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European History Thursday 9

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GO EUROPE !
European culture & identity
Cultural history of Europe
A тАШBriefтАЩ Introduction
Thursday, January 9th 2014
Main elements of culture / civilization:
1.
Religion
яВо e.g. Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Confucianism
2.
History, shared past
яВо
Western history, Arab history, Russian etc.
3.
Language, the language families
яВо e.g. Indo-European, Turkic, Semitic, etc.
4.
Ethnicity
яВо e.g. Bantu, Chinese, Caucasian, etc.
+
Self-identification
яВо
`us' яВмяВо `them', ingroup яВмяВо outgroup
Dominant religions in Europe
Civilizations are closely connected to the great religions: `culture is religionтАЩ, basically
http://www.mapsofwar.com/images/Religion.swf
Three EraтАЩs: Ancient, Medieval, Modern
1.
Ancient
0-500 AD
Greco-Roman world
Birth of Christianity
2.
Medieval
500-1500
Holy Roman Empire & Islamic empires
Spread of Christianity & Islam
3.
Modern
1500-2000
Age of Empires
Reformation & Enlightenment
тАв
тАв
тАв
тАв
тАв
тАв
3a. Modern/Contemporary 1900-present
Nation states
Global Christianity & Islam, Western secularism
тАв
тАв
1. Antiquity 0 - 500 AD
тАв Greco-Roman world
тАв Birth of Christianity
The basics: European civilization = legacy of the Roman Empire (Greco-Roman world)
Roman bridge in Maastricht
The Greco-Roman legacy = modern Europe:
1. Religion: Christianity (= the Greco-Roman religion)
2. Language: Latin alphabet, Latin concepts
3. Public order: rule of law, citizenship, republic/monarchy
4. Science and philosophy (Greek)
5. The Arts: literature, drama, painting, sculpture, architecture, music
The Latin Alphabet
Latin + Romania (19th C.) + Turkey (1928)
яВмяВо
Greek, Arabic, a.o. alphabets
`OrientalтАЩ traditions with their own alphabets:
яБ▒
Greek alphabet
яБ▒
Cyrillic alphabet
яБ▒
Georgian alphabet
яБ▒
Armenian alphabet
яБ▒
Hebrew alphabet
яБ▒
Arabic alphabet
Alphabets worldwide: green = Latin, red = Cyrillic, blue =
Arabic, black = own types, yellowgreen = Brahman, grey = NO
alphabet
The Western Roman Empire collapsed during the `Age of InvasionsтАЩ (5th Century), followed
by a series of Barbarian successor states (Goths, Franks, Alemans, a.o.)
2. Middle Ages
500-1500
тАв Holy Roman Empire & Islamic empires
тАв Spread of Christianity & Islam
Expansion of Christianity + Islam
Untill the Great Schism of 1054
Rome + Byzantium + Monophysites + Nestorians
The different European civilizations
= are all a consequence of big тАЬschismsтАЭ within Christianity
1.
Eastern Christians convert en masse to Islam
700-1100
Christian minorities: Copts, Maronites, Church of the East (now in trouble
within Syria and Egypt)
2.
The Great Schism: Rome versus Orthodoxy
Greco-Catholics unite with Rome
3.
The Reformation: Protestants secede from Rome
Evangelicals and Pentecostals
Secularism: especially within Western Protestantism
1054
(16th+17th C.)
1517-1648
(19th+20th C.)
(20th C.)
Civilizations since Middle Ages: Latin West, Byzantine East, Islam
Latin = the West
India, China, Japan
Japanese
= Shinto
Chinese =
Confucianism
Arabic = Islam
Sanskrit =
Hinduism
Afther the fall of Rome (476), the [Eastern half of the] Roman Empire continues,
becoming ever more `GreekтАЩ in the process = `ByzantiumтАЩ (untill 1453)
The `Church of Holy WisdomтАЩ (hagia sofia),
Aya Sofya, built 532-537 and model for all
mosques - and many churches - worldwide
The Moscow Kremlin (Uspensky Cathedral) was literally considered the тАЬThird RomeтАЭ тАУ
and czars yearly conducted the divine emperorsтАЩ rituals, representing Christ on Earth
The Orthodox half of Europe: from Athens to Vladivostok
3. Modern 1500-2000
тАв Age of Empires
тАв Reformation & Enlightenment
Protestant Reformation, 1517-1648
Connections between Protestantism and Enlightenment
PROTESTANTISM
Priesthood of believers
Right of individual conscience
?
