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2009 - Presentation(PPT) - Knight Soul of the Community

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Soul of the Community
September 2009
Knight Communities Overall
Copyright Standards
Knight Communities Overall
This document contains proprietary research, copyrighted materials, and literary property of Gallup, Inc. It is for the
guidance of your company only and is not to be copied, quoted, published, or divulged to others outside of your
organization. GallupВ®, Q12В®, The Gallup PathВ®, The Gallup PollВ®, CE11В®, SF34В®, Business Impact Analysisв„ў, SRIВ® and
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This document is of great value to both your organization and Gallup, Inc. Accordingly, international and domestic
laws and penalties guaranteeing patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret protection protect the ideas, concepts,
and recommendations related within this document.
No changes may be made to this document without the express written permission of Gallup, Inc.
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Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Agenda
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Community Attachment Overview
Overall Measures of Biggest Problem and Life Evaluation
The Drivers of Community Attachment
Ratings on Domains of Community Attachment
Domain Ratings by Comparison Groups
Recommendations on Focus Areas and Groups
CA by Demographic Groups
Appendix (Survey Items, Community Lists, Key Terms)
Note: Speaking and discussion points are included in the notes section of many slides
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Knight Communities Overall
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Why Community Attachment?
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Knight Communities Overall
The Soul of the Community project is a three-year study by Gallup funded by
Knight Foundation that explores what community qualities influence residents’
loyalty and passion for where they live and how those feelings relate to
indicators of community well-being such as local economic growth and vitality
in 26 U.S. communities.
By pinpointing what drives residents’ loyalty and passion for where they live,
this study helps local leaders influence residents’ feelings about their
community — and potentially its well-being.
This project does not serve as a replacement for national economic policy, but
it does make the case that residents’ attachment to where they live matters to
community vitality. As the country emerges from the economic crisis, this
project highlights what draws residents to their communities and that this
emotional connection may help local economic growth.
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Methodology
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U.S. Census geography — Core-Based-Statistical Areas
–
Larger communities were generally Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) or Metropolitan
Districts (MDs); smaller areas were Micropolitan Statistical Areas (ВµSAs)
–
Long Beach, CA was defined by ZIP codes as the City of Long Beach
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Random Digit Dialing (RDD) sample of households in each of the 26 Knight Foundation
Communities
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Telephone interview with about 400 randomly identified adults aged 18+
–
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Knight Communities Overall
Oversample of 1,500 interviews in Detroit, Charlotte, and Akron
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Interviewing dates February 17 through April 25, 2009
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About 400 completed interviews per community
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Data were weighted in each community to reflect the adult population by age, gender,
race, and ethnicity. Communities were put into their correct proportion based on total
U.S. adult population.
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Due to variances in the question scales, most data were rescaled to a 3-point scale for
comparability (low, medium, high). A description of the specific items and the rescaled
values can be found in the Appendix.
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Community Attachment
Knight Communities Overall
Community Attachment is an individual’s psychological connection with the community. It
goes beyond their satisfaction with the community and extends to the passion and pride
they take in living there.
CA
Community
Attachment
Attitudinal
= Loyalty
=
Attitudinal
Loyalty
+
+
Passion
Passion
Community Attachment (CA) is comprised of two constructs: Attitudinal Loyalty to the
community and their Passion for it. Each has equal weight in overall attachment. The CA
metric is a mean score ranging from 1.00 to 5.00.
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Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Attachment Matters to Knight
Communities
Knight Communities Overall
CA links to key economic outcomes of communities, such that communities with higher CA
also are higher on these outcomes. There are strong positive correlations to GDP and recent
measures of high school dropout rates, with weaker correlations to population growth.
CA Correlation to GDP Growth=.431;
CA Correlation to Population Growth=.171
CA Correlation to Annual HS Dropout Rate=-.359
*Event HS dropout rate - percent of students who left high school between the beginning of one school
year and the beginning of the next without earning a high school diploma or its equivalent (e.g., a GED).
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Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Community Attachment Groups
Knight Communities Overall
Community Attachment is similar to 2008.
CA Mean:
3.56
3.58
Attached
Neutral
Not Attached
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Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Highly loyal and connected
to the community
(CA Mean 4.50+)
Lack full loyalty and passion
but see some positive
aspects of community
(CA Mean 3.50-4.49)
Unhappy with the
community, its services and
offerings, and likely to leave
if they can
(CA Mean <3.50)
Community Attachment by Knight
Knight Communities Overall
Community
Huge range in Community Attachment, both within and across Knight Groups —
Bradenton is the most attached Knight community; Gary is the least attached.
