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chapter 09: conflict in the organization

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Conflict in the Organization
Chapter 9
(pp. 157-171)
Overview
пЃ® Communication & Conflict
пЃ® Defining Conflict
пЃ® Origins
пЃ® Consequences
пЃ® Factors Influencing Conflict
пЃ® Conflict Styles
пЃ® Disputes and Negotiation
пЃ® Conflict Management &
Resolution Skills
Communication & Conflict
 Mild “tensions” vs. Incapacitation
пЃ® Understanding conflict is critical to
communication success
пЃ® Communication constitutes the essence
of conflict in that it undergirds the
formation of opposing issues, frames
perceptions of the felt conflict,
translates emotions and perceptions
into conflict behaviors, and sets the
stage for future conflicts (Putnam &
Poole, 1987)
Conflict Defined
пЃ® Two or more interdependent parties who
perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources,
and interference from others in achieving that
goal (Hocker & Wilmot, 1995)
пЃ® Competition between interdependent parties
who perceive that they have incompatible
needs, goals, desires, or ideas (Van Slyke,
1999)
пЃ® The interaction of interdependent people who
perceive opposition of goals, aims, and values,
and who see the other party as potentially
interfering with the realization of these goals
(Putnam & Poole, 1987)
Conflict Defined
пЃ® Interdependence
пЃ® Perceived Incompatible Goals
пЃ® Scarce Resources
пЃ® Interference
пЃ® Social Interaction
пЃ® Central to Conflict
пЃ® How conflict is identified and framed
Origins of Conflict
пЃ® Four Events that precipitate interpersonal conflict
пЃ® REBUFFS
пЃ® Failure to respond to appeal for desired action
пЃ® ILLEGITIMATE DEMANDS
пЃ® Unjust or extreme request
пЃ® CRITICISMS
пЃ® Unfavorable or demeaning verbal or nonverbal act
пЃ® CUMULATIVE ANNOYANCES
пЃ® Repetition of instances that crosses tolerance threshold
пЃ® Five Factors that favor the development of conflict
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
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Frequency of Occurrence
Goal Mutuality
Goal-Path Uncertainty
Attribution of Cause
Negative Feelings
Consequences of Conflict
пЃ® Negative Consequences
пЃ® Less Effective
пЃ® Suboptimal Productivity
пЃ® Inhibited Cognitive Functioning
пЃ® Positive Consequences
пЃ® Identify and Better Understand Issues
пЃ® Clarify Issues
пЃ® Creative Solutions
Factors Influencing Conflict
пЃ®Content Related vs. Personal
пЃ®Size of Conflict
пЃ®Rigidity of the Issue
пЃ®Power Differences
пЃ®Individual Personalities, Traits,
and Dispositions
Conflict Styles
пЃ®Strategy Effectiveness
пЃ®Adapt to the Situation
пЃ®Be Fair and Objective
пЃ®Appropriate and Effective
Communication
пЃ®Mutual Awareness
пЃ®Open-minded Attitudes
пЃ®Willingness to Ignore Power Issues
пЃ®Problem-Solving Procedures
Characterizing Conflict Styles
пЃ® 5 Basic Conflict Styles
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Withdrawing (Avoiding)
Smoothing (Accomodating)
Forcing (Dominating; Competing)
Confronting (Collaborating, Problem Solving,
Integrating)
пЃ® Compromising
пЃ® Ethical Climate Determines Effectiveness
of Conflict Style
пЃ® Formal Procedures / Rules
пЃ® McKinney, Kelly, and Duran (1997)
пЃ® CMMS scale Ross & DeWine (1988)
пЃ® Concern for other, self, and issue
пЃ® Nicotera (1994)
Conflict Styles Research
пЃ® McKinney, Kelly, and Duran (1997)
пЃ® Concern for other and issue positively related to
social confirmation
пЃ® Concern for other and issue positively related
with social experience
пЃ® Concern for self negatively related to social
composure
пЃ® Nicotera (1994)
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
AVOID - evasive vs. estranged
ACCOMMODATE - accommodate vs. patronize
COMPETE - assertive vs. aggressive
COLLOBORATE - consolidate vs. begrudge
COMPROMISE - ?
пЃ® Flexibility is influenced by liking, loyalty,
and personality factors (aggressiveness,
tolerance, and innovativeness)
Conflict Styles Research
 Superior’s Conflict Styles and Rewards
for Subordinates
пЃ® System Rewards (salary, benefits, promotions)
пЃ® Performance Rewards (responsibility, decision
making input, meaningful/challenging work)
пЃ® Interpersonal Rewards (recognition, friendship,
status, appreciation, feeling of belonging)
пЃ® Results
пЃ® Collaboration and Forcing styles predict
Interpersonal and Performance Rewards
пЃ® No relationships identified . . .
