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Ch 11 Byzantine, the New Rome

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Byzantines, Russians,
and Turks Interact, 500–1500
CHAPTER
11
Chapter Overview
Time Line
MAP
GRAPH
SECTION
1 Byzantium Becomes the New Rome
SECTION
2 Russians Adapt Byzantine Culture
SECTION
3 Turkish Empires Rise in Anatolia
Visual Summary
QUIT
CHAPTER
11
Byzantines, Russians,
and Turks Interact, 500–1500
Chapter Overview
The Roman Empire splits in two and the
Byzantine Empire develops in the East.
Through trade, Byzantine ideas influence the
culture and religion of Russia. Turks adopt
Islam and set up an empire in Persia and the
eastern flank of Byzantium. Christians and
Muslims battle during the Crusades. Mongol
invaders bring down the Turks.
HOME
CHAPTER
11
Byzantines, Russians,
and Turks Interact, 500–1500
HOME
Time Line
850s Byzantine culture
spreads to Russia.
500
1240 Kiev destroyed
by Mongols.
1500
527 Justinian becomes
ruler of Byzantine
Empire.
1054 Christianity
splits into Roman
Catholic and
Orthodox branches.
1480 Ivan III ends
Mongol control of
Russia.
1
HOME
Byzantium Becomes
the New Rome
MAP
Key Idea
The Byzantine Empire, or new Rome, develops in the
eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. The emperor
of the new Rome builds up eastern culture. The
Church splits into the Eastern Orthodox and Roman
Catholic churches.
Overview
Assessment
1
HOME
Byzantium Becomes
the New Rome
MAP
TERMS & NAMES
Overview
• Justinian Code
• Hagia Sophia
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
• patriarch
Constantinople ruled
an eastern empire that
survived for over a
thousand years.
Byzantine culture deeply
influenced Orthodox
Christianity, a major
branch of modern
Christianity.
• icon
• iconoclast
• excommunication
• schism
• Cyrillic alphabet
Assessment
1
HOME
Byzantium Becomes
the New Rome
MAP
Section
1
Assessment
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List
Justinian’s accomplishments as emperor of the New Rome.
Rebuilt Constantinople’s
fortifications
Conquered most of Italy
and parts of Spain
Rebuilt the Hagia Sophia
Justinian
Established Justinian Code
Built aqueducts, courts,
schools, hospitals
Encouraged trade, education
Enlarged his palace
continued . . .
1
HOME
Byzantium Becomes
the New Rome
MAP
Section
1
Assessment
2. Why do you think Justinian decided in the late 520s
that it was the right time to reform Roman law?
THINK ABOUT
• the situation of the empire
• the role of laws in societies
• the state of Roman laws before reform
ANSWER
Possible
Responses:
• The Byzantine Empire had a separate government
and character from that of the West. It needed its
own organized system of laws to regulate life in
this new era.
• Roman law was disorganized and contradictory
and so needed reform.
continued . . .
1
HOME
Byzantium Becomes
the New Rome
MAP
Section
1
Assessment
3. Do you think the differences between the Eastern
and Western churches could have been reconciled
before the Church split? Why?
ANSWER
Possible
Responses:
Yes—Both sides could have united over the icon
issue.
No—Differences in beliefs about divorce and
marriage for priests might have been too deep for
compromise.
End of Section 1
2
HOME
Russians Adapt
Byzantine Culture
Key Idea
Russian culture develops from a blending of Slavic
and Viking peoples. Through trade, Greek Byzantine
culture influences Russian culture. Before the Mongol
invasions, Kiev is the center of Russian culture.
Eventually, Moscow becomes the dominant cultural
center.
Overview
Assessment
2
HOME
Russians Adapt
Byzantine Culture
TERMS & NAMES
Overview
• Slavs
• boyars
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
• Olga
Russia grew out of a
blending of Slavic and
Byzantine cultures with
Eastern Orthodox
traditions.
The early history of Russia
separated it from the West,
causing mutual misunderstandings that still exist today.