CA Mean:
↑
↑
↓
↑
↓
2009 3.52 3.62 3.11 3.82 3.74 3.73 3.85 4.04 3.92 3.89 3.42 2.80 3.84 3.78 3.89 3.78 3.50 3.91 3.87 4.00 3.69 4.03 3.79 3.87 3.22 3.64 3.58
2008 3.54 3.46 3.02 3.82 3.74 3.78 3.88 3.79 3.91 3.84 3.40 2.90 3.80 3.72 3.87 3.77 3.73 3.84 3.96 3.90 3.65 3.80 3.89 3.89 3.49 3.60 3.56
Very Large Pop. —
Very High Urban
Large Pop. —
Very High Urban
Medium Pop. —
Very High Urban
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
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Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Medium Pop. —
High Urban
Low/Medium Pop. —
Low/Medium Urban
Community Attachment by Knight
Knight Communities Overall
Groups
There is range in CA across the urbanicity/population groups. The largest urban areas
remain least attached but improved since 2008, while the slightly smaller, but highly urban
areas (San Jose, St. Paul, etc.) remain the most attached.
CA Mean:
3.31
↑
3.37
Very Large Pop. —
Very High Urban
3.81
3.80
Large Pop. —
Very High Urban
3.51
3.53
Medium Pop. —
Very High Urban
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
10
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
3.78
3.74
Medium Pop. —
High Urban
3.77
3.73
Low/Medium Pop.
— Low/Medium
Urban
3.56
3.58
Knight
Communities
Overall
Most Important Problem
Facing Community
Knight Communities Overall
Economy-related concerns (36%) eclipse crime related concerns in 2009.
Citizen Perception of Most Important Problem Facing Their Community Today
Three Responses Allowed
Note: Only most frequently mentioned categories shown. May total to more than 100% due
to multiple responses.
11
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Knight Communities
Life Evaluation
Knight Communities Overall
Citizens in Knight Communities generally have similar perceptions of overall life
evaluation as U.S. adults overall during the survey period. The national LEI was about
50% thriving during the same period in 2008.
*Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index February 17-April 25, 2009
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Some Groups Thrive More
Knight Communities Overall
Younger, Students, Higher Education, Higher Income, More Thriving
Age
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Gender
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Employment
Education
Marital
Status
Income
Positive Future Outlook Is
Related to Attachment
Knight Communities Overall
Perception of What Community Will Be Like to Live
in 5 Years From Now
Citizens who feel their community will be a much better place to live in 5 years are much
more likely to be attached, as well as for key early- to mid-career segment of adults.
% Attached
Vocalize/promote future efforts and goals. Host seminars on area vision. Involve
citizens to plan, drive, and share visions.
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Community Attachment Model
CA
(Outcome)
Knight Communities Overall
Domains
(Levers)
EMOTIONAL
OPENNESS WELLNESS
OUTLOOK
PRIDE
SOCIAL
CAPITAL
SATISFACTION
PERFECT
PLACE
RECOMMEND
CIVIC
INVOLVEMENT
COMMUNITY OFFERINGS
Basic Services п‚џ Leadership п‚џ Education
п‚џ Safety п‚џ Social Offerings п‚џ
Aesthetics п‚џ Economy
(Attitudinal Loyalty)
(Passion)
The goal is increased Community Attachment. The Domains are the levers to move to
improve CA. Drive down higher-level Domain constructs to specific outcomes.
15
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Summary
пЃ®
Knight Communities Overall
Community Attachment (CA) links to community GDP and high
school dropout rates and matters to community prosperity.
– Linkages were confirmed and enhanced from 2008.
– Each community has different strengths that can be promoted and
weaknesses that can be addressed.
– There is a wide range of sentiments across communities and the
CA range is widening.
пЃ®
There are specific, tactical actions that can be taken to address
CA opportunities.
– Attachment is not all about economy and jobs; there are other
things that can be done to drive attachment to place.
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Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Summary — CA
Knight Communities Overall
 Overall, 24% of citizens are attached to the Knight
Community in which they live; 40% are not attached.

Top quartile
communities for CA:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
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Bradenton, FL - MSA
Grand Forks, ND - MSA
State College, PA - MSA
Long Beach, CA - City
Aberdeen, SD - ВµSA
Boulder, CO - MSA
Lexington, KY - MSA
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bottom quartile
communities for CA:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Gary, IN - MD
Detroit, MI - MSA
Macon, GA - MSA
Akron, OH - MSA
Wichita, KS - MSA
Philadelphia, PA - MD
Example Key Focus Areas and
Potential Actions
Knight Communities Overall
 New residents — not attached/connected
– Make personal connection and ask for their involvement
 Employed adults — the more satisfied at work, the
more attached to the community
– Focus on assisting businesses in driving satisfaction and
attachment with current company
 Students — currently not attached/connected
– Have business and community involve them in meaningful
ways while they are there to retain them
 Optimism — positive outlook for the future is related to
current attachment
– Focus leadership and media on messaging/promotion and
citizen involvement in the future vision
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Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Key Attachment Drivers
Knight Communities Overall
The correlations of Domains to CA indicate the relative importance of
each to overall Community Attachment. The domains are listed in
order of strength.
