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Topic 3 - Mater Academy Lakes High School

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Byzantium Becomes the New
Rome
SPLITS
• Capital = Constantinople
• Continued as the New
ROME
• Kings saw themselves to
still be considered ROMAN
emperors
Byzantine Empire
Constantinople
• Survived because it
was far away from the
Germanic tribe
invasions
• It was the crossroads
of trade so it was
successful
• Preserved GrecoRoman culture
Justinian
• Justinian was a serious
emperor who worked
from dawn to midnight
• He helped rebuild and
re-conquer Rome
• Had ABSOLUTE
POWER = controlled
both government and
church
Byzantine Under Justinian
• He wanted a re-conquest of the
Roman territories that were lost
through Germanic invasions
Justinian’s Accomplishments
• Sent Best general
Belisarius to take North
Africa from the Vandals
• 2 Years later Belisarius
took Rome back from
the Ostrogoths
• Justinian won back
nearly all the territory
Rome used to rule.
Justinian Code
• Justinian set up a panel of legal
experts to look through 400 years of
Roman law.
–Some laws were outdated
–Justinian wanted to create a single,
uniform code
• This became known as the Justinian
Code that was used for 900 years
after his death
Justinian Expands Trade
• The main street that
ran through
Constantinople was
called the MESE
which means
“Middle Way”
–It ran from the
imperial palace to
the outer walls
Justinian Expands Trade
• There was a giant
open-air market
where shoppers
could buy
–Tin from England
–Wine from France
–Cork from Spain
–Ivory and gold from
Africa
Byzantium Preserves Learning
• Families valued education
–Sent children to
monastic or public
schools
–Hired private tutors
–Greek and Latin grammar,
philosophy and rhetoric
• They preserved Greek and
Roman great works
Justinian’s Building Program
• Launched the most ambitious public
building program the Roman world had
ever seen.
• City protected by a deep moat, and three
walls that were 25 feet thick
• City coast was surrounded by a 14-mile
stone wall
The Hagia Sophia
• Justinians’ most splendid building
• Christian church later taken by the
Muslims
Byzantine Society & Politics
• Ruler heads both Church and State
• Complicated bureaucracy supports imperial
authority
• Military troops recruited and given land for service
• Peasants supplied the food and provided most tax
revenues
• Large urban class kept satisfied by low food prices
(Romans????????)
• Cultural life centered on Hellenistic secular
traditions and Orthodox Christianity
• Artistic creativity only in art and architecture
– Domes, Mosaics, & Icons
SPLIT
Why do the Roman Catholic Church in the
west and the Orthodox Church in the
east have differences?
•
•
•
•
Grew too large to communicate
Different versions of Bible
Services held in different languages
Byzantine Emperors resist Papal
interference from Rome
• Priests may be married in Eastern
Orthodox
• No divorce in Roman Catholic
• Final split – 1054 over arguments about
type of bread used in mass and celibacy of
priests
Byzantine Warfare
• 1st choice – Diplomacy
• Last choice – war
Looooooooong Road to Decline
• Muslim invaders – constant attacks
• Crusades (especially the 4th)
• 1453 – Ottoman Turks conquered
Constantinople
Spread of Civilization in Eastern
Europe
• Byzantium influences people in the
Balkans and southern Russia
– Missionaries, trade, invasions
– Cyril & Methodius
• Cyrillic script
• Allow use of local languages in services
– Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Hungarians fall
under Roman Catholic influence
• Weak, regional monarchies develop, controlled
by strong land-owning aristocracy (one reason
for power nation-states not developing in
Eastern Europe
•
EMERGENCE OF KIEVAN
RUS
Scandinavians and Slavs mix and
create monarchy - Kievan Rus (855ce)
• Vladimir I converts to Christianity –
prefers Eastern Orthodoxy – Why?
• Yaroslav the Wise (similar to Justinian)
CULTURE IN KIEVAN RUS
• Borrow heavily from Byzantium
• Orthodox Christianity & Russian culture
blend
• Peasants are free farmers
• Boyars – aristocrats – have less power
than aristocrats in Western Europe
• Women – secluded, stay at home most of
the time (elite)
Kievan Rus
Kievan Decline (12th century)
• Struggle over succession (same old
story)
• Decline of Byzantium = trade diminishes
• Mongols took over Kievan lands in 13th
century – RUSSIAN STATE emerges in
15th century (Ivan the Terrible, et al)
– Destroyed trade, literature, and education
– Christianity (Eastern Orthodox) survived –
united the people
The Mongols Invade Russia
End of an Era in Eastern
Europe
• Mongol invasions, decline of Kievan
Rus, and collapse of Byzantium cause
Eastern Europe to enter into difficult
period
– Poland – western influence
– Balkans – Islamic world of Turks
• Western and Eastern Europe evolve
separately – Western Europe becomes
more powerful and sophisticated
Mongols
• In 1240, Kiev was
destroyed by the Mongols
and the Russian territory
was split into numerous
smaller dukedoms.
• Mongols gain control
Russia, known as the
Golden Horde
• Mongols do not disrupt
Russian culture
• Decline of Mongols after
100-200 years of rule
• Rise of Muscovy – shift
from Kiev to Moscow
Muscovy
• After the Mongols were pushed out of Russia, power
shifted from Kiev to Moscow.
• After the fall of Constantinople, Ivan III (1462-1505)
referred to his empire as "the Third Rome" and
considered it heir to the Byzantine tradition.
• Ivan IV (the Terrible) (1530-1584) was the first Russian
ruler to call himself czar. He pushed Russian eastward
with his conquests
• Ivan was succeeded by Boris Godunov, whose reign
commenced the so-called Time of Troubles. Relative
stability was achieved when Michael Romanov
established the Romanov Dynasty that ruled Russia until
1917.
Social Classes
• There were two main “classes” in Russian
history
1. Cossacks – peasants
2. Boyars – nobles
Romanovs
• Michael Romanov – was elected to be
Czar/Tzar/Tsar (sounds like Caesar), but
afterwards the ruling family of Russia was
inherited.
• Alexis became Czar in 1645 and ruled until
1676.
• His son Fedor (Theodore) III became Czar and
was basically competent, but he was physically
deformed and had some problems ruling. He
died and his two brothers Ivan V and Peter I
were declared co-Czars. Ivan was mentally
retarded, so their sister really ruled until Peter
was old enough to.
Themes
in Russian History
п‚Ї Expansion by conquest.
Need for warm-water
ports.
п‚Ї The necessity of a strong,
central government.
The Pendulum
of Russian History
Pro-West
For Progress & Change
Encourage New Ideas,
Technologies, etc.
Anti-West
Isolationist
Xenophobic
Ultra-Conservative
 A few Tsars
 Most Tsars
 Intellectual elites
 Russian Orthodox
Church
 Merchants/businessmen
 Young members of the
middle class.
 Military
 Boyars
 peasants
REFORM-MINDED
LEADER
DEMAGOGUE
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