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Lectures:
Mgr. Jana Javorčíková, PhD. (lectures, Fhv – seminars)
Seminars:
Mgr. Martin Kubuš (Fif – seminars)
PaedDr. Jana Javorčíková, PhD. (Fhv – seminars)
(Externists)
PASSWORD: mbl1 or mbl2
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING
OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
WWII
BEFORE
AFTER
ECONOMICS
The slump
Full employment
The economics of the
gold standard
KeynesВґ and BeveridgeВґs
economics
John Maynard Keynes: American economist – believed in econ. stimulus
William Beveridge: British economist and social reformer
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING
OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
WWII
BEFORE
AFTER
POLITICS
Conservative
hegemony
Labour victory (1945)
“Government of men”
“administration of
things”
Labour victory in 1945: Clement Atlee won over W. Churchill (Cons.)
Atlee: Welfare State: “from craddle to grave“ or “from womb to tomb“
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING
OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
WWII
BEFORE
SOCIETY
Class system
Aristocratic privilege
and glitter
“THEM”
dependence of women
dual system of
education
AFTER
Classless society
Egalitarian way
“US”
feminism of the 60Вґs
tripartite system of
education (Butskellism)
status revolution
BUTSKELLISM: blend of Butler and Hugh GaitskellВґs political thought
BUTLER EDUCATION ACT
1944 – Butler Education Act passed:
(Richard Austen Butler, 1902-82)
– compulsory education under 15
– system of sponsorship for the
underprivileged students;
Characteristics of British Universities of the 1960’s
Formal,
traditional,
conservative,
abstract
(virtual character of Oxford)
vs.
Redbrick
provincial
universities
opposed to Oxbridge
THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL SETTING
OF THE POST-WAR BRITISH LITERATURE
WWII
BEFORE
AFTER
CULTURE
common culture
equalisation
nationalisation
decentralisation
Americanisation
Racial integration
Multiculturalism
“high vs. low” culture
RESULTS OF BUTLER ACT
POSITIVES:
пЃ¬ More democratic access to education
NEGATIVES:
пЃ¬
ANGRY YOUNG MEN
DAVID LODGE (b. 1935)
BIOGRAPHY
пЃ¬
teacher at the University of Birmingham (1960 –
1987)
пЃ¬
His university studies portrayed in a combination
of an autobiographical novel, Bildungsroman Out
of Shelter, 1970) and H. James’ international
novel (setting: London – Heidelberg).
LODGEВґS STYLE
пЃ¬
master of parody (The British Museum is Falling Down,
1965; Changing Places, 1975); parody of V. W.; J. J.; D.
H. L; F. K.
пЃ¬
Often depicts the Anglo-American cultural gap (Small
World, 1984);
пЃ¬
motivations: sexual intrigue and the drive for power;
пЃ¬
Also wrote theoretical handbooks (The Language of
Fiction, 1967) – explaining the methodology of
structuralism and empiricism.
Synopsis of Small World
Setting: Rummidge, everywhere
: late 1970´s –early 1980´s
Characters: professors and scholars in
humanities (Perssy
McGarrigle, Angelica Pabbst, Morris Zapp,
Phillip Swallow)
Genre and tone: academic romance, ironic
Post-war modernisation
of the old
class-ridden and antiquated
British society
END OF LECTURE NO. 1
BRITISH POST-WAR LITERATURE
VARIOUS
GENRES,
TOPICS,
STYLES,
MOVEMENTS OR MISFITS.
Six periods/groups according to
Gilbert Phelps:
1. “Survivors“ of the 1930’s : Virginia Woolf, James
Joyce
2. “Already active novelists“ Leslie Paul Hartley
3. Post-colonial or anti-colonial novelists: Paul Scott;
James G. Farrell; Hanif Kureishi
4. Female writers: Muriel Spark, Beryl Bainbridge
5. Angry Young Men: John Osborne, J. Wain, J. Braine
6. “Misfits“: John Fowles, David Lodge, Ian McEwan
SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION:
Serious novels: Graham Greene
Comic novels: G. Greene
Linguistic experimens: Anthony Burgess
Traditionalists: August Wilson
Detective novels: A. Christie
Spy novels: John Le CarrГ©
Political allegories: George Orwell
Sci-fi: Aldous Huxley
CHRONOLOGICAL
CLASSIFICATION:
The 30Вґs: All the Fun: Carpe Diem philosophy of
the Jazz Age/Roaring 20Вґs
The 40Вґs: Extravagance and Reason: war-time
escapism
The 50Вґs: Anger and Fear
The 60Вґs and 70Вґs: Dreams Revived: back to
colonial past and its effects
Before we talk about movemements
and groups...
пЃ¬
TWO PROBLEMS:
1.
Self-classification of authors
POSTMODERNISM - “ownership of the
text“
2.
1. Self-classification of authors:
Classification of authors is not easy.
Take, for example Alan Sillitoe.
He is a “typical“ representative of the literary group
called “Angry Young Men“ :
1. Sillitoe himself was born to a working class
family but was able to pursue in his studies at a
university due to a state sponsorship
2. His main representatives followed the same
carreer (e.g. Arthur Seeton)
3. He wrote most of his novels during the highlights
of the „Angry Young Men“ period.
However, he refused to be labeled an “angry young
man“
Alan Sillitoe (Writer)
Author of the original novel
and scriptwriter of the
screenplay for the film. A
bestselling novelist for the
past 40 years, Alan Sillitoe
has lately produced his
long-awaited sequel to that
first novel, Birthday
(Flamingo, 2002).
2. MODERNISM vs.
POSTMODERNISM
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
MODERNISTS: James Joyce; V. W.; Edward M. Foster; G. G.; J. Conrad
POSTMODERNISTS: Muriel Spark; Beryl Bainbridge; David Lodge
пЃ¬
CHRONOLOGY:
End of the 19th ct.
1920Вґs
пЃ¬ 1940Вґs
пЃ¬ 1960Вґs
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
– MODERNISM
– highlights of MODERNISM
– POSTMODERNISM
– highlights of POSTMODERNISM
POSTMODERNISM:
deflection from established rules: double names, characters
пЃ¬ conventions,
пЃ¬ form: pastiche
пЃ¬ style: syntax, sentence structure
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
POSTMODERNISM – BASIC THOUGHTS
MODERNISM: STRUCTURALISM
пЃ¬ Language is a system of signs.
пЃ¬ Writing is encoding, Reading is decoding.
пЃ¬ Text has THE MEANING.
пЃ¬
MODERNIST EXPERIMENT: sub-trends: surrealism, old avant-garde
POSTMODERNISM: POSTSTRUCTURALISM,DECONSTRUCTION
пЃ¬ Language is asystematic.
пЃ¬ Every decoding is another encoding.
пЃ¬ Text has A MEANING.
