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Mr. White’s World History
Great Britain
п‚— During this time, peaceful political change came to
Great Britain.
п‚— Over this period of time, political rights and
democratic participation will expand in Great Britain
п‚— Also, many people will emigrate from Great Britain to
places like Canada, New Zealand, and Australia
Electoral Reforms
п‚— In Great Britain, urban populations had been rising,
and rural populations declining
п‚— Parliamentary representation had not changed to
reflect these population changes
 Urban areas – large populations, few representatives
 Rural areas – small populations, about as many
representatives as the urban areas
п‚— Many other groups were demanding voting rights
п‚— Unpropertied males
п‚— Women
п‚— Reform Act of 1832
п‚— Lowered property qualifications
п‚— Re-apportioned Parliamentary representation
п‚— Reform movements such as The Chartists and
supporters of the Anti-Corn Law demanded changes to
the ways political rights were guaranteed
Political Leadership
п‚— Most of these political reforms occurred during the
reign of Queen Victoria – Victorian Period
п‚— Prime Ministers of Great Britain
 William Gladstone – reformed government, education,
and elections
 Benjamin Disraeli – lowered property qualifications for
voters
Rise of Labor
п‚— Labor unions were politically very strong in Great
Britain
п‚— Socialism was also gaining followers
 Fabian society – middle class intellectuals who wanted
to prepare the government for socialism
 1900 – Labour party forms – promoted government
reform to improve worker’s lives
п‚— Old-age pensions, minimum wage, unemployment
assistance, health insurance
Women’s Rights
п‚— Women had won greater rights in the middle and late
1850s, for property rights
 Married Women’s Property Acts of 1870 and 1882 gave
women some control over the family’s earnings and
property
п‚— Women had won the right to vote in local elections in
1869, but still could not vote in national elections
Women’s Suffrage
п‚— Emmeline Pankhurst and her two daughters founded
the Women’s Social and Political Union
п‚— Led a voting rights campaign for all women
п‚— Known as suffragettes (suffrage is the right to vote)
п‚— WSPU used street demonstrations and hunger strikes
to get their point across
 1918 – Parliament granted the all citizens over 30 the
right to vote
Ireland
п‚— Great Britain had ruled Ireland for many hundreds of
years, though many Irish, especially Catholics, wanted
to be independent
п‚— English and Scottish Protestants who had settled in
Ireland had almost total political and economic
control
п‚— Owned most of the land, and rented it to Irish Catholics
peasants
п‚— Catholics were required to pay taxes to the Anglican
church
Act of Union
п‚— The Act of Union in 1801 joined Ireland and Great
Britain
п‚— Ireland got some representation in Parliament, but
Catholics couldn’t vote until 1829
п‚— Many Irish still wanted independence for Ireland
The Potato Famine
п‚— In the 1840s, a blight on the potato hit Ireland
п‚— Irish were forced to export the grain that they grew to
pay high rents – potato was the main food staple
п‚— In four years, roughly one million Irish died of starvation
and disease
п‚— Many more immigrated to the U.S., Canada, and
Australia
Home Rule
п‚— Charles Stewart Parnell led Irish nationalists in a
demand for home rule, or self government, from
Parliament
 1914 – Parliament passed a home rule bill, but it never
went into effect
п‚— Problems would continue to grow
Canada
п‚— Canada was populated by French, English immigrants,
and displaced Loyalists who had come from the United
States
п‚— Unrest and rebellion in this colony led Great Britain to
grant self-government to Canada
 Canada became a dominion of Great Britain – a selfgoverning territory owing allegiance to the British
Crown
Australia
п‚— Australia had originally been established by Britain as
a prisoner’s colony because of overpopulation in
British jails
п‚— After gold was discovered in Australia, many people
began to go there voluntarily
п‚— In 1901, Great Britain granted Australia selfgovernment as a dominion of the British
commonwealth
New Zealand
п‚— British started settling New Zealand in 1770.
п‚— Conflicts with the local people, the Maori, gradually
led to an agreement that gave the British sovereignty,
but protected Maori rights
 1907 – New Zealand became a dominion of the British
Empire
Royalists
п‚— First, Louis XVIII accepted the role of a constitutional
monarch in France – limited powers, dies in 1824
п‚— Charles X succeeds him, and set out to restore absolute
monarchism in France
п‚— Dissolved the legislature, when he liked
п‚— Restricted freedom of press and voting rights
п‚— Charles is overthrown by a rebellion in 1830
Louis Philippe
п‚— The next king, Louis Philippe, tended to support the
rich – he was overthrown, too
п‚— Rebels who overthrow him proclaimed France to be a
republic – no king to rule
п‚— Voters elected Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, the nephew
of Napoleon Bonaparte, as president of the republic
Emperor of France
п‚— Louis-Napoleon tries to make himself into an emperor
 Takes power in a coup d’etat, dissolves the National
Assembly, and arrested his opponents
 1852 – He becomes Napoleon III, emperor of France
The Third Republic
 Louis-Napoleon was concerned with Prussia’s growing
political and military power – declares war in 1870
п‚— The Prussian-led German armies quickly mobilized
and won stunning victories early in the war – captured
Louis-Napoleon
п‚— The Prussians laid siege to the city of Paris, which
eventually forced the French to sign a peace treaty
п‚— The French re-established their National Assembly
The Third Republic, continued
п‚— The Commune of Paris, a socialist government
established by French workers, briefly threatened the
National Assembly
 1875 – a new constitution was written for France
п‚— This government was able to solve periodic and small
political and economic problems in France and
continued to govern the French people
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