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Byzantium - cschreiber1

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Byzantium:
The Eastern Roman Empire
Location of Constantinople
• Easily fortified site on a peninsula bordering a
natural harbor
• Protection of the eastern frontier
• Crossroads of trade
Distance from Germanic invasions in the
western empire
Role of Constantinople
• Seat of the Byzantine Empire until Ottoman
conquest
• Preserved classical Greco-Roman culture
• “Second Rome”
• Center of Trade
Byzantine Emperor Justinian
• As the first to codify Roman law, Justinian
provided the basis for the law codes of
Western Europe. These laws became
known as Justinian’s Code.
Justinian Law Code
• In A.D. 528 the Emperor Justinian began a
review of the old Roman laws. There were
thousands of Roman laws that ordered life in
the empire. The emperor chose ten men to
review 1,600 books full of Roman Law and
create a simpler legal code. These men were
able to create the Justinian Code with just
over 4,000 laws.
Book I, Of Persons
• VIII. Slaves
• 1. Slaves are in the power of masters, a power
derived from the law of nations: for among all
nations it may be remarked that masters have
the power of life and death over their slaves,
and that everything acquired by the slave is
acquired for the master.
Book II, Of Things
• I. Division of Things
• 28. If the wheat of Titius is mixed with yours, when this
takes place by mutual consent, the mixed heap belongs
to you in common because each body, that is, each
grain, which before was the property of one or other of
you, has by your mutual consent been made your
common property; but, if the intermixture were
accidental, or made by Titius without your consent, the
mixed wheat does not then belong to you both in
common ...if either of you keep the whole quantity of
mixed wheat, the other has a claim for the amount of
wheat belonging to him, but it is in the province of the
judge to estimate the quality of the wheat belonging to
each.
The Byzantine Emperor
Justinian
• Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire
reached its height in culture and
prosperity.
– Reconquest of former Roman territories
– Expansion of trade
– Hagia Sophia
The Byzantine Empire
During the Reign of Justinian
Brainteaser#32: 11-5-13
1. Name one role that Constantinople had?
2. Name one important thing that Justinian did
to improve the empire?
3. What is the definition of a Mercator map?
4. Name the three types of Greek Architecture?
5. Who are the Patricians of Rome?
1. Seat of the Byzantine Empire until Ottoman conquest
Preserved classical Greco-Roman culture
Center of trade
2. Codification of Roman law (impact on European legal codes)
Reconquest of former Roman territories
Expansion of trade
3. Rectangular.-Accurately shows areas around the Equator.Heavily distorts the polar areas.
4. Doric, Ionic and Corinthian
5. The wealthiest citizens of Rome
Byzantine achievements in art and
architecture
• Inspiration
provided by
Christian
religion and
imperial power
• Icons- religious
images valued
for their sacred
powers
• Greek Orthodox Christianity and imperial
patronage enabled the Byzantine Empire to
develop a unique style of art and architecture.
• Greek and Roman traditions were preserved in
the Byzantine Empire.
Hagia Sophia
• A Byzantine domed church
• Church of Holy Wisdom
• Mosaics in public
and religious
structures
Byzantine culture
• Continued flourishing of GrecoRoman traditions
• Greek language (as contrasted
with Latin in the West)
• Greek Orthodox Christianity
• Greek and Roman knowledge
preserved in Byzantine libraries
– Illuminated Manuscripts-decorated
books
• The cultural and political differences between
the eastern and western Roman Empire
weakened the unity of the Christian Church
and led to its division.
• Great Schism- division within the Christian
Church in 1054.
Eastern Church
• Eastern Orthodox Christianity
• Centered in Constantinople
• Close to seat of power after Constantinople
became capital
• Use of Greek language in the liturgy
Western Church
• Roman Catholic Church
• Centered in Rome
• Farther from seat of power after
Constantinople became capital
• Use of Latin language in the liturgy
Division between Western and Eastern
Churches
• Controversy over:
• Authority of the Pope eventually
accepted in the West
• Authority of the Patriarch accepted
in the East
• Practices such as celibacy eventually accepted
in the West
Christian Church
• Clergy- Church officials
• Laity- Church members who are not officials
• Monasteries- religious communities
• Missionaries- people who carry a religious
message
Division between Western and Eastern
Churches
–Iconoclasts- image breakers
–Patriarch refused to give military
protection to the Pope
–Crowned Charlemagne emperor
Fall of the Byzantine Empire
• Muslim Arabs conquered many
Byzantine lands.
• Crusaders looted
Constantinople.
• In 1453 the Ottoman Turks
captured Constantinople.
Influence of Byzantine culture on
Eastern Europe and Russia
• Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and
Eastern European civilizations through its
religion, culture, and trade.
• Trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic Sea
• Adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Russia
and much of Eastern Europe
Steppelarge
plain
Kievan Rus
• Kiev
– Capital of Kievan Rus
– Located along the Dnieper River which allowed
trade with Constantinople.
• Prince Vladimir- sent officials to observe the
major religions
• 988 Vladimir converted to Eastern Orthodoxy
and made it the state religion.
Kievan Rus
• Prince Yaroslav
– Ruler during the Golden Age
– Established the Pravda Russkaya- law code based
on Justinian's Code.
• 1240 Mongol invaders captured Kiev.
– They required taxes, but allowed conquered
peoples to keep their cultures.
Mongol Empire
Moscow Rus
• 1480 Ivan III freed the Rus from Mongol rule
and created the Russian Empire.
• After the fall of Constantinople, Moscow
became the center of the Eastern Orthodox
Church and the “Third Rome.”
• Ivan III took the title czar (tsar), or caesar.
• Adoption of Greek
alphabet to the
Slavic languages by
St. Cyril (Cyrillic
alphabet)
Church architecture and religious art
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