instability
– Defeat in Mexican-American
war began a nationalist
movement
Benito Juarez (1858-1872)
– La Reforma
• Attempted massive land
reform
Benito Juarez
– Reforms challenged the
Catholic church
Porfirio Diaz (1876-1910)
Industrialized Mexico
–
–
–
–
Built railroads
Improved banking system
Focused on oil & mining
Depended on foreign
investment
Increasingly autocratic
Oppressed political
opposition
– Arrested Francisco Madero
in 1910
Porfirio Diaz
Argentina
After independence dominated by caudillos
Politically stabilized after 1862
Economic growth based on exports
– Primary export is beef
– Industrialization dependent on foreign capital
Large numbers of immigrants from Europe
– 3.5 million from Italy, Germany, Russia, etc.
– Golondrinas
Latin American Society
Few changes for women in Latin America
– Remained under the control of their fathers and
husbands
• Machismo
– Lower class had more economic freedoms
– Gained more access to education
Racial castes were formally abolished
– Racial and ethnic tensions continued
• Few major/ethnic reforms
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