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Map of the Byzantine Empire 550 AD

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Map of the
Byzantine Empire 550 AD
Eastern Roman Empire
• The city of Constantinople has been known
through the ages under a large number of
different names.
• It was first known as Byzantium. The capital of
the Eastern Roman empire was moved from
Rome to Byzantium in Anatolia.
• Byzantium was renamed Constantinople after
the Roman Emperor Constantine around 330
AD. Constantinople was the capital of the
Eastern Roman Empire until around 395 AD
when it became the capital of the Byzantine
Empire.
Constantinople (Istanbul)
Hagia Sophia
Diocletian Divides the Empire
In 284 AD, the emperor Diocletian divided
the Roman empire into four administrative
districts, one of which was the East.
Role of Constantinople
• Seat of the Byzantine Empire until
Ottoman conquest
• Preserved classical Greco-Roman culture
• Center of Trade
• In 1453 the Ottoman Turkish Empire will
conquer the Byzantine Empire and
Constantinople will become their capital.
• The Ottoman Empire will fall after the First
World War in 1922.
Constantinople
• Constantinople provided political,
economic, and military advantages such
as:
– Protection of the eastern frontier
– Distance from the Germanic invasions in the
western empire
– Crossroads of trade
– Easily fortified site on a peninsula bordering a
natural harbor
• It is located on the Bosphorus Strait, and
encompasses the natural harbor known as
the Golden Horn, in the northwest of the
country.
• It extends both on the European (Thrace)
and on the Asian (Anatolia) side of the
Bosphorus, and is thereby the only city in
the world which is situated on two
continents.
• The Roman Empire was split between into
the Western Empire, centering on Rome,
and the Eastern Empire, centering on
Constantinople.
• The Western Roman Empire fell in 476
AD. The eastern half will become the
Byzantine Empire.
• Justinian I will become the Byzantine
Emperor in 527 AD.
• Justinian became universally famous
because of his legislative work,
remarkable for its sweeping character.
• In 529 he revised and codified the ancient
Roman legal code, a collection of laws that
came to be referred to as the "Justinian's
Code".
• This law code will provide the basis for the
law code of Western Europe.
Jump
1. Who divided the Roman Empire into West and East
Rome?
2. What emperor adopted Christianity?
3. What is the capital of the Byzantine Empire? AND what
are two other of it’s names throughout history?
4. Who is Justinian and what did he do?
5. What is the split in the Catholic Church called and what
sect has been created?
Justinian
Justinian
• Under Justinian the Byzantine Empire
reached its height in culture and
prosperity. Emperor Justinian influenced
the expansion of the Byzantine Empire in
the following ways:
– Codification of Roman Law (impact on
European legal codes)
– Reconquest of former Roman territories
– Expansion of Trade
Established
Justinian Code
Conquered most of
Italy and parts of
Spain
Rebuilt
Constantinople’s
fortifications
Justinian
Enlarged
his palace
Encouraged Trade
and Education
Rebuilt Hagia
Sophia
Built Aqueducts, Courts,
Schools, and Hospitals
The Reign of Justinian
Women’s Status
Empress Theodora
Theodora and Court
Greek and Roman Culture
• Greek and Roman traditions were
preserved by the Byzantine Empire.
Greek and Roman culture survived with
the Byzantine Empire in the following
ways:
– Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in
the West)
– Greek Orthodoxy Christianity
– Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in
Byzantine libraries.
The Great Schism
• The Cultural and political differences
between the eastern and western Roman
Empire weakened the unity of the
Christian Church and led to its division.
• The primary causes of the Schism, or
break of the Christian Church, were
disputes over papal authority— the
Western Pope claimed he held authority
over the four Eastern patriarchs.
• The Orthodox Patriarch stated that the Bishop of
Rome (i.e. The Pope) has authority only over his
own diocese and does not have any authority
outside his diocese.
• In 1054 each official (the Pope and the
Patriarch) excommunicated each other.
• The Christian Church was divided between the
Western Roman Catholic Church and the
Eastern Orthodox Church.
The Church
The Church split in 1054 over:
пЃµ The Liturgy:
– Rome (Latin)
пЃµ
Constantinople (Greek)
Authority of the Pope:
– Rome (Pope was in charge following the line from Peter)
– Constantinople (center of power)
пЃµ
Practices:
– Celibacy (accepted in Rome, not in Constantinople)
– Divorce and Marriage (Constantinople, not Rome)
пЃµ
Iconoclastic Controversy:
– Idol worship? Dispute over the use of icons
Eastern and Western Church
• Eastern Church
– Centered in
Constantinople
– Close to the seat of
power after
Constantinople
became capital
– Used Greek language
in Liturgy
• Western Church
– Centered in Rome
– Farther from the seat
of power after
Constantinople
became capital
– Used Latin in Liturgy
11th Century differences between
Two Christian Traditions
• Roman Catholic
Church
– Services conducted in
Latin.
– The pope has
authority over the
other bishops.
– The pope claims
authority over all kings
and emperors.
– Priests may not marry.
– Divorce is not
permitted.
• Eastern Orthodoxy
– Services are conducted
in Greek or local
languages.
– The patriarch and other
bishops head the church
as a group.
– The emperor claims
authority over the
patriarch and other
bishops of the empire.
– Priests may be married.
– Divorce is allowed under
certain conditions.
Divisions between
Eastern and Western Churches
• Authority of the Pope eventually accepted
in the West. Authority of the Patriarch
accepted in the East.
• Practices such as celibacy eventually
accepted in the West.
• Differences between the Eastern and
Western Roman Empire weakened the
unity of the Christian Church and led to its
division.
Greek Orthodox Church inspired
Byzantine Art and Architecture
• Inspired by Christian religion and imperial
power
• Used Icon (Religious Images) –caused
some trouble (Iconoclast)
• Mosaics in public and religious structures
• Ex: Hagia Sophia (St. Sophia) a
Byzantine domed church
Hagia Sophia
All of this roof is decorated with Mosaics
Mosaics
Byzantine civilization and Russia
• Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and
Eastern European civilizations through its
religion, culture, and trade.
• Trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic Sea
• Russia and much of Eastern Europe adopted
Orthodoxy Christianity.
• Russia and Eastern Europe adopted Greek
alphabet into the Slavic language because of the
missionary work of St. Cyril (Cyrillic alphabet)
• Inspired church architecture and religious art
St. Cyril and the Cyrillic Alphabet
Byzantine and Russia
• Constantinople close to Kiev
Palace Intrigues
1453Constantinople
fell to the
Ottoman Turks
Disease
Why Byzantium Fell
Street Riots
The rise of Islam
The Crusades
These walls of Constantinople fall the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Conquering of Constantinople
Istanbul
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