• Vladimir
• Yaroslav the Wise
• Alexander Nevsky
• czar
Assessment
2
HOME
Russians Adapt
Byzantine Culture
Section
2
Assessment
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts.
Explain the effects of Mongol rule in Russia.
Nobles
Collected tribute;
put down revolts
Church
Tolerated by
Mongols; acted
as link between
Mongols and
Russians
People
Paid high taxes;
developed a
devotion to icons
Moscow
Princes
Became tax
collectors for
Mongols; gained
control of small
states around
Moscow
continued . . .
2
HOME
Russians Adapt
Byzantine Culture
Section
2
Assessment
2. How did Vladimir’s conversion to Christianity affect the
citizens, society, and government of Kiev? THINK ABOUT
• the laws he passed
• the customs he encouraged
• the policies he followed
ANSWER
Possible
Responses:
• Vladimir’s subjects were required to convert to
Christianity.
• Byzantine teachers taught religion to the Kievans.
• The prince became head of the Church in Kiev.
continued . . .
2
HOME
Russians Adapt
Byzantine Culture
Section
2
Assessment
3. The Mongols were fierce conquerors, and their rule cut
Russia off from the rest of the world. Even so, their policies
helped to pull Russia together as a territory. How? THINK ABOUT
• Mongol policies in Russia
• the Church’s attitude toward the Mongols
• the role and power of the nobility
ANSWER
Possible
Responses:
• Independent principalities were unified.
• Russian religion and culture were preserved.
• The Church sanctioned Mongol rule, thus giving
its approval to the new unified territory.
• The nobility retained some authority.
End of Section 2
3
HOME
Turkish Empires Rise
in Anatolia
GRAPH
Key Idea
Nomadic Turks known as Seljuks capture Baghdad
from the Persians. The Turks and Persians form a
strong bond because of the Turks’ support of Persian
culture. A lack of leadership, the Crusades, and
Mongol invasions bring an end to the Seljuk Empire.
Overview
Assessment
3
HOME
Turkish Empires Rise
in Anatolia
GRAPH
TERMS & NAMES
Overview
• mamelukes
• Seljuks
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
• vizier
Turkish people converted
to Islam and founded new
empires that would renew
Muslim civilization.
In the 20th century, the
collapse of the Turkish
empire left ethnic and
religious hostilities that
still affect the world.
• Malik Shah
Assessment
3
HOME
Turkish Empires Rise
in Anatolia
GRAPH
Section
3
Assessment
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts.
List several events in the last 200 years of the Abassid
Empire.
756
Spain
breaks
away.
788
Morocco
breaks
away.
800
Tunisia
breaks
away.
809
Parts of
Persia
are lost.
868
Abbasids
lose control
of Egypt.
945
Baghdad
falls to
Persians.
continued . . .
3
HOME
Turkish Empires Rise
in Anatolia
GRAPH
Section
3
Assessment
2. In what ways would it be accurate to say that the
Persians actually won over their Turkish conquerors?
THINK ABOUT
• religion
• culture
• political influence
ANSWER
Possible
Responses:
• The Turks looked to the Persians for religious and
cultural guidance.
• The Turks adopted the language and customs of the
Persians.
• Persians held powerful offices in the Turkish
government.
continued . . .
3
HOME
Turkish Empires Rise
in Anatolia
GRAPH
Section
3
Assessment
3. Between Abbasid and Mongol rule, Baghdad was
occupied and governed by four different powers—
Abbasids, Persians, Seljuks, and Mongols. Summarize
important events and features of those occupations.
ANSWER
Possible
Responses:
• Abbasids—Made Baghdad their capital; mamelukes
gained power over Abbasid caliphs.
• Persians—Captured Baghdad in 945; caliph lost
political power to the sultan.
• Seljuks—Captured Baghdad in 1055; supported
Persian culture
• Mongols—Occupied Baghdad in 1258; burned down
the caliph’s palace and executed the last caliph
End of Section 3
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