POSTMODERN EXPERIMENT
Novel п‚® anti-novel, noveau roman
Poetry п‚® concrete poetryDrama п‚® total theatre
пЃ¬ LITERARY CRITICISM: Marxist criticism, Feminist criticism, New criticism
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Introduction to postmodernism - Diego RodrГ­guez de
Silva y VelГЎzquez
LAS MENINAS: THE MAIDS OF HONOUR
1599-1660
1. Who/what are the people in the painting
looking at?
2. How many figures are there?
/Notice the sources of light/
3. Where are you standing?
a) A passer by
- you
c) Another painter
b) Somebody else, e.g. a
royal couple, infant’s parents,
a joker, etc.
A passer by
The passer by, be it you
or whoever else,
represents the OBSERVER
of the scene.
Metaphorically, he
symbolises the READER
while the scene
How many figures are there?
8 7
9
1
4
2
3
6
5
How many figures are there?
MIRROR
9 10
8 7
9
1
2
3
4
MEANING
you
you
6
5
Jacques Foucault: Words and Objects
PAINTING SERVES AS A METAPHOR...
пЃ¬
THE PAINTING = THE TEXT
пЃ¬
YOU
пЃ¬
THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN THE PAINTING = THE/A
MEANING OF THE PAINTING/ TEXT
пЃ¬
SOMETHING THE READER HAS TO ADD BYTHE
PROCESS OF THINKING, REFLECTING, ETC.
= THE READER
MODERNISM vs. POSTMODERNISM
“Postmodern attitude“can be
well illustrated by a paining by
Diego Velasquese.
Postmodernism is a new
trend in arts that expands to
many genres, for example
to architecture, painting,
music, fashion or literature.
„
POSTMODERNISM and
FASHION
Lacroix Goes Giddy for The Kitsch and Kiddy
Lacroix likes to dress his women like a fantastic mix between Peter
Pan, Alice In Wonderland and A Mid-Summer Nights Dream. If you’re
looking for a lighthearted dress that oozes childhood sentimentality
then Lacroix is your man. I like this dress the best, it so reminds me
of Alice – are you ready for the rabbit hole?
POSTMODERNISM and
FASHION
EXPERIMENT
COLAGE OF STYLES
(fairy tale vs. ballet vs.
surrealist wedding dress)
AMBIGUITY
EXISTENCIALISM
mockery
QUESTIONS TRADITIONAL VALUES
POSTMODERNISM and
FILM
EXPERIMENT
COLAGE OF STYLES
(detective story vs. love story vs.
pulp fiction)
AMBIGUITY
EXISTENCIALISM
PARODY OF A TRADITIONAL
GANGSTER FILM
QUESTIONS TRADITIONAL VALUES
POSTMODERNISM and
MUSIC
EXPERIMENT
COLAGE OF STYLES
AMBIGUITY
EXISTENCIALISM
QUESTIONS TRADITIONAL VALUES
POSTMODERNISM and
ARCHITECTURE
EXPERIMENT
COLAGE OF STYLES
AMBIGUITY
EXISTENCIALISM
QUESTIONS TRADITIONAL VALUES
...meaning is not:
•inherent to the text
•“given“ or “pre-conceived“ by the writer
•controlled by renowned literary critics
...meaning is:
•WHAT READERS ADD TO THE TEXT
•YOUR INTERPETATION BASED ON
YOUR UNIQUE PERSONAL EXPERIENCE
END OF LECTURE NO. 2
LECTURE NO. 3
ANGRY YOUNG MEN - NOVELISTS
1. WHEN WERE THEY ACTIVE?
2. WHO WERE THEY?
3. WHAT/WHO DID THEY WRITE ABOUT AND AGAINST?
1. WHEN WERE THEY ACTIVE?
Active in the 50Вґs:
1951: Leslie PaulВґs autobiography: The Angry Young Men
1956: 8th May – premiére of Look Back in Anger
Characteristics of the period:
•“the individual has been devalued, like the pound“ (L. P.
Hartley)
•people still feeling the hangover of the war
•culture was in crisis: narrowness and pessimism of novels
John Osborne
2. WHO WERE THEY?
The writers themselves and their characters were:
•
•
•
•
Young, needy, intellectuals
Disillusioned
Displaced
Conformists (contrast to the Beat Generation)
Defined themselves against:
a blend of homely sensibility;
upper class aloofness;
liberal politics;
avant-garde literary device.
3. WHO/WHAT DID THEY WRITE ABOUT AND AGAINST?
Wrote about : An angry young anti-hero:
•working class origin
•boorish rather than well behaved
•rudely angry rather than angry
•philistine rather than arty
Other dominant topics:
•rise of a working class man into the upper middle
class
•hurdles of education, upbringing and accent
ANGRY YOUNG NOVELISTS – REPRESENTATIVES
John Barrington Wain
- b. 1925 in the English Midlands
graduated from Oxford - professor of poetry at Oxford (1973
– 78)
a member of the Inklinks (an Oxford literary group)
Hurry on Down, 1953 – a picaresque novel
Living in the Present, 1955
The Contenders
John Braine
b. 1922 in Bedford, Yorkshire; d. 1986
Room at the Top, 1957;
Life at the Top, 1962;
The Jealous God, 1964;
Stay with Me till Morning, 1970;
Writing a Novel, 1974;
Finger on Fire, 1977.
ANALYSIS OF MAJOR NOVELS BY ANGRY YOUNG MEN:
John Wain: Hurry on Down - bestseller
Genre: picaresque novel, partly autobiographical
Main character: Charles Lumley – university graduate unable to fit in
Jack of all trades:
driver
smuggler
bouncer
hospital orderly
ANALYSIS OF MAJOR NOVELS BY ANGRY YOUNG MEN:
John Brain: Room at the Top – bestseller
Life at the Top – sequel
Style: open – X-rated in the USA
Main character: Joe Lampton – an army vet, town-hall clerk
Not unlike Clyde Griffits (American Tragedy, Theodore Dreiser)
rich Susan Brown
Loves two women
poor Alice Aisgill
- Seduces and marries her
“the running fight between himself and society had ended in a draw“
ANGRY YOUNG NOVELISTS –
OTHER REPRESENTATIVES
Colin Wilson: The Outsider;
Kingsley Amis: Lucky Jim;
Allan Sillitoe: Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner
Stan Barstow: A Kind of Loving
David Storey: This Sporting Life
Keith Waterhouse
ANGRY YOUNG MEN - DRAMATISTS
John Osborne
Life:
• (b. 1929 in London)
• educated at "a rather cheap boarding school"
• former actor in provincial repertory companies
• founding member of the "A. Y. M." group
ANGRY YOUNG MEN - DRAMATISTS
John Osborne
Characteristics of Osborne's style
• primitive dramatic skills;
• "kitchen sink" drama;
• mood of frustration: anarchic, cynical, nihilistic anti-heroes, social misfits.
Major plays and novels
• The Entertainer, 1957 - comic Archie Rice;
• Inadmissible Evidence, 1964;
• Autobiography: A Better Class of Person.