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2008
2009
Openness
0.492
0.519
Social Offerings
0.530
0.517
Aesthetics
0.512
0.501
Education
0.466
0.436
Basic Services
0.412
0.398
Leadership
0.408
0.388
Economy
0.408
0.338
Emotional Wellness
0.322
0.292
Safety
0.216
0.189
Social Capital
0.136
0.155
Civic Involvement
0.058
0.037
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Drivers remained consistent year-over-year.
Community Attachment
Key Attachment Drivers
Knight Communities Overall
Correlations to Overall CA Among College Graduates 18-44 Years of Age (n=1,181)
2008
2009
Social Offerings
0.507
0.522
Openness
0.534
0.520
Aesthetics
0.485
0.513
Education
0.420
0.437
Leadership
0.412
0.362
Economy
0.402
0.335
Basic Services
0.344
0.294
Emotional Wellness
0.281
0.266
Safety
0.230
0.244
Social Capital
0.136
0.150
0.058
0.061
Civic Involvement
20
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Community Attachment
Strengths-Weaknesses
Opportunity Map
Knight Communities Overall
Community Aesthetics and Education are areas of strength for Knight Communities that
can be leveraged. Openness, Social Offerings, Basic Services, and Leadership offer the
greatest areas for improvement to encourage attachment.
0.60
Strength
Critical Opportunity
0.50
Importance
(Correlation With Attachment)
2009
2008
Aesthetics 2008
Social Offerings 2009
Social Offerings 2008
Openness 2008
Openness 2009
Aesthetics 2009
Education 2008
Education 2009
Leadership 2008 Economy 2008
Basic Services
2008
Basic Services 2009
Leadership 2009
0.40
Economy 2009
0.30
Emotional Wellness 2009
Safety 2008
Safety 2009
0.20
Social Capital 2009
Social Capital 2008
0.10
Civic Involvement 2008
Civic Involvement 2009
0.00
1.35
1.45
1.55
1.65
1.75
1.85
1.95
2.05
Performance
(Mean Rating)
Correlation: The association or relationship between variables. A positive correlation means that as one increases,
the other increases as well. A 1.0 indicates a perfect correlation.
21
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
2.15
2.25
More Than Just Economy
Community
Avg. HH
Inc.
Knight Communities Overall
Avg. Housing
Unemployment
Cost (As # Times Rate May ’09
CA Score
Avg. Inc.)
(BLS)
A
26.7
2.7
10.2%
B
32.9
2.9
9.8%
C
43.7
2.3
10.9%
D
52.7
8.7
6.0%
E
26.1
8.6
5.6%
F
26.6
3.4
9.2%
G
56.1
3.8
10.9%
22
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
More Than Just Economy
(continued)
Community
Avg. HH
Inc.
Knight Communities Overall
Avg. Housing
Unemployment
Cost (As # Times Rate May ’09
CA Score
Avg. Inc.)
(BLS)
A Gary
26.7
2.7
10.2%
2.80 (-.10)
B Akron
32.9
2.9
9.8%
3.42 (+.02)
C Ft. Wayne
43.7
2.3
10.9%
3.64 (+.04)
D
52.7
8.7
6.0%
E
26.1
8.6
5.6%
F
26.6
3.4
9.2%
G
56.1
3.8
10.9%
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More Than Just Economy
(continued)
Community
Avg. HH
Inc.
Knight Communities Overall
Avg. Housing
Unemployment
Cost (As # Times Rate May ’09
CA Score
Avg. Inc.)
(BLS)
A
26.7
2.7
10.2%
B
32.9
2.9
9.8%
C
43.7
2.3
10.9%
D Boulder
52.7
8.7
6.0%
3.89 (+.05)
E State College
26.1
8.6
5.6%
4.00 (+.10)
F
26.6
3.4
9.2%
G
56.1
3.8
10.9%
24
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
More Than Just Economy
(continued)
Community
Avg. HH
Inc.
Knight Communities Overall
Avg. Housing
Unemployment
Cost (As # Times Rate May ’09
CA Score
Avg. Inc.)
(BLS)
A
26.7
2.7
10.2%
B
32.9
2.9
9.8%
C
43.7
2.3
10.9%
D
52.7
8.7
6.0%
E
26.1
8.6
5.6%
F Macon
26.6
3.4
9.2%
3.22 (-.27)
G Bradenton
56.1
3.8
10.9%
4.04 (+.25)
25
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Community Attachment
Knight Communities Overall
Domains and Sub-Domains of CA
2008
2009
Mean Score
3.56 3.58
↑
2.03 2.05
1.62 1.67
↓
1.54
Basic
Services
Economy
1.92
1.90 1.88
1.79 1.81
1.77 1.76
1.69 1.72
Safety
Social
Offerings
Openness
2.00
1.45 1.43
1.39
Aesthetics
2.09 2.11
1.96 1.97
Education
Leadership
Emotional
Wellness
Social
Capital
Civic
Involvement
Overall
CA
Community Offerings Sub-Domains
Citizens’ connectedness to their communities has improved slightly as the economy has worsened, though
expectedly, views of the local economy have decreased significantly.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
26
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Community Offerings
Knight Communities Overall
The structural, physical, and social offerings a community presents — without basic
services, citizens can’t thrive.
