1st World War in history вЂўGreat War or War to End all War вЂўNot called WWI until after WWII вЂўTotal war вЂўInvolved 60 nations and 6 continents Cost of War вЂў$400 billion вЂў$10 million dollars an hour 16 million deaths вЂўFirst war of the Industrial RevolutionвЂ¦вЂ¦ New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting п‚ћ Imperialism- European powers were going to all parts of the world to gain land. п‚ћ Africa, Asia, The Pacific п‚ћ By 1910, the most desirable colonies had been taken. п‚ћ Germany envied France and Britain b/c they had the most richest colonies. п‚ћ They soon realized that the only way to get land in Africa was to take it away from the colonizers. European nations competing for colonies around the worldвЂ¦..Imperialism п‚ћ2 forms- 1: to act in the countryвЂ™s own national interest. п‚ћ Ex: Alsace-Lorraine-strip of land on the boarder of France and Germany. п‚ћ Had been taken by Germany in 1871 and France was expecting to gain it back. п‚ћ Germany did not want to give it up. п‚ћ This caused problems in their relationship. п‚ћ 2. The longing for an ethnic minority independence in a nation where there are many different/diverse groups. п‚ћ Ex: Austria-Hungary- Hungarians and German speaking Austrians governed millions of Czechs, Slovaks, Poles Italians, Romanians and Serbs. п‚ћ These different groups wanted their own independent self government and lands. п‚ћ This often caused conflict within the nation itself. п‚ћ Building up a nationвЂ™s military for war and giving them more power than the government. п‚ћ Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Russia п‚ћ Spend large sums of money on new weapons and warships. п‚ћ All of these countries were preparing for war. Alliances вЂўEuropean nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power вЂ¦вЂ¦.. Triple Alliance Central Powers Triple Entente Allied Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Empire Bulgaria Great Britain France Russia Assassination of Franz Ferdinand Franz FerdinandвЂ™s funeral procession Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule. Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. п‚ћ When the Archduke was assassinated, Bosnia along with Serbia were annexed to Austria-Hungary. п‚ћ Austria-Hungary was convinced Serbia has something to do with the killings. п‚ћ They used this excuse to declare war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. п‚ћ This set off the chain reaction of alliances throughout Europe. п‚ћ July 29, 1914- (Russia was SerbiaвЂ™s protector) began mobilization. п‚ћ Germany demanded Russia stop. They didnвЂ™t. Germany declared war on Russia. п‚ћ RussiaвЂ™s ally France declared war on Germany. п‚ћ Germany п‚ћ Great declares war on Belgium. Britain declared war on Germany. п‚ћ Quick sweep through France to knock the French out of the war then turn east and defeat Russia. п‚ћ Germany п‚ћ This is between France and Russia. plan was put in order to avoid fighting both countries at the same time. п‚ћ Germany had to pass through Belgium to get to France п‚ћ Belgium was neutral. п‚ћ Germany hoped Britain would stay out of the war. п‚ћ The invasion of Belgium brought Britain into the war. п‚ћ 1 week after the conflict started all of EuropeвЂ™s great powers were involved. п‚ћ Central Powers п‚ћ Allies п‚ћ Germany п‚ћ Russia п‚ћ Austria-Hungary п‚ћ France п‚ћ Bulgaria п‚ћ Serbia п‚ћ Great Britain Archduke and Wife Assassinated Germany Demands Russia Stop GermanyвЂ™s Schlieffen Plan Austria-Hungary Declares war on Serbia July 28, 1914 RussianвЂ™s ally France readies troops Britain Enters War after invasion of Belgium August 4, 1914 Russia Begins Mobilization July 29, 1914 Germany Declares war on Russia August 1,1914 Central Powers and Allies Formed п‚ћ Stalemate- Both sides canвЂ™t gain the advantage. п‚ћ Germany and France and Britain п‚ћ 1914 Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join Central Powers п‚ћ Italy and Romania join Allies п‚ћ Central Powers п‚ћ Allies п‚ћ Germany п‚ћ Russia п‚ћ Austria-Hungary п‚ћ France п‚ћ Ottoman п‚ћ Serbia п‚ћ Bulgaria Empire п‚ћ Great Britain п‚ћ Italy п‚ћ Romania п‚ћ Machine guns and rapid fire artillery п‚ћ Air Planes п‚ћ Zeppelins п‚ћ Grenades п‚ћ Tanks п‚ћ Submarines п‚ћ Poison Gas п‚ћ Battle of Somme in 1916 British troops lost 20,000 troops in one day. п‚ћ Trench foot п‚ћ Contracted п‚ћ Constant п‚ћ No lice from rats fear manвЂ™s land п‚ћ Casualties (French had 1,000,000 casualties in first 3 months of war) Trench Warfare п‚ћ Some felt personally involved b/c 92 million were immigrants or children of immigrants. п‚ћ Germans п‚ћ Most and Irish for Central Powers Americans for Allies п‚ћ Wilson wanted Americans to remain neutral. вЂўPanama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. вЂўWoodrow Wilson became President in 1912. вЂўAmericans were shocked by the outbreak of war butвЂ¦вЂ¦вЂ¦вЂ¦..it was in Europe. вЂўUS was officially NEUTRAL п‚ћ American Neutrality- Influenced by trade п‚ћ Preparedness Movement- Be ready for war. Patriotic education (Propaganda) п‚ћ Peace Movement- Progressives, social reformers and women. (Women marching down streets proclaiming peace). п‚ћ3 groups п‚ћ Isolationists- Stay out of war п‚ћ Interventionists- U.S. should intervene on side of Allies п‚ћ Internationalists- Get involved only to solve the problem and promote peace. п‚ћ Britain blockades Germany for its contraband. п‚ћ Later Britain took all of the goods that were supposed to go into Germany. (Food, cotton, medicine, gasoline) п‚ћ German response = blockade of Britain п‚ћ U-Boats- Britain and Germany competed to build the largest and strongest navy. п‚ћ Germany blockaded Britain by navy. п‚ћ Propaganda used by Britain to sway U.S. opinion. п‚ћ Lusitania- 128 Americans killed п‚ћ Germany agreed to stop blowing up passenger ships. п‚ћ March 24,1916 Sussex was sunk by Germans п‚ћ Killed 2 Americans п‚ћ Sussex Pledge- Germans would warn ships before they sank them. п‚ћ Wilson authorized banks to make a huge loan to the Allies. вЂўMay 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. вЂўGermans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. вЂўKilled 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. вЂўU.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of вЂњunrestricted submarine warfareвЂќ. вЂўUS believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians п‚ћ Jan. 31, 1917 Germany informs U.S. that the Sussex pledge would be ended. п‚ћ Feb. 3 U.S. cuts off diplomatic ties with Germany. п‚ћ Zimmerman Note- Germany promises lost land to Mexico if they declare war on U.S.