Luther, 1961;
A Patriot for Me, 1965
John Osborne
Look Back in Anger
Richard Burton as Jimmy Porter,
the speaker of the generation: "Nobody thinks,
nobody cares,
no beliefs,
no convictions
and no enthusiasm“
MAJOR ISSUES:
• conflict of generations, social classes and opposite sexes:
• conflict of the "sycophantic, phlegmatic and pusillanimous”
world of upper class and Jimmy's private, "loose" morality.
JIMMY PORTER:
A tall, thin young man about 25.
A mixture of sincerity and cheerful malice,
of tenderness and freebooting cruelty,
restless, importunate, full of pride,
a combination which
alienates the sensitive and the insensitive alike.
Jim hates:
Sundays
Sunday ironing
Pretentionus editorials
Sycophantic, pusillanimous people
Jim loves:
?
ALISON PORTER:
Tall, slim, delicate, with surprising reservation in her eyes
“I was wrong! I don’t want to be saint. I want to be a lost cause.
I want to be corrupt and futile“
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS
Representatives: 1. Working-class origin writers
2. novelists writing about the working class.
Allan Sillitoe
• b. 1928 in Nottingham
• son of an illiterate tannery laborer
• father unemployed during Depression - financial problems
• left school at 14 - earned money in RAF (Malaya)
Style:
• versatile author: plays, poems (The Rats and Other Poems, 1960)
over 50 essays, childrenВґs books: character of Marmelade Jim
• labelled also as an AYM
• advocate of the social function of novels (like J. Galsworthy, E. Zola)
• realistically portrayed working-class heroes
Allan Sillitoe
Style:
• versatile author: plays, poems (The Rats and Other Poems, 1960)
over 50 essays, childrenВґs books: character of Marmelade Jim
• labelled also as an AYM
• advocate of the social function of novels (like J. Galsworthy, E. Zola)
• realistically portrayed working-class heroes
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS – A. SILLITOE
Major writings:
• The Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, 1958
depicts a weekend of a young laborer Arthur Seaton (an anti-hero)
local colour
• Loneliness of a Long-Distance Runner, 1959
a collection of stories (Uncle Ernest)
• Raw Material, 1972
autobiographical features
Allan SILLITOE: Loneliness of a Long-Distance Runner,
1959
Style:
– rich in inner monologues
– slang
– local colour (dialects, regionalisms)
- Symbol of protest against those in power – upper classes
Shows inner rebelion
Allan SILLITOE: Loneliness of a Long-Distance Runner,
1959
Style:
– rich in inner monologues
– slang
– local colour (dialects, regionalisms)
“Come on , Smith“, Roach the sports master called to
me, “we don´t want You to be late for the big race, eh?
Although I dare say you´d catch them up if you were“
... So the big race it was, for them, watching from
the grandstand under the fluttering Union Jack, a race
for the governor, that he has been waiting for, and I
hoped he and all The rest of his pop-eyed gang were
busy placing big bets on me, hundred to one to win, all the
money they had in their pockets All the wages they were going
to get for the next five years and the more they placed ,
the happier IВґd be.
-
Allan SILLITOE: Saturday Night and Sunday Morning
Saturday nights
ARTHUR SEATON
Sunday mornings
• wild
parties,
• drinking,
• dating women
married, older
– Brenda
younger Doreen
• repenting – gone fishing
Conformist lifestyle:
No motivation
ambitions,
enthusiasm,
beliefs.
Shows nihilism,
resignation of WC
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS
– OTHER REPRESENTATIVES
Sid Chaplin
• b. 1916, Shildon, Durham - d. 1980
• the son of a coal miner, working in mines at 15
• obtained education from the worker´s Educational Association
(Durham)
• writing since 1950´s
Durham mining community writings:
The Leaping Lad, 1964
The Thin Seam, 1950
The Day of the Sardine, 1961
The Mines of Alabaster, 1971
Other writers: Mervyn Jones: Holding On
WORKING CLASS NOVELISTS
– OTHER REPRESENTATIVES
Sid Chaplin
Durham mining community writings:
The Day of the Sardine, 1961
ARTHUR HAGGARSTON: – his journey to adulthood
– conflict between him
and his tedious, repressive employer
– the only way out of stereotype: gangs,
violence
COMPARISON OF AYM and WCN
AYM
Jim Porter
Jim Dixon
(comic)
Social rank/
education
WC but univer.
graduate
WCN
Smith
Uncle Ernest
(serious)
Little education criminals
Family
Do have a family/
background misfits by choice
Social status
No family, at the
subsistance level
Reasons for
their
frustrations
Impoverished life
resignation
Social
misplacement
anger
COMPARISON OF AYM and WCN
WHO HAD A BETTER REASON
TO PROTEST?
Who did?
ANGRY
INTELLECTUALS
“LOUDMOUTHS“
UNEDUCATED WORKERS,
WHO WERE OFTEN
CRIMINALISED AND
DEMONISED
POSTCOLONIAL LITERATURE IN
ENGLISH
PAKISTAN
CANADA
INDIA
CEYLON
MALAYSIA
GUYANA
AUSTRALIA,
NEW ZEALAND
TASMANIA
EGYPT, SUDAN, SOUTH AFRICA, NAMIBIA...
http://images.google.sk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.scholars.nus.edu.sg/post/icons/post.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.scholars.nus.edu.s
g/post/&h=255&w=428&sz=26&hl=sk&start=71&tbnid=jZzvTNwkMbOMRM:&tbnh=75&tbnw=126&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dicons%2B
%252B%2Bliterature%26start%3D54%26ndsp%3D18%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Dsk%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN
NOVELISTS OF THE 50Вґs
– DISSOLUTION OF THE EMPIRE
LECTURE
1. What were the reasons for decolonization and its results?
Two reasons for decolonization: 1. Imperialism grew unpopular
2. Finance
Milestones in decolonization:
1947
– independent India
1956
– “Suez fiasco”
1960´s – conflicts in Malaya, Cyprus
1982
– Falkland Islands crisis
Results of decolonization:
1. loose association - Commonwealth
2. mass immigration (1950´s – 60´s)
POST-COLONIAL WRITINGS
2. Who were the major representatives of post-colonial literature?
NOVELISTS OF THE 1950Вґs:
1. Post-Imperialists – predecessors: Rudyard Kipling (The Jungle Book),
Edward Morgan Forster (Passage to India)
James Gordon Farrell,
Paul Scott
2. Anti- imperialists: Doris Lessing,
Nadine Gordimer
Doris Lessing
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
(b. 1919, Persia – present-day Iran - )
Childhood spent in Rhodesia, Africa
Exposed to contradictions, illusions and pessimism
Style:
пЃ¬
“...English writer without English tradition“
realism: ambiguous nature of African-English co-existence
пЃ¬
1979 – psychoanalysis, (The Golden Notebook); “space fiction“
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
The Grass is Singing, 1950
Children of Violence
African Stories, 1961
Doris Lessing
The Grass is Singing, 1950
Collection of stories: Little Tembi, No Witchcraft for Sale
European rationalism
(Cartesian compulsion
to think rationally
African English: Baas, Missus,
Boss Boy
VS.