↓
↓
Community Offerings Sub-Domains
Views of local community economy declined significantly, leading to a small overall decline in Community
Offerings.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
27
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Community Offerings
Aesthetics
Knight Communities Overall
The physical beauty and availability of parks and green spaces for residents
↑
Perceptions of availability of parks, playgrounds, and trails inched up in 2009.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
28
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Community Offerings
Basic Services
Knight Communities Overall
Infrastructure supports such as highways, housing, and healthcare
↑
↑
The national housing crisis has led to higher availability of affordable housing in local communities.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
29
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Community Offerings
Economy
Knight Communities Overall
The local economic and employment conditions
↓
↓
↓
↓
↓
Very few citizens feel local economic conditions are strong or that it is a good time to find a job.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
30
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
↓
Community Offerings
Education
Knight Communities Overall
The quality of K-12 and colleges/universities in the community
Citizens generally rate the quality of colleges and universities better than K-12 public schools.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
31
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Community Offerings
Leadership
Knight Communities Overall
The leadership and alignment of views of elected officials with citizens
Citizens continue to give low ratings to local community leaders and elected city officials.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
32
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Community Offerings
Safety
Knight Communities Overall
The local area crime and safety conditions
Citizens perceive the safety around their home higher than that of the broader community.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
33
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Community Offerings
Social Offerings
Knight Communities Overall
The entertainment infrastructure for people to meet each other, and citizen caring
Slightly more than one in five citizens feel their community is a great place to make friends and meet people;
the community is also viewed as less caring.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
34
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Openness
Knight Communities Overall
How welcoming the community is to different types of people
2008
2009
% High Rating on Openness Measures
↑
24% 24%
Senior
Citizens
20% 21%
22% 25%
Racial/Ethnic Families With
Minorities Young Children
↓
18% 16%
↓
15% 13%
20% 21%
Gay and
Young Talented Immigrants
Lesbian College Graduates
20% 20%
Overall
Openness
Community Good For…
While citizens perceive Knight Communities to be more welcoming to families with young children, openness
to gays/lesbians and young, talented graduates has declined.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
35
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Emotional Wellness
Knight Communities Overall
The mixture of mental and physical well-being items. The metric is an overall measure
of personal and community well-being.
↓
Citizens are surprisingly (based on the economic downturn) slightly less stressed on a daily basis than they
were a year ago.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
36
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Social Capital
Knight Communities Overall
The people-connections citizens have to each other
↑
↑
Citizens spent more time with neighbors this year and are more connected to family.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
37
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Civic Involvement
Knight Communities Overall
What residents give to the community in terms of civic involvement
↑
↑
Voting behavior increased due to presidential election in Fall 2008.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
38
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Q: So What Can Community Leaders Do to
Drive Community Attachment?
A: Focus on Key Sub-Groups
Several Examples of Sub-Groups Where Actions
Could Be Focused
39
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Next to Laid-Off Residents,
Students Are Least Attached
Knight Communities Overall
Knight
Communities
Overall
40
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While Educational Opportunities Draw Students —
Communities Need to Focus on Keeping Them
Knight Communities Overall
Good schools is a relative strength for most communities, but once they partake of the
educational opportunities, many students plan to leave the state.
Connect students with businesses while in school through internships, community
ties, problem solving, etc.
41
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High Job Satisfaction Plays Role
in Community Attachment
Knight Communities Overall
Overall Satisfaction With Current Job
The more satisfied employed adults are with their current company, the more likely they are
to be attached to their community.
Work with business to learn how to better engage employees (e.g., host seminar on
engaging employees, job swapping by local business, etc.).
42
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Communities Have Opportunity to Build
Attachment With Newer Citizens Knight Communities Overall
Lifelong residents are significantly less attached than shorter-term residents, particularly in
the largest urban communities — may feel they didn’t have outside opportunities. But new
residents aren’t yet connected.
Build residents’ attachment when they first move to the area. Leaders should contact
new residents with a personal invitation to get involved.
43
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Early- to Mid-Career Citizens Are Least
Knight Communities Overall
Attached to Their Communities
Respondent Age
Attachment among college-age adults decreased from 2008, likely due to the economy.
Those in the prime of their working years — those with the most options for jobs — are the
least attached to their communities as well.