MODERNITY
Egalitarianism
Revolt against Papal authority
Scripture as the highest authority
Right to revolution
Christian Liberty (internal)
Individualism
Voluntary Covenant
Liberalism
The split into Protestant sects
Religious Toleration
No celibacy, married priesthood
Women's Liberation
"Protestant ethic"
Election
Predestination
Capitalism
Congregation as ultimate authority
Democracy
Translation of Scripture into the vernacular
Nationalism
EuropeтАЩs Latin civilization created
`The WestтАЩ and Western Civilization
3a. Modern/Contemporary 1900-present
тАв Nation states
тАв Global Christianity & Islam, Western
secularism
Europe AD 1900
Europe AD 2000
`Unification of EuropeтАЩ, 1939-1945, by the `Third ReichтАЩ
Cold War: `the WestтАЩ versus `the EastтАЩ
CONCLUSION
In summary: European culture is the outcome of:
(1.) Greek-Roman legacy:
тАв Christianity:
тАв `time and eternityтАЩ perspective
тАв the conscience: individualтАЩs freedom/equality
тАв concept of `societyтАЩ (congregation)
тАв Public order: rule of law, citizenship, republic/monarchy
тАв Classical arts & literature
тАв Classical philosophy
тАв Latin (Alphabet, Concepts of all Western languages)
(2.) European Middle Ages (c.500-1500):
тАв Latin (Catholic) Christianity = тАШWestern ChurchтАЩ
тАв Monasteries, churches
тАв Universities (Theology, Philosophy, Law)
тАв Public order: concept of the `Sacrum ImperiumтАЩ
тАв Arts: Romanesque, Gothic
тАв Music: Polyphony
(3.)
Renaissance, Humanism, Reformation (c.1500-1650):
тАв Revival of Classical culture (arts, knowledge)
тАв Protestantism (Reformation, Radical Reformation)
тАв Politics: absolutism, state religion
тАв Mass media: books, pamphlets, newspapers
тАв Arts: Renaissance, Baroque
тАв Literature: drama, poetry
тАв Music: opera, ballet, instrumental music
(3.)
Enlightenment & Modernity (c.1700-present):
тАв Enlightenment and Radical Enlightenment
тАв Arts: Classicism, Romanticism, Modernism
тАв Politics: seperation of church and state, nation states
тАв Citizenship and тАШhuman rightsтАЩ
тАв PeopleтАЩs souvereignity,republicanism, democracy
тАв
(e.g. liberalism / socialism / conservatism)
BUT ALSO: totalitarian states, totalitarian ideologies
(mainly: fascism, Nazism, communism)
(m.n. communisme, nazisme, fascisme)
Western
Scheme of the rise and fall
of the great civilizations
from Arnold J. ToynbeeтАЩs A
Study of History
(12 volumes, 1934-1961)
тАУ тАЬWesternтАЭ civilization
follows the decline of the
тАЬIslamicтАЭ and Byzantine
(тАЬOrthodox ChristianтАЭ)
Medieval civilizations
Map of Global civilizations (c.1950) by the British historian Arnold J. Toynbee (1889-1975).
His analysis of the rise and fall of the great civilizations was very influential in its time.
Civilizations
according to Samuel
P. Huntington
тАЬOrthodoxтАЭ
тАЬThe WestтАЭ
Japan
China
тАЬIslamтАЭ
тАЬHinduтАЭ
тАЬAfricaтАЭ
Latin-America
The famous тАЬ fault line тАЬ between the
яГШ Western (`LatinтАЩ) and
яГШ Eastern (`ByzantineтАЩ, Orthodox)
European civilizations
Suggested by
Samuel P. Huntington,
Arnold Toynbee, and others
Catholic
Protestant
Orthodox
Muslim
GrecoCatholic
`The (Latin) WestтАЩ
яВмяВо
Eastern Europe
яВмяВо`South-East
What is тАШEuropean cultureтАЩ ?
яГШMonothe├пsm: European culture is essentially ``ChristianтАЩтАЩ
яГШRationality: European culture is basically ``GreekтАЩтАЩ
яГШPublic Order: European culture is very much ``RomanтАЩтАЩ
яГШяВзTypically
European values stemming from these great traditions:
Egalitarianism, equality (e.g. between man and woman)
яВз
яВз
яВз
яВз
Freedom of conscience, freedom of expression (тАШsacred!тАЩ)
The individual (even religion is considered something тАШтАЩindividualтАЩтАЩ !)
Separation of powers (church/state, state/law, government/parliament)
Self-organisation, civil society
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