African rituals
(faith healing, taboo and code,
miracles)
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
James Gordon Farrell
•(b. 1935, Liverpool – 1979)
•Spent a great deal of life abroad: France,
North America
•Won the Booker Prize in 1973
Style: – “Blended English sensitivity and
Indian exoticism”
– topics: Hindustan life, trappings of
civilisation
The Siege of Krishnapur; 1973
A Girl In the Head
The Singapore Grip, 1978
The Hill Station, 1981
Sabres and Dust by Chris Collingwood
British light cavalry and horsemen of Skinners Horse
fight Pindarn and Maratha 1826.
In 1827 Skinners Regiment was known as the 1st
Regiment of Local Horse and had just been awarded
the Battle Honour 'Bhurtpore' for its part in the
reduction of the fortress at Bharatpur. Skinner himself
being made a companion of the Order of the Bath.
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
James Gordon Farrell
The Siege of Krishnapur; 1973
– depicts 1857 – Sepoy rebellion in India
– the English struggling for their way of life
The Singapore Grip, 1978
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
Paul (Mark) Scott
( 1920- d. 1978)
-“brings to India the fractious
personality of the Westerner”
India – a Lost Paradise, Englishman’s
India
Raj Quartet:
-The Towers of Silence ;
-The Day of the Scorpion
-The Jewel in the Crown;
-Staying On
Officer Skinners
Horse 1905 by Mark
Churms
The Founder's
Church of St. James,
Dehli, illustrates its
association with
this famous
regiment of Bengal
Lancers.
TETRALOGY BY PAUL SCOTT
LEGACY OF POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
• CRITICISM OF COLONIALISM AND ITS PROPAGANDA
• CRITICISM OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT IMPACT OF COLONIALISM
COLONIAL VISUAL ARTS:
• pictoresque
• romantic
• idealised
LEGACY OF POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
• CRITICISM OF COLONIALISM AND ITS PROPAGANDA
• CRITICISM OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT IMPACT OF COLONIALISM
COLONIAL VISUAL ARTS:
The British portrayed as (naturally) superior
VISUAL ARTS
Painters often showed the Indians
in subordinate positions
VISUAL ARTS AND PROPAGANDA
http://posters.nce.buttobi.net/
Rudyard Kipling
пЃ¬
White Man's Burden
Take up the White Man's burden-Send forth the best ye breed-Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild-Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.
1865-1936
Post-colonial literature reacts to myths, halftruths and the autocratic view of the world
represented by the colonial literature
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
PROPAGANDA AND CRITICISM OF COLONIALISM IN POST-COLONIAL WRITINGS
1. Direct Criticism:
Doris Lessing
Nadine Gordimer
2. Indirect criticism:
Paul Scott
In his novel The Jewell in the Crown, Scott pays
attention to the propaganda taught at British colonial
schools, run by British teachers. Except for basics of
algebra and reading, teachers often idealised the
relationship bethween India and Great Britain. Britain
was depicted as a “mother“, taking India under her
protective wing, promoting education, religion,
hygiene and culture. Indians, on the other hand, were
depicted as willing to offer their country as a gift to
their “Mother Country“, Britain. In visual arts, many
painters also depicted the harmonic relationship and
obedience or submissiveness of the Indians.
POST-COLONIAL WRITERS:
PROPAGANDA AND CRITICISM OF COLONIALISM IN POST-COLONIAL WRITINGS
1. Direct Criticism:
Doris Lessing
Nadine Gordimer
2. Indirect criticism:
Paul Scott
In his novel The Jewell in the Crown, Scott pays
attention to the propaganda taught at British colonial
schools, run by British teachers. Except for basics of
algebra and reading, teachers often idealised the
relationship bethween India and Great Britain. Britain
was depicted as a “mother“, taking India under her
protective wing, promoting education, religion,
hygiene and culture. Indians, on the other hand, were
depicted as willing to offer their country as a gift to
their “Mother Country“, Britain. In visual arts, many
painters also depicted the harmonic relationship and
obedience or submissiveness of the Indians.
POSTCOLONIAL AND POSTIMPERIAL LITERATURE
IN ENGLISH
Salman Rushdie
“Novels are not to lay down rules
but to ask questions.“
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
b. in Bombay, India to a prosperous family
b. in 1947, the year of political changes in India
Moved to England
Received M.A. from KingВґs College, Cambridge
Worked as an actor, free-lance advertising copy-writer
1989 - “FATWA” - Condemned by Ayatollah Khomeni to death
FATWA – SENTENCE TO DEATH
I inform all zealous Muslims of the world
that the author of the book entitled The Satanic Verses—
which has been compiled, printed and published
in opposition to Islam, the Prophet, and the Qur'an—
and all those involved in its publication
who were aware of its content,
are sentenced to death.
I call on all zealous Muslims
to execute them quickly, wherever they may be found,
so that no one else will dare to insult the Muslim sanctities.
God Willing, whoever is killed on this path is a martyr.
EFFECTS OF THE SATANIC VERSES
пЃ¬
Japanese translator Hitosh Igorashi
stabbed to death
пЃ¬
Italian translator Ettore Capriolo –
seriously injured
пЃ¬
Norweigan translator William Nygaard
hardly survived assassination attack
Salman Rushdie’s Style:
пЃ¬
Influenced by J. Joyce
пЃ¬
Combines fantasy and magic
пЃ¬
Uses satire
пЃ¬
Attacks religious bigotry
пЃ¬
Criticism:
Incoherent
melange of plots,
themes, characters
The Satanic Verses – issues:
пЃ¬
Ispired by the life of Muhammad
пЃ¬
Attempts to be the “false part of Qur’an“
пЃ¬
Uses MAGIC REALISM (characters of
angels, demons, hybrids...)
Main characters:
Indian expatriates in England
GIBREEL FARISHTA
Bollywood star
SALADIN CHAMCHA
Voice-over in Indian films
PLANE CRASH
ARCHANGEL GIBREEL
schizophrenia
DEVIL
Falls into hallucinations
Understands his
Indian identity
Theme of The Satanic Verses:
пЃ¬
...“migration, metamorphosis, divided
selves, love, death, London and Bombay.„
пЃ¬
Other concepts: faith
BLASPHEMOUS
fanaticism
revelation
justifying God’s existence
Rushdie writes of the title of Satanic Verses:
You call us devils? It seems to ask.
Very well, then, here is the devil's version of the world,
of "your" world,
the version written from the experience of those
who have been demonized by virtue of their otherness.
Just as the Asian kids in the novel
wear toy devil-horns proudly,
as an assertion of pride in identity,
so the novel proudly wears its demonic title.
The purpose is not to suggest that the Qur'an
is written by the devil;
it is to attempt the sort of act of affirmation that,
in the United States, transformed the word black
from the standard term of racist abuse
into a "beautiful" expression of cultural pride.