Find opportunities to connect early- to mid-career hires into community through
events, sponsorships, and volunteering.
44
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Profile of Most Attached Citizens
пЃ®
Citizens Most Likely To Be Attached
–
–
–
–
–
–
пЃ®
65 years of age or older
College graduates
Widowed, married/partnered residents
Retired residents
Homeowners
Mid-tenure residents (6-19 years in community)
Citizens Least Likely To Be Attached
–
–
–
–
–
45
Knight Communities Overall
18-34 years of age
Single/never married, divorced/separated
Non-retired/non-employed (includes laid off, students, and homemakers)
Rural dwellers
Middle-income residents ($45,000-$74,999 household income)
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
CA by Citizen Age
Knight Communities Overall
Community attachment is highest among older residents
↑
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
46
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CA by Educational Attainment
Knight Communities Overall
Community attachment is slightly higher among college graduates
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
47
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CA by Marital Status
Knight Communities Overall
Widowed residents are generally most attached to the community, while single/never
married and divorced/separated are least attached
↑
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
48
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CA by Home Ownership
Knight Communities Overall
Homeowners are more attached than renters
↑
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
49
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CA by Years Lived in Community
Knight Communities Overall
Mid-term residents are most attached to their community overall. Newer residents in
communities decreased in attachment from 2008
↑
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
50
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CA by Employment Status
Knight Communities Overall
Retired residents are generally more attached to the community, while non-retired/
non-employed citizens are least attached
↑
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
51
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CA by Community Area Type
Knight Communities Overall
Urban area dwellers within communities increased in attachment, while those living in
rural areas remain least attached
↑
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
52
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CA by Total Household Income
Knight Communities Overall
Higher income residents are generally most attached to the community, although
significant increases occurred among lower income residents
↑
↑
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
53
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Knight Communities Overall
Domain Comparisons by Urbanicity Groups
54
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Community Offerings
Knight Communities Overall
The structural, physical, and social offerings a community presents — without basic
services, citizens can’t thrive.
2008
2009
% High Rating on Community Offerings
↓
23% 21%
20% 20%
Very Large Pop.
— Very High
Urban
21% 20%
23% 21%
26%
23%
↓
22% 20%
Large Pop. —
Medium Pop. — Medium Pop. — Medium/Low Pop. Overall Comm.
Offerings
Very High Urban Very High Urban
High Urban
— Medium/Low
Urban
Citizens in different size communities have similar views of their community’s offerings, though
perceptions have declined for the smallest and least urban communities.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
55
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Community Offerings
Aesthetics
Knight Communities Overall
The physical beauty and availability of parks and green spaces for residents
% High Rating on Aesthetics Measures
↑
28%
43% 43%
39% 38%
33% 31%
31%
Very Large Pop. — Large Pop. —
Medium Pop. —
Very High Urban Very High Urban Very High Urban
37% 38%
Medium Pop. — Medium/Low Pop.
High Urban
— Medium/Low
Urban
2008
2009
35% 36%
Overall
Aesthetics
The largest urban communities and the medium population/high urban areas have the lowest perceptions
of their community’s aesthetics, though it has increased slightly for the largest urban communities.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
56
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Community Offerings
Basic Services
Knight Communities Overall
Infrastructure supports such as highways, housing, and healthcare
% High Rating on Basic Services Measures
↑
16% 18%
17% 18%
22% 23%
21% 20%
Very Large Pop. — Large Pop. —
Medium Pop. —
Very High Urban Very High Urban Very High Urban
Medium Pop. — Medium/Low Pop.
High Urban
— Medium/Low
Urban
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
57
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22% 23%
2008
2009
18% 19%
Overall Basic
Services
Community Offerings
Economy
Knight Communities Overall
The local economic and employment conditions
% High Rating on Economy Measures
↓
↓
↓
20%
14%
11%
12%
Very Large Pop. — Large Pop. —
Very High Urban Very High Urban
16%
10%
Medium Pop. —
Very High Urban
2008
↓
23%
↓
22%
14%
14%
Medium Pop. — Medium/Low Pop.
High Urban
— Medium/Low
Urban
2009
↓
17%
12%
Overall
Economy
Perceptions of the local economy decline, echoing national sentiments. Relatively lower decline in largest
urban populated areas putting all community types on near-equal perceived economic footing.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
58
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Community Offerings
Education
Knight Communities Overall
The quality of K-12 and colleges/universities in the community
% High Rating on Education Measures
31% 32%
31% 31%
32% 32%
28% 27%
Very Large Pop. — Large Pop. —
Medium Pop. —
Very High Urban Very High Urban Very High Urban
2008
34% 33%
Medium Pop. — Medium/Low Pop.
