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Opening Science
The Evolving Guide on How
the Internet is Changing
Research, Collaboration and
Scholarly Publishing
Figures
book.openingscience.org
ISBN: 331900025X
You are free to modify and reuse our figures. If you
do so, please cite the book, chapter, or web page.
We kindly ask you to send records of modified
and/or reused figures and texts to the editors and
chapter authors. Preferably send the overall
document that contains the figure so that we can
understand the context.
Sönke Bartling & Sascha Friesike
Towards Another Scientific Revolution
Sönke Bartling, Sascha Friesike
Time
€
Today�s legacy gap
Internet
€€
Cost to publish
Scientific
journals
€€€€€
Printing
press
Papyrus
Writing
system
First scientific
revolution
Second scientific
revolution
Positive results
Negative results
Positive results
Negative results
Research today
Research in the future
Assessment phase
Create phase
Publication phase
Abstracts, papers, ...
Lost ideas
Lost knowledge
Micro blogs, wiki updates, online discussions, abstracts, blog posts, papers …
Micro blogs, wiki updates, online discussions, abstracts, blog posts, papers …
Unpublished results
Time
Research in the future
Research today
Open science / knowledge
Publication
from Latin publicatio “making public”
/ publicare “make public”
7
Patent
from Latin patentum “open, lying open”
Open Data
Wikis
Altmetrics
Open Access
Outlets
Reference
Management
Social
Networking
Dynamic
Publication
Formats
Blogging and
Microblogging
Novel
copyright
concepts
Unique
Researcher
ID
Open Science: One Term, Five Schools of
Thought
Benedikt Fecher, Sascha Friesike
Infrastructure School
Pragmatic School
Assumption:
Knowledge-creation could be
more efficient if scientists worked
together.
Goal:
Making the process of knowledge
creation more efficient and goal
oriented.
Keywords:
Wisdom of the crowds, network
effects, Open Data, Open Code
Assumption:
Efficient research depends on the
available tools and applications.
Goal:
Creating openly available
platforms, tools and services for
scientists.
Keywords:
Collaboration platforms and tools
Open Science
Public School
Assumption:
Science needs to be made
accessible to the public.
Goal:
Making science accessible for
citizens.
Keywords:
Citizen Science, Science PR,
Science Blogging
Democratic School
Measurement School
Assumption:
The access to knowledge is
unequally distributed.
Goal:
Making knowledge freely available
for everyone.
Keywords:
Open access, intellectual property
rights, Open data, Open code
Assumption:
Scientific contributions today need
alternative impact measurements.
Goal:
Developing an alternative metric
system for scientific impact.
Keywords:
Altmetrics, peer review, citation,
impact factors
Open
Access
Grid
Computing
Democratic
School
Infrastructure School
Data
Repositories
Open Data
Altmetrics
Open
Science
Measurement School
Webometrics
Wisdom of the
Crowds
Citizen Science
Public
School
Scientific
Communication
Pragmatic School
Collective
Intelligence
Science Caught Flat-footed: How Academia
Struggles with Open Science Communication
Alexander Gerber
63 %
Scientists working at a university
or government laboratory
52 %
32 %
Scientists working at industrial
laboratory
28 %
26 %
Medical
doctors
24 %
20 %
25 %
6%
Writers and
intellectuals
10 %
32 %
11 %
6%
Industry
6%
6%
6%
The military
2%
2%
5%
2010 EU27
16 %
Newspaper
journalists
21 %
Television
journalists
Politicians
16 %
23 %
Environmental protection
associations
Government
representatives
23 %
Consumer
organizations
2005 EU27
Science and technology can sort out any problem
Germany
EU27
Open Science and the Three Cultures:
Expanding Open Science to All Domains of
Knowledge Creation
Michelle Sidler
Publication
speed and
types
• Breadth and depth is more
important than speed
• Publication timeline is in
months or years
• The primary publication is
print books (fewer articles)
Ownership
and access
• Access to books is most
important
• Most publications are
proprietary and less
expensive (non-profit)
• Access to research is
usually not time-sensitive
Data type
and use
• Mostly textual or visual
• Derived from creative,
scholarly, or historical
works
• Re-use is critical/ analytical
Sciences
• Mostly numerical
• Derived from
computation or
laboratories
• Re-use is
computational
• Multi-authored
articles
• Citation metrics
• Journal Impact
Factor is paramount
Authorship
and attribution
• Single-author
monographs
• Few citation metrics
• Reputation of press
is paramount
Humanities
• Speed is paramount
• Publication timeline is
in days or weeks
• Most publications are
digital articles
• Access to journal articles is
most important
• Most publications are
proprietary and expensive
(profit-bearing)
• Access is necessary for rapid
discovery
Reference Management
Martin Fenner, Kaja Scheliga, Sönke Bartling
CiteULike
Jabref
EndNote
RefWorks
Papers
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Read
Extract metadata
Full-text search
PDF viewer
File organizer
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Write
Microsoft Word
Open Office
LaTex
Edit styles
X
X
X
X
X
Search
Store
Share
X
Zotero
X
X
X
X
Mendeley
X
X
X
X
X
PubMed
Scopus
Web of Science
Bookmarklet
X
X
X
X
X
Windows
Mac
Linux
Mobile
X
X
X
X
WWW
PDF files
Public folders
API
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Open Access: A State of the Art
Dagmar Sitek and Roland Bertelmann
No quality
assurance
Prior to
Preprint Server review,
default in
Open Access
some fields
(e.g. arXiv)
only
Article
processing
charges
A lot of
publishers
allow self
archiving
Postprint
Submitting
Author
Decides based
on scientific
criteria, after
checking
patent issues
Subscription
based
Journal
Peer
review
All rights
transferred
to the
publisher
Any reuse
rights
Secondary
publication
Peer
review
Primary
publication
Open
Access
Journal
All rights
stay
with the
author
Primary
publication
Preprint
Golden Road
Open Access
Accessible
to everyone,
CC-license,
reuse
possible
Green Road
Open Access
Mostly not
final version,
after peerreview,
restrictions
Toll Access
Closed Access
Read only
with paid
subscription,
any reuse
rights
Dynamic Publication Formats and
Collaborative Authoring
Lambert Heller, Ronald The, Sönke Bartling
Scholarly publications today
On topic XYZ
On topic XYZ
On topic XYZ
On topic XYZ
....
Time
Dynamic scholarly publications
On topic XYZ
....
On topic ABC
On topic XYZ
....
....
On topic UVW
Abstract / Talk
Timeliness /
Promptness
Letter
Paper
Review
Book
Completeness /
Audience /
Maturity
Microblog
Status update
Comment/blog
Timeliness /
Promptness
Wiki update
Abstract / talk
Letter
Paper
Review
Book
Completeness /
Audience /
Maturity
Author
Author
Author
Author
Author
Author
Working versions
Author
…
Gate
Peer
Published versions
Review
Review
Peer
Publication
Publication
Transclusion
Forking
“Pull”
request
Time
Open Innovation and Crowdsourcing in the
Sciences
Thomas Schildhauer, Hilger Voss
Complexity
Creativity/
design
Solving specific
problems
Finding
experts
Idea
challenges
Brainstorming
sessions
Question &
answers
Human tasks/
cloud labor
Wisdom of
the crowd
Customer
suggestions
Specification
Frequency (X) / Number of attachments per node (Y)
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