Concepts:
NEWNESS – CHANGE
(IDENTITY POLITICS): FOREIGNERS –ALIENS – UNSPOILED NATIVES
CENTRAL AND MARGINAL CULTURES
Other novels by Salman Rushdie
Novels:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
The Book of the Pir, 1971
Midnight Children, 1981
Shame, 1983
The Satanic Verses, 1989
POSTCOLONIAL AND POSTIMPERIAL
LITERATURE IN ENGLISH
Kazuo Ishiguro
“What is history to a nation, memory is to the individual”
b. in 1954 in Nagasaki, Japan
пЃ¬ moved to Britain in 1960
пЃ¬ depicts cultural gap between two cultures
пЃ¬ graduated from the Univ. of East Anglia, lives in London
пЃ¬
Ishiguro’s style:
“It is perhaps a sign of my advancing years,
that I have taken to wandering into
rooms for no purpose.” (Masuji Ono, in:
Artist of the F.V.)
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Characters wander through the “rooms“
of their memories (ellipses, meanders)
Distortion of the past and present
Ironical deceptions of memory
Ishiguro’s major novels
Novels:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
A Pale view of Hills, 1982
An Artist of the Floating World, 1985
The Remains of the Day, 1989
The Unconsoled, 1995
Concepts:
 FLOATING WORLD – “the night time of pleasure,
entertainment and drink.”
пЃ¬
JOURNEY – the “journey“ motif
The Remains of the Day
Set in pre and post-war Britain
пЃ¬ Narrator: aging butler Stevens
who serves for Lord Darlington
пЃ¬
Mrs Kenton – love subdued to duty
THE ESSENCE OF
BRITISHNESS
Lord Darlington – abosolute loyalty
Stevens’ father – latent love
Mr. Farraday – new American master
The ProphetВґs Hair
Set in: India, 19Characters: wealthy moneylender Hashim, his son Atta, daughter Huma
Plot: Hashim finds a relic, decides to keep it. Instead of good fortune, it brings
his family ill fortune: Hashim turns a bigot, forces his family to
ultraorthodox Muslim life.
Contribution:
пЃ¬ Developing cultural awareness: shikara, khichri, phial, purdah, mulahs
(no endnotes, explanation)
пЃ¬
Combines fantasy and magic (reclic = prophet´s hair – its miraculous
powers)
пЃ¬
Satire of religious bigotry (countereffects of the relic, mullahs wanted to
lynch Atta for the loss of relic, SheikhВґs crippled children were healed
which “ruined them for life“)
LITERATURE OF THE 60’ s , 70’s AND 80’s
• After experiment with new topics (post-imperialism)
• Experiment with the form
Saga
Roman fleuve
Stream novel
River novel
Bildungsroman
Saga Novel
пЃ¬
a narrative or a tale of heroic
achievements or extraordinary or
marvellous adventures, e.g. Beowulf
пЃ¬
a narrative about the life of a large
family, written over a long period and
linked together by a character or place,
e.g. Forsyte Saga
OTHER EXPERIMENTS WITH FORM
Roman Fleuve – stream novel – “river novel“
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
a term used for a series of novels, each of which exists
as a separate novel but all of which are related because
the characters reappear in each succeeding work.
roman fleuve was established by E. Zola, H. Balzac and
M. Proust
the most popular variants: trilogy, tetralogy
Bildungsroman
- the term used widely by German critics, referring to a
novel which is an account of the youthful development
of a hero or heroine (David Lodge: Out of Shelter)
NOVELISTS OF THE 50Вґs
ANTHONY POWELL, ANGUS WILSON, C. P.
SNOW
пЃ¬
Novelists of the 50´s – achieved considerable
reputation in the 50Вґs
– unique category
Common Features:
пЃ¬ satiric interest in the changes in the Great
Britain in the 50Вґs and 60Вґs
пЃ¬ disgust with the spread of Western civilisation
пЃ¬ genre (roman fleuve)
NOVELISTS OF THE 50Вґs
ANTHONY POWELL, ANGUS WILLSON and
CHARLES PERCY SNOW
stories of “upper-class hard-heads“
пЃ¬ started publishing in the 30Вґs
пЃ¬
ANTHONY POWELL
(1905 - 2000)
educated at prestigious Eton
Balliol College (Oxford)
пЃ¬ a friend of Evelyn Waugh, Graham Greene
пЃ¬ started as a film script-writer
пЃ¬ critic and book reviewer for: the Daily Telegraph;
пЃ¬
the Times Literary Supplement;
Punch; the Spectator
Style:
universal:
Nicolas Poussin’s
picture which gives
name to the novel
-
4 volumes of memoirs
3 volumes of diaries
2 volumes of literary criticisms
ANTONY POWEL’S MAJOR WORKS:
Novels:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Afternoon Men, 1931
Venusberg, 1932
A Dance to the Music of Time
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
slowly developing narrative
(narrator: Nicholas Jenkins), set between the 20Вґs and 50Вґs
a chronicle of British upper middle class
a fictionalised war memoir
a prose elegy for the decline and fall of a ruling class
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
A Dance to the Music of Time
1. A Question of Upbringing
2. A BuyerВґs Market
3. The Acceptance World
4. At Lady MollyВґs
5. CasanovaВґs Chinese Restaurant
6. The Kindly Ones
7. The Walley of Bones
8. The SoldierВґs Art
9. The Military Philosophers
10. Books do Furnish a Room
11. Temporary Kings
12. Hearing Secret Harmonies
A Dance to the Music of Time
Metaphor:
Conformism of those
who „dance to the music of time“
Parody of English
political, social and military life
A painting by Nicolas Poussin
Seasons hand in hand
Symbolising:
•Passing of time,
•Human mortality
Dance
Symbolises
Partmership – its twists
and turns
Charles Percy Snow
Baron Snow of Leicester
(1905 - 1980)
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
educated as a chemist and physicist at the Univ. of Leicester
held important positions in the British Government
Style:
-rational, atheistic,
- scientifically exact, influenced by the genre of detective stories
- conflict between the sciences and the humanities (The Two
Cultures)
NOVELS BY CHARLES PERCY SNOW
пЃ¬
Strangers and Brothers, 1940 – 1970
- eleven novels in the series
- narrated by 'Lewis Eliot'.
- follows his life and career from humble beginnings in
an English provincial town, to London lawyer, to
Cambridge don, to wartime service in Whitehall, to
senior civil servant and finally retirement.
пЃ¬
The Masters, 1951
The New Men, 1954
Last Things, 1970
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
ANGUS WILSON
пЃ¬
b. 1913
Style:
пЃ¬ -restless experimentation with:
пЃ¬ REALISM (Hemlock and After, 1952)
пЃ¬ FABLE, ALLEGORY (The Old Man at the ZOO, 1961)
Topics:
пЃ¬ criticised SOCIETY ; society understood holistically
 favoured NATURE – source of stable values
Characters: (3 groups)
пЃ¬ PRINCIPAL PLAYERS
пЃ¬ SUPPORITNG ROLES
пЃ¬ ADDITIONAL CAST
NOVELISTS OF THE 50Вґs GRAHAM GREENE
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
b. in 1904 to the family of a Headmaster;
studied at Balliol College, Oxford;
editor of the Oxford Outlook, The Times, The Spectactor;
during WWII an employee of the Ministry of Information.