High Urban
— Medium/Low
Urban
2009
31% 31%
Overall
Education
Medium population, very high urban areas (including many southern communities such as Tallahassee,
Lexington, and Wichita) have lower perceptions of the quality of their schools.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
59
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Community Offerings
Leadership
Knight Communities Overall
The leadership and alignment of views of elected officials with citizens
% High Rating on Leadership Measures
2008
2009
↓
11% 10%
10% 9%
10% 10%
Very Large Pop. — Large Pop. —
Medium Pop. —
Very High Urban Very High Urban Very High Urban
10% 9%
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
10%
Medium Pop. — Medium/Low Pop.
High Urban
— Medium/Low
Urban
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
60
13%
10% 9%
Overall
Leadership
Community Offerings
Safety
Knight Communities Overall
The local area crime and safety conditions
% High Rating on Safety Measures
26% 27%
27% 27%
25% 27%
Very Large Pop. — Large Pop. —
Medium Pop. —
Very High Urban Very High Urban Very High Urban
25% 25%
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
30% 31%
Medium Pop. — Medium/Low Pop.
High Urban
— Medium/Low
Urban
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
61
2008
2009
26% 27%
Overall
Safety
Community Offerings
Social Offerings
Knight Communities Overall
The entertainment infrastructure for people to meet each other, and citizen caring
% High Rating on Social Offerings Measures
21% 22%
23% 21%
21% 21%
19% 20%
Very Large Pop. — Large Pop. —
Medium Pop. —
Very High Urban Very High Urban Very High Urban
Medium Pop. — Medium/Low Pop.
High Urban
— Medium/Low
Urban
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
62
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27% 26%
2008
2009
22% 22%
Overall Social
Offerings
Openness
Knight Communities Overall
How welcoming the community is to different types of people
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
63
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Emotional Wellness
Knight Communities Overall
The mixture of mental and physical well-being items. The metric is an overall measure
of personal and community well-being.
2008
2009
% High Rating on Emotional Wellness Measures
↓
31% 32%
33%
30%
33% 31%
Very Large Pop. — Large Pop. —
Medium Pop. —
Very High Urban Very High Urban Very High Urban
64
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31% 30%
32% 30%
31% 31%
Medium Pop. — Medium/Low Pop. Overall Emotional
Wellness
High Urban
— Medium/Low
Urban
Social Capital
Knight Communities Overall
The people-connections citizens have to each other
% High Rating on Social Capital Measures
29% 31%
31% 31%
30% 31%
31% 30%
2008
32% 33%
2009
30% 31%
Very Large Pop.
Large Pop. —
Medium Pop. — Medium Pop. — Medium/Low Pop. Overall Social
Capital
— Very High
Very High Urban Very High Urban
High Urban
— Medium/Low
Urban
Urban
65
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Civic Involvement
Knight Communities Overall
What residents give to the community in terms of civic involvement — Increased in all
communities due to national election Fall 2008
% High Rating on Civic Involvement Measures
↑
↑
45%
48%
Very Large Pop.
— Very High
Urban
49%
52%
44%
48%
↑
↑
↑
47%
2008
52%
46%
51%
Large Pop. —
Medium Pop. — Medium Pop. — Medium/Low Pop.
Very High Urban Very High Urban
High Urban
— Medium/Low
Urban
2009
↑
46%
50%
Overall Civic
Involvement
Civic involvement, driven by voting during the most recent election, increased in all community types.
↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence
66
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Knight Communities Overall
Appendix
67
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Question/Reporting Scales
Construct
Q Number Question Wording
COMMUNITY LOYALTY
Q1
Overall satisfaction with
community
Q2
Likely to recommend
community to others
Q6a
Outlook for community 5
years from now
Knight Communities Overall
Original Scale
Low
Medium
High
5-point satisfaction
1-3
4
5
5-point likelihood
1-3
4
5
5-point agreement
1-3
4
5
5-point agreement
1-3
4
5
5-point much better to
much worse
PASSION
Q3-B
Q3-A
68
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Perfect community for
people like me
Proud to live in community
Question/Reporting Scales
Knight Communities Overall
(continued)
Construct
Q Number Question Wording
COMMUNITY OFFERINGS
Basic Services
Q7-C
Highway and freeway system
Leadership
Education
Safety
Aesthetics
Economy
Social Offerings
Q7-K
Q7-D
Q15a-B
Low
Medium
High
5-point very good to very bad
5-point very good to very bad
5-point very good to very bad
5-point agreement
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5-point very good to very bad
5-point very good to very bad
5-point very good to very bad
5-point high to low
5-point completely safe to not
at all safe
