Conflict Management Chapter Ten McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright В© 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Constructive Confrontation at Intel Intel employees learn to fully evaluate ideas through вЂњconstructive confrontation.вЂќ The objective is to attack the problem, not the employee, but some critics claim the process is a license for some Intel staff to be bullies. 10-2 Conflict Defined The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party 10-3 Historically, experts viewed conflict as dysfunctional Good Undermined relations Conflict outcomes Is Conflict Good or Bad?: Pre 1970s View Wasted human energy Results in job dissatisfaction, turnover, stress, lower productivity, less information sharing 0 Bad Low Level of conflict High 10-4 Is Conflict Good or Bad?: 1970s-1990s View Dysfunctional to have too little and too much conflict Some conflict is good because: п‚§ better decisions п‚§ reexamine assumptions п‚§ п‚§ Good Conflict outcomes From 1970s to 1990s, experts believed there is an optimal level of conflict 0 Improves responsiveness to external environment Increases cohesion within the team Optimal conflict Bad Low Level of conflict High 10-5 Is Conflict Good or Bad?: Emerging View Two types of conflict Constructive (task) conflict п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Conflict is aimed at issue, not parties Produces benefits of conflict Upper limit to any conflict, including constructive Relationship (socioemotional) conflict п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Aims conflict a the person (e.g. their competence), not the task or issue Introduces perceptual biases Distorts information processing 10-6 Is Conflict Good or Bad?: Emerging View Relationship conflict is dysfunctional Problem: difficult to separate constructive from relationship conflict п‚§ Drive to defend naturally activated when ideas are critiqued Good Conflict outcomes Lack of constructive conflict is bad, but some produces positive outcomes, up to a point Constructive conflict 0 Relationship conflict Bad Low Level of conflict High 10-7 Minimizing Relationship Conflict Three conditions that minimize relationship conflict while engaging in constructive conflict п‚§ Emotional intelligence п‚§ Cohesive team п‚§ Supportive team norms 10-8 The Conflict Process Conflict Perceptions Sources of Conflict Manifest Conflict Conflict Outcomes Conflict Emotions Conflict Escalation Cycle 10-9 Structural Sources of Conflict Incompatible Goals вЂў One partyвЂ™s goals perceived to interfere with otherвЂ™s goals Differentiation вЂў Different values/beliefs вЂў Explains cross-cultural and generational conflict Task Interdependence вЂў Conflict increases with interdependence вЂў Higher risk that parties interfere with each other more 10-10 Sources of Conflict (conвЂ™t) Scarce Resources вЂў Motivates competition for the resource вЂў Creates uncertainty, threatens goals Ambiguous Rules вЂў Without rules, people rely on politics Communication Problems вЂў Increases stereotyping вЂў Reduces motivation to communicate вЂў Escalates conflict when arrogant 10-11 Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Conflict Management McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright В© 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Forcing Assertiveness High Problem-solving Compromising Avoiding Low Yielding Cooperativeness High 10-13 Problem Solving Conflict Handling at ThedaCare To resolve conflict between nurses and pharmacists regarding prescription ordering, ThedaCare management formed a task force that devised a new system satisfactory to both parties. They resolved their conflict through problem solving. 10-14 Problem Solving Conflict Handling Contingencies Problem solving conflict handling is best whenвЂ¦ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Interests are not perfectly opposing Parties have trust/openness Issues are complex 10-15 Other Conflict Handling Style Contingencies Avoiding is best whenвЂ¦ п‚§ п‚§ relationship conflict is high Conflict resolution cost is higher than its benefits Forcing is best whenвЂ¦ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ You have a deep conviction about your position Quick resolution required Other party would take advantage of cooperation 10-16 Other Conflict Handling Style Contingencies (conвЂ™t) Yielding is best whenвЂ¦ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Other party has much more power Issue is much less important to you than other party Value/logic of your position is unsteady Compromising is best whenвЂ¦ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Parties have equal power Quick solution is required Parties lack trust/openness 10-17 Managing Conflict: Superordinate Goals Emphasizing common objectives rather than conflicting sub-goals Reduces goal incompatibility and differentiation 10-18 Structural Solutions for Managing Conflict Conflict Management McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright В© 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Managing Conflict: Reducing Differentiation Remove sources of different values and beliefs Move employees around to different jobs, departments, and regions Other ways to reduce differentiation: п‚§ п‚§ Common dress code/status Common work experiences 10-20 Managing Conflict: Communication/Understanding Employees understand and appreciate each otherвЂ™s views through communication п‚§ Relates to contact hypothesis Two warnings: 1. 2. Apply communication/understanding after reducing differentiation A Western strategy that may conflict with values/traditions in other cultures 10-21 Other Ways to Manage Conflict Reduce Task Interdependence п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Dividing shared resources Combine tasks Use buffers Increase Resources п‚§ Duplicate resources Clarify Rules and Procedures п‚§ п‚§ Clarify resource distribution Change interdependence 10-22 Types of Third Party Intervention High Mediation Inquisition Level of Process Control Arbitration Low Level of Outcome Control High 10-23 Choosing the Best 3rd Party Strategy Managers prefer inquisitional strategy п‚§ п‚§ Provides consistency and control Problems: risk of poor decision and less perceived fairness But best solution depends on situation, leaderfollower relations, cultural values Mediation potentially offers highest satisfaction with process and outcomes Use arbitration when mediation fails 10-24 Conflict Management Chapter Ten McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright В© 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.