Byzantine Empire Main Idea пЃЅ After the fall of the Roman Empire in the West, the Byzantine Empire emerged as the dominant eastern power, with Constantinople as its political, economic, and religious center. The empire lasted over 1,000 years. Background: пЃЅ 1. Western half of the Roman Empire fell in 476 A.D. пЃЅ 2. Byzantium had already been rebuilt by Emperor Constantine, who then renamed the city Constantinople. Geography and Cityscape of Constantinople пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ 1. Built on seven hills and divided into 14 districts, like Rome. 2. Protected by 13 miles of walls, watchtowers, and gates. 3. Easily fortified site surrounded on three sides by water, bordering a natural harbor. Its location combined with its control of the Bosporus Strait made the city a hub for trade and shipping between Europe, Africa, and Asia. Walls of Constantinople A satellite view of the area. Can you see the remarkable location of Constantinople at the center of the вЂ�XвЂ™ of land Europe Black Sea & sea trade routes? Asia Aegean Sea The Black Sea. The Bosphorus Strait. The Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles Strait. Constantinople today known as Istanbul. A great view of the Bosphorus from space. Can you see the point that is Byzantium? And can you see the narrow bay to the north of Byzantium that is called the Golden Horn? A satellite view of Istanbul today. There used to be a chain stretched across the Golden Horn for protection. Geography and Cityscape of Constantinople пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ 4. Adequate distance from Germanic invasions of the western empire. 5. Good location to protect EuropeвЂ™s eastern frontier. 6. Seized by Turks in 1435 and renamed Istanbul; today it is a major city in modern Turkey. Role of Constantinople: пЃЅ 1. True center or seat of Byzantine power until the Ottoman conquest пЃЅ 2. Important in preserving classical Greco-Roman culture Justinian and Theodora How Justinian Was Described пЃЅ пЃЅ While alive Justinian was described as devout, determined, and energetic. Why? After His Death, the historian Procopius referred to Justinian as two-faced and cruel in a вЂњSecret HistoryвЂќ Achievements of Byzantine Emperor Justinian: пЃЅ 1. Justinian Code (Corpus Juris Civilis) вЂ“ sorted through old Roman laws and established a new code of law for the Byzantine Empire. It lasted for 900 years! пЃЅ - included laws concerning marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, and womenвЂ™s rights пЃЅ - Significance вЂ“ had a significant impact on European legal code Achievements of Byzantine Emperor Justinian: 2. Re-conquered former Roman territories but not Rome 3. Significantly expanded trade Achievements of Byzantine Emperor Justinian: 4. Acted as head of church and state (2seated Chair) 5. Placed a heavy emphasis on church building, which displayed his leadership of both the government and the church. - Hagia Sophia вЂ“ ConstantinopleвЂ™s masterpiece of architecture and faith One of JustinianвЂ™s greatest accomplishments - the construction of the beautiful Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom ~ The Hagia Sophia And more achievements! 6. Came to throne at age 45! Considered Byzantium's most ambitious ruler. 7. Drove barbarians out of North Africa, Spain, and Italy 8. Built bridges, churches, hospitals, libraries, and last but not least parks. THEODORA!?!?!? пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ Born into lower class, worked as an actress and dancer as a teenager. Loved adventure, new friendships and travel Married Justinian while in her 20вЂ™s, sometimes equaled or surpassed husbands wisdom and skills. Convinced her husband to crush Nika rebellion Established Social Welfare programs for the poor Worked for the rights of women Theodora пЃЅ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_GBnJe_x8sA&list=U UAiABuhVSMZJMqyv4Ur5XqA&index=8&feature=plcp&s afety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active пЃЅ In the bubble heads, write 5 statements about Theodora from the points of view of: пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ The poor Women Nika rebels Justinian Her friends Hagia Sophia HAGIA SOPHIA пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ Built during JustinianвЂ™s reign. Took 5-6 years to build Known as the вЂњChurch of Holy WisdomвЂќ When Constantinople fell to the Turks, Hagia Sophia became a mosque; now it is a museum Plain exterior symbolizes earthly life Ornate interior symbolizes spiritual universe CathedralвЂ™s size, thick pillars, and enclosed space show Roman influence. Intricate and ornate design shows Eastern influences Byzantine