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
1-3
1-3
1-3
worse
1-3
worse
4
4
4
same
4
same
5
5
5
better
5
better
Q7-L
Q7-F
Q7-G
Q19
Q18
Availability of quality healthcare
Availability of affordable housing
Community leaders represent my
interests
Leadership of elected city officials
Quality of public schools (K-12)
Quality of colleges and universities
Level of community crime
Safe to walk within 1 mile of home
Q7-A
Q7-B
Q9
Q10
Q7-E
Q14
Parks, playgrounds, and trails
Beauty or physical setting
Economic conditions
Economy getting better/worse
Availability of job opportunities
Company hiring momentum
5-point very good to very bad
5-point very good to very bad
5-point very good to very bad
3-point better/same/worse
5-point very good to very bad
3-point hiring/no change/letting
go
Q15
Q15a-A
Q7-H
Q7-I
Job provides income needed
A good time to find a job in my area
Vibrant nightlife
Good place to meet people and
make friends
Other people care about each other
5-point agreement
5-point agreement
5-point very good to very bad
5-point very good to very bad
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5-point very good to very bad
1-3
4
5
Q7-M
69
Original Scale
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Question/Reporting Scales
(continued)
Construct
Q Number
COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT
Q22-A
Q22-C
Q22-B
Q22-D
Knight Communities Overall
Question Wording
Original Scale
Low
Medium
High
Volunteer
Voted in local election
Attend local community meetings
Work with residents to make
change
2-point yes/no
2-point yes/no
2-point yes/no
2-point yes/no
no
no
no
no
Good place for senior citizens
Good place for racial and ethnic
minorities
Good place for families with kids
Good place for gays/lesbians
Good place for talented college
graduates
Good place for immigrants from
other countries
5-point very good to very bad
5-point very good to very bad
1-3
1-3
4
4
5
5
5-point very good to very bad
5-point very good to very bad
5-point very good to very bad
1-3
1-3
1-3
4
4
4
5
5
5
5-point very good to very bad
1-3
4
5
8-point 0 to 7+ groups
0
1-2
3+
Q26
Belong to formal/informal
groups/clubs
Spend time with neighbors
Q24
Q25
Close friends in the community
Family in area
6-point none to all
6-point none to all
3-5
3-5
Several
times
wk/daily
6+
6+
yes
yes
yes
yes
OPENNESS
Q8-F
Q8-C
Q8-D
Q8-E
Q8-A
Q8-B
SOCIAL CAPITAL
Q23
70
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7-point never to about every
day
Once
year or
less
1-2
1-2
Question/Reporting Scales
(continued)
Construct
Q Number Question Wording
EMOTIONAL WELLNESS
Q16-A
In my community I am treated
with respect
Q16-B
I felt well-rested yesterday
Q16-C
Q16-D
71
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I felt a high level of stress
yesterday
I learned or did something
interesting yesterday
Knight Communities Overall
Original Scale
Low
Medium
High
5-point strongly agree to
strongly disagree
5-point strongly agree to
strongly disagree
5-point strongly agree to
strongly disagree
5-point strongly agree to
strongly disagree
1-3
4
5
1-3
4
5
3-5
2
1
1-3
4
5
Knight Foundation Communities
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Aberdeen, SD – µSA
Akron, OH* – MSA
Biloxi, MS – MSA
Boulder, CO – MSA
Bradenton, FL – MSA
Charlotte, NC* – MSA
Columbia, SC – MSA
Columbus, GA – MSA
Detroit, MI* – MSA
Duluth, MN – MSA
Fort Wayne, IN – MSA
Gary, IN – MD
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*Oversampled communities
72
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Knight Communities Overall
Grand Forks, ND – MSA
Lexington, KY – MSA
City of Long Beach, CA
Macon, GA – MSA
Miami, FL – MD
Milledgeville, GA – µSA
Myrtle Beach, SC – MSA
Palm Beach, FL – MD
Philadelphia, PA – MD
San Jose, CA – MSA
St. Paul, MN – MSA
State College, PA – MSA
Tallahassee, FL – MSA
Wichita, KS – MSA
Knight Foundation Communities
Knight Communities Overall
Grand Forks, ND - MSA
Duluth, MN - MSA
Aberdeen, SD - ВµSA
St. Paul, MN - MSA
Detroit, MI - MSA
Akron, OH - MSA
State College, PA - MSA
Gary, IN - MD
San Jose, CA - MSA
Fort Wayne, IN - MSA
Boulder, CO - MSA
Philadelphia, PA - MD
Lexington, KY - MSA
Wichita, KS - MSA
Charlotte, NC - MSA
City of Long Beach, CA
Columbia, SC - MSA
Myrtle Beach, SC - MSA
Milledgeville, GA - ВµSA
Columbus, GA - MSA
LEGEND
Very High Urban – Very Large Population
Very High Urban – Large Population
Very High Urban – Medium Population
High Urban – Medium Population
Medium/Low Urban – Medium/Low Population
73
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Biloxi, MS - MSA
Bradenton, FL - MSA
Macon, GA - MSA
Tallahassee, FL - MSA
Palm Beach, FL - MD
Miami, FL - MD
Knight Community Comparison
Groups
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Knight Communities Overall
5 comparison groups were created among the 26 Knight Foundation
communities based on their urbanicity (as defined by the U.S. Census)
and relative adult population size.