Style:
1. Catholicism;
2. Exotic settings (Cuba, Estonia);
3. Spy novels, double agents;
4. Greenland.
GRAHAM GREENE’S STYLE
Greenland
пЃ¬
– the term describing specific atmosphere in Greene´s novels:
“… the sweat and infection, the ill-built town which is beautiful for a
few minutes at sundown, the brothel where all men are equal, the
vultures… the snobbery of the 2nd class public schools, the law
which all can evade, the everpresent haunting underworld of gossip,
spying, bribery, violence and betrayal…“ Evelyn Waugh
пЃ¬
Technique of writing/narration: Camera Eye – recording
significant details (absolutely objective narrative, no judgemental
voice)
HAVANA
...the sweat and infection,
the ill-built town
which is beautiful
for a few minutes at sundown,
the brothel where all men are equal,
the vultures…
the snobbery of the 2nd class
public schools, the law
which all can evade,
the everpresent
haunting underworld
of gossip, spying,
bribery, violence
and betrayal…“
Evelyn Waugh
GRAHAM GREENE’S MAJOR WORKS
Novels:
Early Years:
пЃ¬
1929, The Man Within
Pre-WWII novels:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
1938, Brighton Rock
1939, The Confidential Agent
1940, The Power and the Glory
Post-WWII novels:
1948, The Heart of the Matter
1951, The End of the Affair
1955, The Quiet American
1958, Our Man in Havana
1969, Travels with my Aunt
1973, The Honorary Consul
Our Man in Havana
Parody of a spy novel
 Based on G. G’s experience during WWII
пЃ¬
Set in Cuba
пЃ¬ Story of an underdog Wormold
пЃ¬ Selling vacuum cleaners mistaken for
military plans of nuclear bombs
пЃ¬ Becomes Secret Agent 5920015
пЃ¬
a) Objective narrator
b) Subjective narrator
c) 1st person narr. d) 3rd person narrator
пЃ¬
There were eight Japanese gentlemen having a
fish dinner at BentleyВґs. They spoke to each
other rarely in their incomprehensible tongue,
but always with a courteous smile and often
with a small bow. All but one of them wore
glasses. Sometimes a prety girl who sat in the
window beyond gave them a passing glance, but
her own problem seemed too serious for her to
pay any real attention to anyone in the world
except herself and her companion.
LITERATURE OF THE 50ВґS AND 60ВґS EXOTIC NOVELS
• 50’s – 60’s – Period of the “Dreams revived“
• Inspiration by the colonial past, (Lawrence Durrell)
exotic countries, (William Golding)
utopia, dystopia and sci-fi (Eric Arthur
Blair – George Orwell)
Lawrence Durrell
(1912 - 1990)
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
b. in Jullundur, northern India to his English father
and Irish-English mother
result: inclination toward “Tibetan mentality“;
mixed nationality
sent to England at the age of 11
to be formally educated there
missed Southern climate and way of life, moved to Corfu
fled Greece in 1941 just ahead of Nazi army
Press attachГ© in the British Information Office
in Alexandria, Egypt (Belehrad and Rhodes)
A teacher of English literature in Cyprus
Deeply touched by the death of his wife and daughter
Lawrence Durrell
(1912 - 1990)
Style:
пЃ¬ Influenced by Henry Miller (naturalism),
H. D. Lawrence (sexual openness)
пЃ¬ Fascination for the Far East (oriental folklore, habits)
пЃ¬ Modernist fiction (philosophical point of view)
Novels: Pied Piper of Lovers (pseudonym: Charles
Norden)
Panic Spring, 1937
Bitter Lemons
The Alexandria Quartet
пЃ¬
The Alexandria Quartet:
Justine, 1957
Balthazar, 1958
Mountain Olive, 1958
Clea, 1960
пЃ¬
Subject: the expression of love: pure love, incest,
rape,
infant prostitution,
lesbian love,
homosexuality.
Specific expressions of L. G. DartleyВґs love to Justine (passion), Melissa
(affection), Clea (healing love), Mount Olive (friendship).
The Revolt of Aphrodite: 1. Tunc, 1968 2. The Avignon Quintet, 1974-85
William Golding
(1911 - 1993)
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
b. in Newquay, Cornwall
graduated from Oxford University
during WWII joined the military service
1983 - Nobel Laureate in Literature
Style:
пЃ¬ influenced by GreeneВґs religiosity: original sin, evil in people
 Interested in existential rather than national issues: “I should have
thought that a pack of British boys… would have been able to put
up a better show than that”.
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
called his writings “fables“ or “myths“; also writing moral allegories:
post Darwinist and post Wellsian pessimism
excessively using symbolism
Novels by W. Golding
Poems, 1934
пЃ¬ The Inheritors, 1955
пЃ¬ Pincher Martin, 1965
пЃ¬ Free Fall, 1959
пЃ¬ The Spire, 1964
пЃ¬ The Lord of the Flies, 1954
пЃ¬
EVIL IN MEN
OUTSIDERISM
CORRUPTION OF
POWER
INNER SAVAGERY
SOCIAL RULES AND
ABSENCE THEREOF
Novels by W. Golding
EVIL IN MEN
OUTSIDERISM
пЃ¬
„Man produces evil like a
bee produces honey“
пЃ¬
An outsider often draws
attention away from
predators’ mistakes
пЃ¬
People need an absolute
monarch
CORRUPTION OF
POWER
INNER SAVAGERY
SOCIAL RULES AND
ABSENCE THEREOF
Lord of the Flies
пЃ¬
Subject: collapse of civilisation:
transition from civilised to barbaric
пЃ¬
Inspired by
Robert BallantyneВґs Coral Island
(1858),
Jules Verne,
Daniel Defoe and sci – fi
пЃ¬
Setting: unspecified - Indian –
Pacific Ocean – time: WWII (?)
Lord of the Flies = inborn evil in
people
пЃ¬
Nemesis (in Greek, ОќО­ОјОµПѓО№П‚), was the spirit of divine
retribution against those who succumb to hubris,
vengeful fate personified as a remorseless goddess.
пЃ¬
The name Nemesis is related to the Greek word
ОЅОµОЇОјОµО№ОЅ, meaning "to give what is due". The Romans
equated one aspect of Greek Nemesis, which might be
interpreted as "indignation at unmerited advantage",
as Invidia (Aronoff 2003).
пЃ¬
Nemesis is now used as a term used to describe one's
worst enemy, normally someone or something that is
the exact opposite of oneself but is also somehow
similar. For example, Professor Moriarty is frequently
described as the nemesis of Sherlock Holmes.
Post Darwinist and post Wellsian
pessimism
Charles Darwin
Origin of Species
(1869)
The Survival
of the Fittest
пЃ¬
Herbert Spencer
had published
The principles
of biology in 1864.
