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Justinian and Theodora

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Byzantine Empire
Main Idea
пЃЅ After
the fall of the Roman Empire in
the West, the Byzantine Empire
emerged as the dominant eastern
power, with Constantinople as its
political, economic, and religious
center. The empire lasted over 1,000
years.
Background:
пЃЅ 1. Western
half of the Roman
Empire fell in 476 A.D.
пЃЅ 2. Byzantium had already been
rebuilt by Emperor Constantine,
who then renamed the city
Constantinople.
Geography and Cityscape of Constantinople
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
1. Built on seven hills and divided into 14 districts, like
Rome.
2. Protected by 13 miles of walls, watchtowers, and gates.
3. Easily fortified site surrounded on three sides by water,
bordering a natural harbor. Its location combined with its
control of the Bosporus Strait made the city a hub for trade
and shipping between Europe, Africa, and Asia.
Walls of Constantinople
A satellite view of the
area.
Can you see the
remarkable location
of Constantinople at
the center of the �X’ of
land
Europe
Black Sea
& sea trade routes?
Asia
Aegean Sea
The Black Sea.
The Bosphorus
Strait.
The Sea of
Marmara.
The
Dardanelles
Strait.
Constantinople
today known
as Istanbul.
A great view
of the
Bosphorus
from space.
Can you see
the point that
is
Byzantium?
And can you
see the narrow
bay to the
north of
Byzantium that
is called the
Golden Horn?
A satellite view of Istanbul today.
There used to be a chain stretched across the Golden Horn for
protection.
Geography and Cityscape of Constantinople
пЃЅ
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4. Adequate distance from Germanic invasions of the
western empire.
5. Good location to protect Europe’s eastern frontier.
6. Seized by Turks in 1435 and renamed Istanbul; today it is
a major city in modern Turkey.
Role of Constantinople:
пЃЅ 1. True
center or seat of Byzantine
power until the Ottoman conquest
пЃЅ 2. Important
in preserving classical
Greco-Roman culture
Justinian
and
Theodora
How Justinian Was Described
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
While alive Justinian was described as devout,
determined, and energetic. Why?
After His Death, the historian Procopius referred to
Justinian as two-faced and cruel in a “Secret History”
Achievements of Byzantine Emperor
Justinian:
пЃЅ 1. Justinian
Code (Corpus Juris Civilis) –
sorted through old Roman laws and
established a new code of law for the
Byzantine Empire. It lasted for 900 years!
пЃЅ
- included laws concerning marriage,
slavery, property, inheritance, and women’s
rights
пЃЅ
- Significance – had a significant impact
on European legal code
Achievements of Byzantine Emperor
Justinian:
2. Re-conquered former Roman territories
but not Rome
3. Significantly expanded trade
Achievements of Byzantine Emperor
Justinian:
4. Acted as head of church and state (2seated Chair)
5. Placed a heavy emphasis on church
building, which displayed his leadership of
both the government and the church.
- Hagia Sophia – Constantinople’s
masterpiece of architecture and faith
One of Justinian’s greatest accomplishments - the construction of
the beautiful Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom ~ The Hagia Sophia
And more achievements!
6. Came to throne at age 45! Considered
Byzantium's most ambitious ruler.
7. Drove barbarians out of North Africa, Spain,
and Italy
8. Built bridges, churches, hospitals, libraries, and
last but not least parks.
THEODORA!?!?!?
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пЃЅ
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пЃЅ
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
Born into lower class, worked as an actress and dancer as
a teenager.
Loved adventure, new friendships and travel
Married Justinian while in her 20’s, sometimes equaled or
surpassed husbands wisdom and skills.
Convinced her husband to crush Nika rebellion
Established Social Welfare programs for the poor
Worked for the rights of women
Theodora
пЃЅ
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_GBnJe_x8sA&list=U
UAiABuhVSMZJMqyv4Ur5XqA&index=8&feature=plcp&s
afety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
пЃЅ
In the bubble heads, write 5 statements about Theodora
from the points of view of:
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
The poor
Women
Nika rebels
Justinian
Her friends
Hagia
Sophia
HAGIA SOPHIA
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
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Built during Justinian’s reign. Took 5-6 years to build
Known as the “Church of Holy Wisdom”
When Constantinople fell to the Turks, Hagia Sophia
became a mosque; now it is a museum
Plain exterior symbolizes earthly life
Ornate interior symbolizes spiritual universe
Cathedral’s size, thick pillars, and enclosed space show
Roman influence.
Intricate and ornate design shows Eastern influences
Byzantine architects
invented the
pendentives which
connected the round
base of a dome to a
square building.
