The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire Rome built great stuff вЂў Rome built great roads to travel on and aqueducts to bring water into the city. вЂў Rome also built great stadiums and amphitheaters for the entertainment of the people. вЂў Romans also developed the use of the arch. Rome was a Republic вЂў A republic is a form of government where people elect representatives. вЂў The United States has a representative government. We learned about this form of government from the Romans. The Senate вЂў The Senate led the Roman Empire. вЂў They made the laws for the republic. QuickTimeв„ў and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. RomeвЂ™s women got shafted вЂў Rome might have had representative government, but not all people were represented. вЂў Roman women were not allowed to vote. Roman Citizenship вЂў Romans had a strong sense of citizenship. вЂў Roman citizens were protected by Rome, but had a duty to participate in society and to make it better. вЂў The philosophy that preached good citizenship was called Stoicism. вЂў Stoicism stressed the importance of being a good citizen. Roman Law and Rights вЂў Roman laws stressed fairness and common sense. вЂў There was equal treatment under the law in Rome and people were considered innocent until proved guilty when accused of a crime. вЂў We took much of our system of government from the Romans. Roman Art вЂў Mosaics were popular in Rome. A mosaic is a picture made out of small, colored tiles or pieces of glass. вЂў The Romans also made great statues that looked like the real thing, even though they were made from stone. RomeвЂ™s first emperor вЂў Octavian is RomeвЂ™s first emperor. вЂў He took the name Augustus Caesar. вЂў Under his rule, Rome expanded and enjoyed a period of peace. Pax Romana вЂў Rome lived in peace for 200 years. вЂў It was called the Pax Romana, the Peace of Rome. Unfortunately for Rome, the peace would not last. Rome grew weak вЂў Rome grew weak because it had grown too large. вЂў Another reason Rome grew weak is that they had tax problems and couldnвЂ™t raise enough money to keep the roads from crumbling. вЂў Slavery was also a problem in the empire. With so many slaves, the people did not need to work. вЂў Internal problems that helped RomeвЂ™s downfall were corrupt generals, civil wars, and economic problems. Barbarians at the gates вЂў Romans called the people who destroyed Rome Barbarians. вЂў Romans called anyone who didnвЂ™t speak Greek, even though the word barbarian actually means uncivilized, lacking in culture and violent. вЂў The Roman Empire fell in 476 AD. вЂў The eastern part of the empire would survive. Byzantium вЂў The eastern part of the Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire or Byzantium. Constantinople вЂў Constantinople was named for emperor Constantine. вЂў Constantine was important because he legalized Christianity in the empire. вЂў Under ConstantineвЂ™s rule, Christianity spread greatly. вЂў He moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Constantinople. QuickTimeв„ў and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Constantinople grows вЂў Constantinople became a leading center of trade. вЂў Trade helped the Byzantine Empire grow rich. Justinian вЂў Justinian was the greatest of the Byzantine emperors. вЂў Justinian made many changes in the laws. вЂў His laws were called The Code of Justinian. вЂў Justinian also built many churches throughout the empire. Disagreements between east and west вЂў Most of the people in the Byzantine Empire were Christian, but the people in the west and the people in the east disagreed about how to worship God. вЂў This led to a split in the Catholic Church. It was called a schism. вЂў A schism is a split. The Roman Catholic Church had a schism, splitting in half. Two churches вЂў The church in the east was called Eastern Orthodox. вЂў The church in the west was called Roman Catholic. Patriarch вЂў The leader of the church in Constantinople was called the Patriarch. QuickTimeв„ў and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Pope вЂў The leader of the church in Rome was called the Pope. Constantinople is captured вЂў The split in the church weakened the Byzantine Empire. вЂў In 1453, the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire came to an end. The Byzantine Empire preserves great stuff вЂў The Byzantine Empire preserved the art and literature of the Greeks and Romans. вЂў Without the Byzantine, the world may have lost great treasures of the past.