Goal of creating groups is for comparisons of cities within groups
(rather than across group comparisons).
Very Large Population
— Very High Urban
Detroit, MI – MSA; Philadelphia, PA – MD; Miami, FL – MD
2
Large Population —
Very High Urban
St. Paul, MN – MSA; San Jose, CA – MSA; Palm Beach, FL – MD;
Charlotte, NC – MSA
3
Medium Population —
Very High Urban
Bradenton, FL – MSA; Akron, OH – MSA; Gary, IN – MD;
City of Long Beach; Boulder, CO – MSA
4
Medium Population —
High Urban
Columbia, SC – MSA; Wichita, KS – MSA; Lexington, KY – MSA;
Tallahassee, FL – MSA; Columbus, GA – MSA
Medium/Low Population
— Medium/Low Urban
Fort Wayne, IN – MSA; Duluth, MN – MSA; Macon, GA – MSA;
Biloxi, MS – MSA; Grand Forks, ND – MSA;
Myrtle Beach, SC – MSA; State College, PA – MSA;
Milledgeville, GA – µSA; Aberdeen, SD – µSA
1
5
74
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Key Terms
Knight Communities Overall
Community Attachment (CA) – Residents’ psychological connection with the community, specifically
defined as their loyalty and passion for the place.
Attitudinal Loyalty – The overall contentment of citizens with their community, their outlook for the
community’s future, and likelihood to recommend the community to others.
Passion – The pride and enthusiasm citizens have toward their community, and their place in it.
Domains – Perception of community qualities that drive overall CA and can be impacted locally.
Social Capital – the people-connections citizens have to each other.
Openness – how welcoming the community is to different types of people.
Civic Involvement – what residents give to the community in terms of civic involvement.
Emotional Wellness – the mixture of mental and physical well-being items. The metric is an
overall measure of personal and community well-being.
Basic Services – infrastructure supports such as highways, housing, and healthcare.
Economy – local economic and employment conditions.
Safety – local area crime and safety conditions.
Leadership – rating of leadership and belief that elected officials represent resident’s interest.
Education – quality of K-12 and colleges/universities in the community.
Aesthetics – physical beauty and availability of parks and green spaces for residents.
Social Offerings – entertainment infrastructure for people to meet each other, and citizen caring.
75
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Attitudinal Loyalty
Knight Communities Overall
Attitudinal Loyalty measures the overall contentment of citizens with their community, their
outlook for the community’s future, and likelihood to recommend the community to others.
76
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Passion
Knight Communities Overall
Passion describes the pride and enthusiasm citizens have toward their community, and their
place in it.
77
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Community Domains
Knight Communities Overall
Gallup identified five key Domains and seven Sub-Domains related to Community Attachment. These
domains identify aspects of the community which drive attachment and can be impacted through locallevel initiatives by community leaders and businesses.
EMOTIONAL
OPENNESS WELLNESS
SOCIAL
CAPITAL
CIVIC
INVOLVEMENT
COMMUNITY OFFERINGS
Basic Services п‚џ Leadership п‚џ Education
п‚џ Safety п‚џ Social Offerings п‚џ
Aesthetics п‚џ Economy
78
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Community Offerings — the basic factors without
which citizens cannot thrive.
Emotional Wellness — the personal well-being of
individuals.
Social Capital — the people-connections citizens
have to each other.
Openness — how welcoming the community is to
different types of people.
Civic Involvement — what the residents give to the
community in terms of civic involvement.
Key Attachment Drivers
Knight Communities Overall
Correlations to Overall CA Among Students; Openness is key for students (n=283)
2008
2009
0.495
0.589
Social Offerings
0.400
0.480
Aesthetics
0.512
0.459
Leadership
0.418
0.429
Basic Services
0.425
0.387
Education
0.527
0.367
Economy
0.567
0.317
Emotional Wellness
0.300
0.280
Safety
0.415
0.223
Civic Involvement
0.032
0.115
Social Capital
0.082
0.062
Openness
79
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Community Attachment
Key Attachment Drivers
Knight Communities Overall
Correlations to Attached Citizens — Residents Aged 25-44
Social Offerings and Openness most influence those aged 25-44 (n=3,077)
80
2008
2009
Openness
0.535
0.523
Social Offerings
0.546
0.516
Aesthetics
0.502
0.481
Leadership
0.421
0.356
Basic Services
0.381
0.380
Education
0.464
0.482
Economy
0.451
0.360
Emotional Wellness
0.257
0.281
Safety
0.251
0.191
Civic Involvement
0.044
0.007
Social Capital
0.146
0.098
Copyright В© 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.
Community Attachment
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