пЃ® between accommodation and perceived
rewards
пЃ® between manager conflict styles and system
rewards
Conflict Styles Research
пЃ®Diversity and Gender
пЃ®Workplace diversity and
orientations toward conflict can
heighten the frequency and
intensity of conflict situations
пЃ®Lack of understanding of cultural
differences can result in conflict
пЃ®Personality has a greater impact on
conflict style than biological sex
Disputes and Negotiation
пЃ® Bargaining as Compromise
пЃ® Participants negotiate mutually shared
rules and then cooperate within these
rules to gain a competitive advantage
over opponent
пЃ® Bargaining and Negotiation are
interchangeable
пЃ® Organizational Responses (Disputing Process
Instrument (DPI) Morrill & Thomas, 1992)
пЃ®Aggressiveness - expense of others
пЃ®Authoritativeness - resources of
social position
пЃ®Observability visible to social
audience
пЃ® Seven Conflict Behaviors (DPI)
The Negotiation Process
пЃ® The goal of negotiation is no longer
exclusively getting an effective settlement
пЃ® Redefinition of the problem
пЃ® Perceptual change in the elements of the
problem
пЃ® New appreciation of the socio/historical context
of the dispute
пЃ® Communication-as-Negotiation
пЃ® Transformational power that transcends notions
of technical and instrumental rationality
пЃ® Participants define the conflict and its
environment
пЃ® Rationality and Effectiveness (and
Appropriateness) help define many aspects of
organizational life
Conflict Management & Resolution Skills
пЃ® First, understand the factors contributing to conflict
пЃ® Next, we identify the methods for resolving conflict
пЃ® Two Forms of Conflict Resolution
пЃ® Distributive Conflict Resolution
пЃ® Winning through the use of negative behaviors
пЃ® Disagreement to prevent others from reaching their goals
пЃ® Serves personal needs and goals at the expense of others
пЃ® Conflict as WIN - lose
пЃ® Integrative Conflict Resolution
пЃ® Foster cooperation and shared solutions
пЃ® Modifying ideas, bargaining for an acceptable
compromise
пЃ® Search for solutions and provide support for others
пЃ® Cooperative and not mutually exclusive
пЃ® Objective is to share values, highlight common
objectives, and help achieve consensus
пЃ® Transition from distributive to integrative conflict resolution
occurs when the need to accomplish a common goal is
recognized.
Conflict Management & Resolution Skills
пЃ® Once individuals realize that it will be impossible to
achieve the desired goal without resources and abilities
beyond their own, the transition can take place.
пЃ® INTEGRATIVE CONFLICT RESOLUTION SKILL SET
пЃ® Ability to establish effective working relationships
пЃ® Must have cooperative and problem-solution attitudes
пЃ® Must be able to manage the group process and group
decision making be knowledgeable about the issues
пЃ® Interpersonal Relationships are at the core of our
ability to resolve conflict
пЃ® Effective development of interpersonal relationships
among co-workers can potentially decrease the severity
of grievances filed
пЃ® Metaphors to describe attitudes toward conflict
пЃ® CONFLICT as WAR (great personal cost)
пЃ® CONFLICT as IMPOTENCE (powerless to impact)
пЃ® CONFLICT as RATIONAL PROCESS (collaboration)
пЃ® Most frequent - conflict as impotence
Conflict Management & Resolution Skills
пЃ® Having skills and knowledge of different approaches to
conflict may help one overcome a sense of helplessness
in conflict settings
пЃ® Resolving conflicts depends on the perceptions of the
negotiation
пЃ® Misinformation can lead to negative perceptions
пЃ® Organizational conflict can be one of the most
frustrating and difficult aspects of working in an
organization
пЃ® Especially frustrating when people feel they have no
control over the outcome
пЃ® Be sensitive to your own style of interacting and
managing conflict and pay attention to the styles of
others
пЃ® Conflict is expected and anticipated in the
communicative organization (CO)
пЃ® The only UNKNOWN is how parties respond to
conflict
Strategies for Dealing with Conflict
пЃ® Be Objective
пЃ® Analyze and separate content and personal issues
пЃ® Planning stage for strategic communication
пЃ® Be Aware of Preferred Style of Conflict Resolution
пЃ® Plan, Recognize, Contain, and Cope
пЃ® Distinguish Symptoms from Causes
пЃ® Symptoms let us know a conflict is present
пЃ® Causes of conflict are issues underlying the
symptoms
пЃ® Identify Success of Methods already Implemented
пЃ® Ignore problems
пЃ® Persuasion
пЃ® Compromise
пЃ® Be Sensitive to Different Approaches and Views of
Conflict based on Gender and Cultural Diversity
Summary
пЃ® Communication & Conflict
пЃ® Defining Conflict
пЃ® Origins
пЃ® Consequences
пЃ® Factors Influencing Conflict
пЃ® Conflict Styles
пЃ® Disputes and Negotiation
пЃ® Conflict Management &
Resolution Skills
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