The combination of
Greco-Roman and
Middle Eastern
influence are evident
in the intricate
decoration on this
column.
Mosaics with gold-covered stones added
more light to the huge interior of Hagia
Sofia.
Byzantine Achievements in Art
and Architecture:
1. art and architecture inspired by two
things: Christian religion and imperial
power
2. Icons – definition – religious images
3. Elaborate mosaics in public and
religious structures
Icon/Mosaic in Hagia Sophia
Byzantine Achievements in Art
and Architecture:
4. Hagia Sophia – most beautiful
architectural achievement
5. Hippodrome – entertainment venue
for chariot races and circuses
Hippodrome
Byzantine Culture:
1. Greek and Roman knowledge
preserved in Byzantine libraries
2. Greek – primary language (as
opposed to Latin in the West)
3. Church – Greek Orthodox
Christianity
The Division of the Christian
Church:
пЃЅ Background: Distance
and lack of
contact slowly caused the doctrines
and rituals of Western and Eastern
th
Christianity to split in the 11
Century.
East vs. West : A Religious Dispute
•Patriarch- head
bishop of the east
(Constantinople)
•Conflict about
power of
Pope (in west) and
Emperor (in east)
•Regional
differences
made more
conflicts arise
The Western ChurchRoman Catholic
1. Centered in Rome
2. Far from the seat of government
power once the capital moved to
Constantinople
3. Services conducted in Latin
The Western ChurchRoman Catholic
4. The pope had authority over all
other bishops
5. The pope had authority over all kings
and emperors
6. Priests cannot marry and must
remain celibate
7. Divorce is not permitted
The Eastern Church –
Greek/Eastern Orthodox
1. Centered in Constantinople
2. Close to seat of government power
once capital moved to Constantinople
3. Services conducted in Greek or local
languages
The Eastern Church – Eastern
Orthodox
4. The patriarch and other bishops head the
church as a group
5. The emperor claimed authority over the
patriarch and other bishops of the
Byzantine Empire
6. Priests may be married
7. Divorce is allowed under certain
conditions
The Great Schism
пѓ�Icons
– Pictures of important Christians
or sacred events. Can be mosaics, murals,
wooden panels.
пѓ�Those who did not believe in them were
called Iconoclasts (Eastern Christians)
пѓ�This was one of the breaking points for
the split.
The Great Schism
In 1054, the split between the Eastern and
Western Churches was made permanent
when the Pope (in the West) and the Patriarch
(in the East) excommunicated each other.
пЃЅ Excommunication
– definition: cast out
from the church
пЃЅ This permanent split was called the
schism
Service are
conducted in Latin
The pope has
authority over all
other bishops
The pope claims
authority over all
kings and emperors
Priests may not
marry
Divorce is not
permitted
Roman Catholic
They base their
faith on the
gospel of Jesus
and the Bible
They use
sacraments such
as baptism
Their religious
leaders are
priests and
bishops
They seek to
convert people
Service are conducted
in Greek or local
languages
The patriarch and
other bishops head the
Church as a group
The emperor claims
authority over the
patriarch and other
bishops of the empire
Priests may be
married
Divorce is
permitted under
certain conditions
Eastern Orthodox
England
Tin
Russia:
Fur, Honey,
Timber
France:
Wine
China:
Silk
Spain:
Cork
India:
Spices
Africa:
Ivory, gold
Constantinople: The Hub of
Byzantine Trade
пЃЅ
пЃЅ
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Plague of Justinian that crippled Empire
пЃЅ In 542, 10,000 people were dying every day!
Attacks from East, West, and North
пЃЅ Slavs, Persians, Turks, and Russian invasions
Attempt to maintain power
пЃЅ Through political marriages, bribes and diplomacy
Walls kept the peninsula strong until 1453 when it fell
to the Ottoman Turks
Split of the Church
What goes up…
пЃЅ
… Must come down
Decline of Empire
BYZANTINE
EMPIRE 550
AD
BYZANTINE
EMPIRE 1050
AD
BYZANTINE
EMPIRE 1350
AD
Ottoman Empire 1606 A.D.
Influence of Byzantine Culture on
Eastern Europe and Russia:
1. Trade routes between the Black Sea and
the Baltic Sea let to exchange of ideas and
culture
2. Eastern Orthodox missionaries spread
their faith to the Slavic people of Russia
and Eastern Europe
Influence of Byzantine Culture on
Eastern Europe and Russia:
3. Cyril invented an alphabet for the Slavic
languages so that the Slavs could read the
Bible in their own tongue. This was called
the Cyrillic alphabet
4. Church architecture and religious art
A Russian
Orthodox
Church in
the
Ukraine ~
very similar
to the
Hagia
Sophia.
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