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Conflict Defined

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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Conflict Defined
• Cold Conflict
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–
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functional
little to no emotion
builds consensus
enhances relationships
• Hot Conflict
– dysfunctional
– much emotion
– destroys relationships
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Factors Influencing
Hot Conflict
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Attitudes
Control imbalance
Outcome importance
Perceptions of:
– interdependence
– different goals
– being kept from goals
2
В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
The Conflict Process
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Analysis
Frustration
Conceptualization
Behavior
Other’s reactions
Outcome
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Consequences of Conflict
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Decreased productivity
Low morale
Absenteeism
Stress
Turnover
Law suits
Violence
4
В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Types of Conflict
• Interpersonal
• Individual - Group
• Group - Group
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Sources of Conflict
Hidden
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Fear
Embarrassment
Distrust
Hurt
Anger
Uncertainty
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Sources of Conflict
Surface
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Interdependence
Jurisdictional Ambiguity
Communication
Culture and Value
Difficult Personalities
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Types of Difficult People
• Aggressive
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Tank
Grenade
Sniper
Know-it-all
“No” person
Whiner
• Passive
– “Yes” person
– Bump-on-a-log
– �Round-to-it
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Angry Customers
• Aggressive Behaviors
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Warriors
Unloaders
Child
Blamer
Gunny Sacker
• Passive Behaviors
– Survivalists
– Guiltmakers
– Pretenders
9
В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Handling Diversity Disputes
• Increase scope of diagnoses
• Validate the other groups’ culture and
viewpoint
• Encourage workplace diversity
• Identify power and control imbalances and
redistribute where appropriate
10
В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Individual Differences in
Dealing with Conflict
• Personality traits versus
learned behavior
• Relationship of disputing
parties
• Gender differences
• Past conflict experiences
• Conflict response style
11
Conflict Response Styles
The Sage
• Problem-solver
• Win/Win orientation
• Cooperative problem solving
• Emphasis on preserving
relationship and meeting own
goals as well as that of others
Conflict Response Styles
The Diplomat
• Goal-oriented
• Compromising orientation
- provide evidence
- persuasion
• Emphases on relationship
and each other’s goals
Conflict Response Styles
The Ostrich
• Avoidance
• Withdrawal orientation
- quit
- complaining to others
• Over-emphasis is on
preserving relationship
Conflict Response Styles
The Philanthropist
• Accommodating
- smoothing and
conciliation
• High concern for
satisfying needs of others
Conflict Response Styles
The Warrior
• Win/Lose orientation
- winning at all costs
• Potential problem
creator
• Focus on own goals
В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Conflict Management Stages
Stage 1: Analysis
• Determine best strategy
to use
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Dictation
Arbitration
Mediation
Negotiation
• Identify all sources of
conflict
17
В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Conflict Management Stages
Stage 1: Analysis
• Dictation is best when:
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parties are irrational
no trust exists
too angry to be realistic
have mental health issues
alcohol or drugs are involved
when violent behavior is potential
parties have poor communication
skills
– there are time constraints
18
В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Conflict Management Stages
Stage 1: Analysis
• Mediation and negotiation are
best when:
– parties are rational
– parties want to work out a solution
together
– some trust still exists
– there are no time constraints
• Arbitration
– same as mediation but use when
parties get stuck during mediation
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Ury Negotiation Model
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Don’t react
Don’t argue
Don’t reject
Don’t push
Minimize escalation
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Conflict Management Stages
• Stage 2: Confrontation
– Story telling
• Stage 3: Resolution
– Problem and sources have
been identified
– Alternative resolutions are
brainstormed
– Mutually agreeable solution
chosen
– Agreement to monitor
changes in the future
21
В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Summary of Conflict
Management Stages
• Stage 1: Analysis
– Decide strategy
• dictation
• arbitration
• mediation/negotiation
• Stage 3: Resolution
– Brainstorm solutions
– Choose solution
– Agree to monitor/change
– Identify all conflict sources
• Stage 2: Confrontation
– Storytelling
22
В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Managing Workplace Conflict
Interpersonal Communication
Techniques
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Active listening
Reflecting
Empathy
Questioning
Highlight common goals
Creating trust
Inquiring silence
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Managing Workplace Conflict
Active Listening Means
Using nonverbal gestures to let employees
know their concerns are being heard.
– eye contact
– head nodding
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Managing Workplace Conflict
Reflecting Means
Seeking clarification through paraphrasing
of what each individual has said.
– Open-ended vs. closed-ended questions
25
В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Managing Workplace Conflict
Communication Reminders
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Use “I” rather than “you”
Focus on behaviors, not personality
Give clear and specific examples
Explain impact of inappropriate behaviors
on others
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Dealing with Difficult People
• Direct Intervention
– address behavior
– explain impact of behavior on
others
• Indirect Intervention
– positive feedback when appropriate
behavior is used
• Direct Coping
– separate difficult employee from
others
• Indirect Coping
– provide training to others on dealing
with difficult personality
27
В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Effectiveness of Techniques
Depends on:
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Disputing parties’ communication skills
Conflict perspective
Power distribution
Personal accountability
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Preventing Workplace Conflict
• Well-written job descriptions
• Unambiguous policies
• Clarification of roles and
expectations
• Training on new policies
• Conflict management
training
• For teams, clarification of
levels of authority
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Managing Workplace Conflict
Steps for Mediation
Step 1: Stabilize the setting
– greet parties
– use interpersonal communication techniques
– confirm neutrality
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Managing Workplace Conflict
Steps for Mediation
Step 2: Help disputants communicate
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both parties tell their side without interruption
clarify unclear issues
summarize main problems
focus on areas of agreement
prioritize what needs to be settled
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Managing Workplace Conflict
Steps for Mediation
Step 3: Help parties negotiate
• seek cooperation
• help them explore alternative solutions
• allow venting but no accusations
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В© 2001 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
Managing Workplace Conflict
Steps for Mediation
Step 4: Clarify their agreement
• summarize the agreement terms
• state each parties’ role in implementing the
agreement (who does what, when, where, how)
• explain follow-up process
33
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