In that he
referred to
'survival of the fittest'
twice
LoF shows the downfall of civilisation
(from civilised to barbaric)
Golding’s Post Darwinist and post
Wellsian pessimism
Herbert George Wells
„The Father of Sci-fi“
Author of:
The Time Machine
The War of Worlds
The Invisible Man
The Island of Doctor Moreau
Believed that technology
does not make a man
happier
Symbolism in Lord of the Flies
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
English cathedral choir schoolboys - microcosm
Piggy, glasses: intelligence
Ralph, the conch – democracy
Simon – Jesus
Roger – Evil, Satan
Jack – anarchy
The island – a microcosm
The beast – evil, residing within everyone
Lord of the Flies – the Devil
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Other authors: Malcolm Lowry: Under the Volcano
BRITISH POST-WAR POETRY
SEVERAL MOVEMENTS EMERGED
THE MOVEMENT
THE REVIEW
THE GROUP
THE MARTIANS
THE UNDERGROUND
TED HUGHES
SEAMUS HEANEY
THE MOVEMENT
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
- dominated in the 40's - 50's;
- manifesto of THE MOVEMENT: collections:
"Poets of the 50's", 1955 and "New Lines", 1956
P. Larkin:
I believe a poet has to enjoy writing poetry and
the readers enjoy reading it, or they are both
wasting their time.
(The Times, 1964).
I had suggested, in exasperation,
that he finds
Something other to write about
the moon, and flowers and birds,
and temples,
And the bare hills of the once
holy city Through the leprous lakes of
mud.
(Changing the Subject).
The poet
Should seek
more serious
topics
Struggle
with life
Artistic manifesto of the
Movement
Influences: W.Butler Yeats; W.H.Auden; Edwin
Muir;
Philosophy of the Movement
*
*
*
*
*
*
Disillusionment
Empirism
Subjectivity, intimacy, privacy
Intellectualism
Specific target: poets, churchgoers, mourners
Rational, logical language
* Representatives: educated, Oxbridge graduates
Intimacy
Sharp observations
And why should this chain of miracles be
easier to believe
Than that my darling should come to me as naturally
As she trusts a restaurant not to poison her?"
on life
Existential topics
This man I knew
Only a little, by his death
Shows me a love I thought I lacked...
For finished work, like answered prayer,
makes death taste sweet.
Vivid SIMILES
MEMBERS OF THE MOVEMENT
1. Robert Conquest “A World of Difference“, 1955; "Arias from
a Love Opera", 1969 "Forays", 1979
2. Philip Larkin: Whitsun Weddings
3. D. J. Enright
4. Elisabeth Jennings “Poems“, 1953; “A Way of Looking“,
1955; A Sense of the World"
5. Kingsley Amis Poems: "The End"
6. John Wain "Mixed Feelings", 1951; "A Word Carved on a
Sill", 1956; Weep before God, 1961
7. Thom Gunn "On the Move", 1966; "The Sense of
Movement"
8. John Holloway - literary criticism
9. Donald Davie - literary criticism
PHILIP LARKIN
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
- b. 1922 in Coventry, died 1985;
- studied at Oxford, St. John's
- librarian in Belfast, Leicester
Collections:
“The North Ship", 1945
“The Less Deceived“, 1955
“The Whitsun Weddings“, 1964
“High Windows“
Style:
Days
What are days for?
Days are where we five.
They come, they wake us
Time and time over
They are to be happy in:
Where can we live but
Ah, solving that question
Brings the priest and the doctor
In their long coats
Running over the fields.
RHETORIC
QUESTION
ANAPHORA
Days
What are days for?
MOTIFS OF
PANTA REI
Days are where we live.
They come, they wake us
Time and time over
They are to be happy in:
METAPHYSICAL
Where can we live but
FOUNDATIONS
Ah, solving that question
Brings the priest and the doctor
In their long coats
Running over the fields.
TABOO QUESTIONS
DENNIS JOSEPH ENRIGHT - b. 1920
Style: comic, funny verses
Collections:
пЃ¬ "The Laughing Hyena", 1953
пЃ¬ "Bread Rather than Blossoms", 1956
 “The Old Adam", 1965
пЃ¬ "Unlawful Assembly", 1968
 “The Terrible Shears",
MINOR MOVEMENTS AND LITERARY TRENDS:
THE UNDERGROUND
• Loose groups also called “The Liverpool Poets”
• Representatives: Adrian Henri, Roger McGough
• TOPICS: Criticism of “the Establishment”
Formed since the 1960Вґs
• Influenced by the Beat Generation, jazz,
William Blake, dadaism, surrealism
• Collections: Love, love, love, love, 1968;
Children of Albion, 1969
THE REVIEW
- Their manifesto: magazine
пЃ¬ - Reaction to the Movement
пЃ¬ - Confessional poetry and dramatic lyrics
of Alfred Alvarez
пЃ¬
THE MAVERICKS
- Opposition to the Movement
пЃ¬ - their anthology: The Mavericks
пЃ¬ - representatives: Ian Silkin (Nature with
Man, 1965)
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
TONE: reflexive, meditative poetry about
the North of England and its nature
THE MARTIANS or THE MARTIAN SCHOOL
пЃ¬
- collection:
A Martian Sends a Postcard Home, 1979
пЃ¬
- representatives: Craig Raine
SEAMUS HEANEY
“...poetry as revelation of the self to the self, as the restoration of the
culture to itself, poems as elements
of continuity...” (1976)
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
- b. in Ireland (Conn Derry), 1939
- studied in Belfast at QueenВґs University
- teacher, later the Head of the Department in Dublin
1995 – awarded the Nobel Prize
Style:
пЃ¬ - prolific, near-demonic poet
пЃ¬ - simple but strong
пЃ¬ - anti-human
пЃ¬ - reflections of the experience of human cruelty
пЃ¬ - psychic drama
SEAMUS HEANEY’s APOLITICAL POETRY
1. APOLITICAL POETRY:
пЃ¬ Traditionalist: images of farms, diligence, animals, nature
пЃ¬
Language: robust, uses dialects, archaisms, experiments
with assonance
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Prosody: unrhymed, American free verse form
inspired by neonaturalism of Ted Hughes, Robert Lowell
пЃ¬
Collections: - Death of a Naturalist, 1966
Wintering Out
The North, 1975
Field Work, 1979
SEAMUS HEANEY’s POLITICAL POETRY
2. POLITICAL POETRY
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
influenced by Patrick Ravanagh
rooted in HeaneyВґs Irish Catholic origin (Ulster
Catholics)
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
criticises bigotry of the Protestant Extremists
Military Images: Trout, Rookery
Collections: Whatever You Say, Say Nothing
North, 1975
(Edward James)
Ted Hughes
b. 1930 in the North of England (West
Yorkshire);
пЃ¬ Studied at Cambridge; interested in folklore, D.H
Lawrence, Shakespeare, Dylan Thomas;
пЃ¬
Many unusual jobs
 1956 – married to a U.S. poet Sylvia Plath;
пЃ¬ founded Arvon foundation;
пЃ¬ died 1984.
пЃ¬
Ted Hughes’ style:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
individual;
middle-English poetry – north-English dialect;
philosophical topics, questions;
neo-naturalist;
1st person narrator: „I sit in the top of the world, my eyes closed“.
