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Alexander I: “The Blessed”

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ALEXANDER I: THE ENIGMATIC TSAR
ALEXANDER I: THE ENIGMATIC TSAR
PAUL I (r. 1796-1801)
пѓ� Education & background
 Educated by COUNT NIKITA PANIN
in enlightenment ideals
 But neglected & outside mother’s
inner circle
 Catherine preferred grandsons
ALEXANDER & CONSTANTINE
 Absorbed with military detail
ALEXANDER I: THE ENIGMATIC TSAR
PAUL I (r. 1796-1801)
пѓ� Becomes strict absolutist
 Highly suspicions – saw
revolution & conspiracy everywhere
 Issues succession law excluding
women from throne
 Tried to reinstate obligatory noble
service
 Overthrown in palace coup, March
1, 1801
ALEXANDER I: THE ENIGMATIC TSAR
ALEXANDER I (r. 1801-1825)
пѓ� Education & background
 Tutor LA HARPE schooled him in
Enlightenment thought
 Develops sympathy for
constitutionalism
 But committed to tsarism
ALEXANDER I: THE ENIGMATIC TSAR
ALEXANDER I (r. 1801-1825)
� Known as “the Blessed” & the
“Enigmatic Tsar”
пѓ� Reign often seen as divided in 2
phases
 1st phase (1801-1812): flirted with
liberal reform
 2nd phase (1812-1825): more
religious, mystical, conservative
ALEXANDER I: THE ENIGMATIC TSAR
ALEXANDER I (r. 1801-1825)
пѓ� Reforms
 Ended some aspects of police
state
 Set up UNOFFICIAL COMMITTEE
to deal with serfdom
 Administrative reforms
 Expanded education
ALEXANDER I: THE ENIGMATIC TSAR
ALEXANDER I (r. 1801-1825)
пѓ� Napoleonic Wars (1805-1812)
 Defeated by French 1807 & forced
into alliance by TREATY OF TILSIT
 Flagrant transgressions of treaty
leads to French invasion, 1812
ALEXANDER I: THE ENIGMATIC TSAR
ALEXANDER I (r. 1801-1825)
пѓ� French Invasion: 1812
 French want big battle
 Russians retreat, scorch &
burn
 BATTLE OF BORODINO,
Sept. 1812
 French occupy Moscow, city
burns
 Napoleon forced to withdraw
 By the time army gets out of
Russia, only 90,000 troops left
ALEXANDER I: THE ENIGMATIC TSAR
ALEXANDER I (r. 1801-1825)
пѓ� CONGRESS OF VIENNA (1815)
 Russians get bigger portion
of Poland
 But must give it constitution
• ADAM CZARTORYSKI
creates constitution
 Now Russians want one too
 Alexander maintains
autocratic rule
 Creates much disappointment
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