architects invented the pendentives which connected the round base of a dome to a square building. The combination of Greco-Roman and Middle Eastern influence are evident in the intricate decoration on this column. Mosaics with gold-covered stones added more light to the huge interior of Hagia Sofia. Byzantine Achievements in Art and Architecture: 1. art and architecture inspired by two things: Christian religion and imperial power 2. Icons вЂ“ definition вЂ“ religious images 3. Elaborate mosaics in public and religious structures Icon/Mosaic in Hagia Sophia Byzantine Achievements in Art and Architecture: 4. Hagia Sophia вЂ“ most beautiful architectural achievement 5. Hippodrome вЂ“ entertainment venue for chariot races and circuses Hippodrome Byzantine Culture: 1. Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries 2. Greek вЂ“ primary language (as opposed to Latin in the West) 3. Church вЂ“ Greek Orthodox Christianity The Division of the Christian Church: пЃЅ Background: Distance and lack of contact slowly caused the doctrines and rituals of Western and Eastern th Christianity to split in the 11 Century. East vs. West : A Religious Dispute вЂўPatriarch- head bishop of the east (Constantinople) вЂўConflict about power of Pope (in west) and Emperor (in east) вЂўRegional differences made more conflicts arise The Western ChurchRoman Catholic 1. Centered in Rome 2. Far from the seat of government power once the capital moved to Constantinople 3. Services conducted in Latin The Western ChurchRoman Catholic 4. The pope had authority over all other bishops 5. The pope had authority over all kings and emperors 6. Priests cannot marry and must remain celibate 7. Divorce is not permitted The Eastern Church вЂ“ Greek/Eastern Orthodox 1. Centered in Constantinople 2. Close to seat of government power once capital moved to Constantinople 3. Services conducted in Greek or local languages The Eastern Church вЂ“ Eastern Orthodox 4. The patriarch and other bishops head the church as a group 5. The emperor claimed authority over the patriarch and other bishops of the Byzantine Empire 6. Priests may be married 7. Divorce is allowed under certain conditions The Great Schism пѓ�Icons вЂ“ Pictures of important Christians or sacred events. Can be mosaics, murals, wooden panels. пѓ�Those who did not believe in them were called Iconoclasts (Eastern Christians) пѓ�This was one of the breaking points for the split. The Great Schism In 1054, the split between the Eastern and Western Churches was made permanent when the Pope (in the West) and the Patriarch (in the East) excommunicated each other. пЃЅ Excommunication вЂ“ definition: cast out from the church пЃЅ This permanent split was called the schism Service are conducted in Latin The pope has authority over all other bishops The pope claims authority over all kings and emperors Priests may not marry Divorce is not permitted Roman Catholic They base their faith on the gospel of Jesus and the Bible They use sacraments such as baptism Their religious leaders are priests and bishops They seek to convert people Service are conducted in Greek or local languages The patriarch and other bishops head the Church as a group The emperor claims authority over the patriarch and other bishops of the empire Priests may be married Divorce is permitted under certain conditions Eastern Orthodox England Tin Russia: Fur, Honey, Timber France: Wine China: Silk Spain: Cork India: Spices Africa: Ivory, gold Constantinople: The Hub of Byzantine Trade пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ пЃЅ Plague of Justinian that crippled Empire пЃЅ In 542, 10,000 people were dying every day! Attacks from East, West, and North пЃЅ Slavs, Persians, Turks, and Russian invasions Attempt to maintain power пЃЅ Through political marriages, bribes and diplomacy Walls kept the peninsula strong until 1453 when it fell to the Ottoman Turks Split of the Church What goes upвЂ¦ пЃЅ вЂ¦ Must come down Decline of Empire BYZANTINE EMPIRE 550 AD BYZANTINE EMPIRE 1050 AD BYZANTINE EMPIRE 1350 AD Ottoman Empire 1606 A.D. Influence of Byzantine Culture on Eastern Europe and Russia: 1. Trade routes between the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea let to exchange of ideas and culture 2. Eastern Orthodox missionaries spread their faith to the Slavic people of Russia and Eastern Europe Influence of Byzantine Culture on Eastern Europe and Russia: 3. Cyril invented an alphabet for the Slavic languages so that the Slavs could read the Bible in their own tongue. This was called the Cyrillic alphabet 4. Church architecture and religious art A Russian Orthodox Church in the Ukraine ~ very similar to the Hagia Sophia.