Topics/Themes:
пЃ¬ brutality vs. vitality :
пЃ¬ Symbolism: of Jaguar, Hawk, Fox, Cat, Pike; pigs, apes, parrots
пЃ¬ Death vs. life: symbolism of animal world, war
 Horror, roughness: - ”silhouette of horror“, “enraged jaguar”;
 “sudden sharp hot stink of fox”
пЃ¬ Determinism;
пЃ¬ Exercise of power
Controversial poetry of Ted Hughes
Exercise of power:
I kill where I please because it is all mine...
Nothing has changed since I began.
My eye has permitted no change.
I am going to keep things like this.
(Hawk Roosting)
Collections of poems:
пЃ¬ - The Hawk in the Rain, 1957;
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
-
Lupercal, 1960;
Gandette, 1977;
Cave Birds, 1978;
Moortown, 1979.
Written test
пЃ¬
Content: lectures, seminars, Look Back in
Anger, Lord of the Flies, doplЕ€ujГєce texty
na skГєЕЎku (see: web page)
пЃ¬
FORM: multiple choice, gap filling, essay
Sample task 1
1. Who wrote Dance to the Music of Time?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
John Osborne
Baron Snow of Leicester
Doris Lessing
Charles Percy Snow
None of these
Sample task 2
1. What do Allan Sillitoe, Kingsley Amis and
Sid Barstow have in common?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
They were awarded the Nobel prize
They all use metaphors in the titles of
their novels
They all use the setting of Greenland
They are working class novelists
None of these
Task 3 – Essay - Points for:
Cultural and historical context
пЃ¬ Correct information from the piece
(names, setting, plot)
пЃ¬ Active use of the story to illustrate your
point
пЃ¬ Independent thinking
пЃ¬
Write a paragraph on the status revolt of a female protagonist in LBA
The character in LBA who represents the status rebellion is Alison
Redfern, the daughter of an India veteran, colonel Redfern.
She was born to a privileged upper class, however, for dubious reasons
she decided to marry below her standard.
She married a working class representative, Jim Porter, who in spite of
his education could not find a proper job and worked in a candy
stand.
He represents a „typical“ angry young man, product of Butler’s
educational law of 1944 which left many overqualified young
people unemployed.
That, of course, made Jim irritated and oversensitive and he often
relieved his anger on Alison. Thus Alison, as a representative of
the upper class ended up in a depressive relationship with an
upset and conformist young man.
It is a good question what made Alison rebell against her own class
and parents – was it just a generation gap, natural teenage
protest against authorities, or more serious reasons?
Or was it love that brought her to a tiny attic room?
John Osborne did not really answer the question in the play and let the
spectactor wonder about Alison’s true motivation.
List of Sources
Photos and Images:
Books
http://images.google.sk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.wickedlady.com/tins/images/literature.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.wickedlady.com/tins/liter
ature.html&h=348&w=300&sz=36&hl=sk&start=18&tbnid=qKxvZv6mYZBb_M:&tbnh=120&tbnw=103&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2Bliterature
%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Dsk%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG
www.newtherapist.com/diagnosis12.html
Farrell, J. G.
http://images.google.fr/images?svnum=10&hl=sk&lr=&q=j.+g.+farrell+%2B+writer&btnG=H%C4%BEada%C5%A5
Greene, Graham
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham_Greene
Ishiguro, Kazuo
http://images.google.fr/images?q=kazuo+ishiguro&hl=sk&btnG=Vyh%C4%BEad%C3%A1vanie+obr%C3%A1zkov
Osborne, John
http://images.google.fr/images?q=john+osborne&hl=sk&btnG=Vyh%C4%BEad%C3%A1vanie+obr%C3%A1zkov
Postmodernism
http://www.colorado.edu/English/courses/ENGL2012Klages/pomo.html
Web-pages:
Rushdie, Salman
http://images.google.fr/images?q=salman+rushdie&hl=sk&btnG=Vyh%C4%BEad%C3%A1vanie+obr%C3%A1zkov
Sillitoe, Allan
http://images.google.fr/imgres?imgurl=http://www.open2.net/open2static/source/file/root/45/58/188077/allan_sillitoe.jpg&imgre
furl=http://www.open2.net/castandcrew/snsm.html&h=134&w=134&sz=30&hl=sk&start=4&tbnid=TBt2TYSuNpOLaM:&tbnh=9
2&tbnw=92&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dallan%2Bsillitoe%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Dsk%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG
Postcolonialism
http://www.britishempire.co.uk/art/artandempire.htm super strГЎnka na kol umenie
Postmodernism
http://images.google.sk/imgres?imgurl=http://home.nc.rr.com/donaldwood/SocietyBG.gif&imgrefurl=http://home.nc.rr.com/donaldwood/Page%252010.htm&h=200&w=253&sz=5&hl=sk&start=322&tbnid=awNCbkiHKJ5bM:&tbnh=88&tbnw=111&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2Bpostmodernism%26start%3D306%26ndsp%3D18%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3
Dsk%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN
READING COUPLE – IMAGE
http://images.google.sk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.americanplacetheatre.org/stage/images/stories/illustrations_icons/performances.gif&imgr
efurl=http://www.americanplacetheatre.org/stage/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_content%26task%3Dsection%26id%3D7%26Itemid%3D35
&h=128&w=150&sz=3&hl=sk&start=247&tbnid=7ZN3fPfAAUBvbM:&tbnh=82&tbnw=96&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dicons%2B%252B%2Bliter
ature%26start%3D234%26ndsp%3D18%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Dsk%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN
Introduction – quick and easy
Think of the play you liked
(e.g. Look Back in Anger)
Decide what was itВґs theme:
(e.g. social and historical changes
can lead to
personal tragedies
and crises)
Write your thesis statement: John Osborne in his play Look Back in Anger demonstrates
how social and historical changes can lead to many personal tragedies and crises
Expand your thesis:John Osborne, a British playwright and an Angry young man in his 3-act play
Look Back in Anger demonstrates how social and historical changes can lead to disastrous personal
tragedies and crises.
Write the first and second sentence of your
introduction:
People who read in books of history about historical, political and social
turmoils tend to forget how these great changes influenced day-to-day
lives of individuals.
For example, everybody remembers how the Nazis seized Italy but few
understand that they were the first and the last ones in history that made
the Italian traffic run on time. Another example is the American space
program that gave us not only te first man on the moon but also aluminium
folio or the frying pan.
John Osborne, a British playwright and an angry young man in his play Look
Back in Anger (1956) also demonstrates how social and historical changes,
namely the ButlerВґs educational act in 1944 lead to many personal tragedies
and crises and how his main protagonist Jim Porter struggles with personal and
emotional paralysis.
WARNING
пЃ¬
Any non-academic behaviour during the
test will affect your grade.
пЃ¬
Talking to another student - 5 point penalty
пЃ¬
Use of cheat-sheets, cell phones, more talking to
other students – test confiscated, F grade
пЃ¬
Lost test – minus 10 points
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