close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Moses and Reed - SJS AP World History

код для вставкиСкачать
CHAPTER NINE
Civilization in Eastern Europe:
Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
World Civilizations, The Global Experience
AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Stearns/Adas/Schwartz/Gilbert
*AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of The College Entrance Examination Board,
which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
I. The Byzantine Empire (500-1450 c.e.): Continuation of the Roman Empire. Were
able to ward off Hun and Barbarian invaders while the Western Roman Empire fell.
This allowed them to survive for another thousand years.
II. The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe: Scandinavian and Byzantine
influences caused people from Russia and Eastern Europe to begin to develop their own
nations. These nations were greatly influenced by Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine rule.
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
I. The Byzantine Empire
A. The Origins of the Empire
Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman empire from Rome to the Eastern City of
Constantinople.
Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic differences and also Political differences caused the Empire the
split.
Capital of the Western Empire was Rome and Eastern was Constantinople. After the fall of the Western
Empire, the Eastern Empire became the Byzantine empire with the rule of Emperor Justinian.
The offical language had changed from Latin to Greek
The Byzantine Empire under Justinian
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
B. Justinian's Achievements
Tried futilely to re-conquer the western
empire. He rebuilt Constantinople after earlier
riots. Married to a courtesan, Theodora, who
exercised great power and influence. With the aid
of an able general Belisarius was able to reconquer some of Italy and North Africa, but these
territories were quickly lost. Also made a
temporary capital Ravenna, which became a key
artistic center embellished by Christian
Built the Hagia Sofia. This was a huge
church, and a wonder of the Christian world. Was
an achievement of engineering and architecture,
no dome of its size had ever been able to be
supported before
C. Arab Pressure and the Empire's Defenses
Greek fire-a petroleum, quick lime and sulfur mixture
that the Byzantines used to destroy Arab ships. The Arab
threat was never completely removed however.
Periodically, Slavic kingdoms, esp. Bulgaria would press
Byzantine territories in the Balkans, although Byzantine
military success, and marriage did sometimes bring
Byzantine control over the feisty Slavic kingdoms. A
Bulgarian king in the 10th century took the title tsar, which
is a Slavic version of Caesar. The Bulgarian army was
defeated in 1014 and basically merged with the Byzantine
Empire.
The Byzantine Empire under Justinian
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
D. Byzantine Society and Politics
Emperors resemble Chinese rulers
Court ritual
Head of church and state
Sophisticated bureaucracy
Open to all classes
Provincial governors
Trade network
Constantinople became the most vigorous center of
trade in the in the fading empire. They also maintained a
solid tax base. The Empire had extensive trade routes
with Asia, Russia, Scandinavia, Europe, Africa.
Arts
Emperor Justinian temporarily moved the Capital
to Ravenna, which became a key artistic center
embellished by Christian mosaics..Roman domed
buildings and Icon paintings were rich.
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
The Byzantine Empire, 1000-1100
E. The Split Between Eastern and Western Christianity
Western Christianity eventually became Roman Catholic and
Eastern became Orthodox.
Patriarch Michael(1054), attacks Catholic practice
and had a Mutual excommunication.
Cyril and Methodius- Missionaries sent by the Byzantium
government in 864 to the Czech and Slovak republics. Their
ventures failed however in that Roman Catholic missionaries
were more successful. They continued their efforts however in
the Balkans and southern Russia.
F. The Empire's Decline
Seljuk Turks
Take most of Asian provinces
Battle of Manzikert- 1071, the Byzantine emperor lost
and had his army annihilated. The empire never recovered from
this and staggered along for another four centuries but its fate
was sealed. The Emperor appealed to Western leaders for help
but their requests were largely ignored.
Constantinople was taken by the Ottomans in 1453 and the
Empire eventually fell. The Empire was completely gone by
1461.
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
II. The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe
In a sense, the Byzantine Empire seemed to pave the way for
Civilization in Eastern Europe. The Slavs named their Kings
Tsars, which was Slavic for Caesar, and they seemed to try and
imitate the political practices of Byzantium.
Cyrillic script - Developed by Cyril and Methodius,
during their “adventures” in the Balkans and southern Russia,
they devised a Greek based alphabet for the Slavic language.
A. The East Central Borderlands
Competition from Catholics and Orthodox Greeks
Catholics
Regional monarchies prevail and a system of Manorialism
started to emerge. This is a a system of economic and political
relations between landlords and their laborers. Emerged during
the later Roman Empire, and was strengthened by Rome’s
decline and lack of larger political structures. The serfs required
military protection, which the landlords could muster while the
serfs ran their estates.
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
II. The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe
B. The Emergence of Kievan Rus'
East European Kingdoms and Slavic Expansion, c. 1000
They came to borrow much from
Byzantium but could not replicate major
institutions such as the burocracy or elaborate
educational systems. Flourished until around the
12th century. Became a prosperous trading center.
Converted to Christianity and eventually became
the largest state in Europe. Rival princes set up
regional governments and the royal family often
squabbled for succession.
c. 855, monarchy under Rurik - The first
monarch of the city of Kiev, a native of Denmark.
City became known as Kievan Rus’. Although
highly decentralized, his descendants managed for
a while to avoid any battles for the throne.
Center at Kiev – A city created largely by
Scandinavian traders who being militarily superior
to the Slavs, created this town along their trade
route.
Vladimir I (980-1015) - a descendent of Rurik,
converted to Christianity. He also forced the
conversion of subjects through military pressure.
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
II. The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe
C. Institutions and Culture in Kievan Rus'
Influenced by Byzantine patterns. The creators
of Kievan Rus’ borrowed the Byzantine practices,
however could not replicate the major institutions
such as the beaurocracy or elaborate educational
systems.
Russian Orthodox- A product of Vladimir I
rule, he imported early church leaders from
Byzantium and had them train a literate
priesthood.
Art, literature dominated by religion,
royalty
Yaroslav “the wise” (1019-1054): The last
great Kievan prince issued legal codification, built
many churches, and had scriptures translated from
Greek to Slavic. He was known for using
marriages to create ties. He also held Byzantium
stylings in high regard.
Boyars were Russian aristocratic landlords.
They had less political power than their
counterparts in Western Europe, although Kievan
princes did have to negotiate with them.
Gate into Ancient Kiev
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
D. Kievan Decline
Rival princes set up regional governments and the
royal family often squabbled for succession. Invaders
from Asia also pecked at their territory. The rapid decline
of Byzantium also decreased their trade wealth. In 1237
and 1240-1241 there were two separate invasions of
Mongols that moved through Russia, their intent was to
add the whole of Europe to their growing Empire. They
easily took major Russian cities, but were unable to
penetrate much farther than that. During Tatar rule Russia
became further differed from Western Europe. Russian
literature languished under Tatar rule and the state
became generally dilapidated. However as long as tribute
to the Mongols was paid Russian affairs were largely left
to themselves. Mongols were not forced out until the
second half of the 15th century.
E. The End of an Era in Eastern Europe
Tatars- from a Turkish word, they were basically
“Mongols”, called Tatars by the defeated Russians after
the Mongols conquered their state. They were despised
but also feared. For at least 2 centuries much of Russia
remained under Tatar control.
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Документ
Категория
Презентации
Просмотров
3
Размер файла
2 576 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа