Some Musings Up Front Big Questions: пЃ® Why study Byzantium? пЃ® How is it similar to and different from other civs.? пЃ® What is its legacy? Rome Splits: ItвЂ™s like a bad soap opera пЃ® They meet, flirt, marry and settle in Rome: вЂ“ Roman Empire United the entire Mediterranean by the Pax Romana пЃ® Things get tough, so they take a break: вЂ“ The Empire grows too unwieldy to govern as a whole. It splits in 286 C.E. into an eastern and western half. Theoretically, this is supposed to make the Empire easier to govern. пЃ® They get back together in Constantinople: вЂ“ In 313 Christianity is accepted throughout the empire, and in 330 Constantine reunites the Empire only centers it in Constantinople, not Rome. However, itвЂ™s still the Roman Empire. пЃ® The reconciliation doesnвЂ™t last. They grow more and more distant geographically and politically, but they hang on via the same religion. вЂ“ 395 the Empire splits again. The eastern half becomes known as the Byzantine Empire. The western half starts a long process of decline. 400 years later, during 800, the Holy Roman Empire forms in the West. пЃ® They finally get a divorce. Even religion canвЂ™t hold them together as the west becomes Roman Catholic and the east becomes Christian Orthodox. вЂ“ 1054 the Church splits. The Roman Catholics consolidate power under the Pope. The Christian Orthodox keeps power with the Emperor. ConstantineвЂ™s City--Constantinopolis The Roman Empire Divided in 294 Barbarian Invasions of the Roman Empire вЂњBulwark of CivilizationвЂќ The city of Constantinople is one of the best protected cities in the world. While it has been attacked many times вЂ“ its defenses have not be breached. Located on a peninsula, there is only one way to attack it on land. That land route is protected by a series of three walls, each of increasing strength. In order to protect the city from the sea, ConstantinopleвЂ™s navy uses вЂњGreek FireвЂќ, a burning liquid that it can spray onto enemy ships. Views of the City THE CITY OF CONSTANTINOPLE Constantinople: A Greek City (Istanbul Today) THREAT OF ISLAM пЃ® The emergence of the Islamic state вЂ“ Arab peoples conquered Sassanids, part of Byzantium п‚§ Lost Egypt, North Africa, Fertile Cresent, Crete, Cyprus вЂ“ Prolonged sieges of Constantinople by Islamic armies вЂ“ Byzantine survived partly because of "Greek fire" пЃ® Imperial organization вЂ“ Government run by trained bureaucracy, professional army вЂ“ The theme system strengthened Byzantine society п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Under rule of general, who ran army, civil bureaucracy Responsible for protecting peasants Themes were provinces organized on a military basis Local officials recruited troops from within theme вЂ“ Aristocrats limited by army, emperor, bureaucracy пЃ® The revival of the empire вЂ“ Reconquered Syria, Crete, Cyprus: 10th century вЂ“ "Basil the Bulgar Slayer," crushed Bulgars in Balkans THE THREAT OF ISLAM Emperor Justinian [r. 527-564] Sunset on the вЂњGolden HornвЂќ Age of Justinian Justinian ruled the Byzantine empire from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® recovered provinces that had been previously overrun by invaders. вЂ“ The Byzantine empire reached its greatest size under Justinian. launched a program to beautify Constantinople. вЂ“ The church of Hagia Sophia improved on earlier Roman buildings. reformed the law. вЂ“ JustinianвЂ™s Code was a model for medieval monarchs, the Roman Catholic Church, and later legal thinkers. used the law to unite the empire under his control вЂ“ Justinian ruled as an autocrat, or sole ruler with complete authority. He also had power over the Church. Empress Theodora JustinianвЂ™s Empire at its Peak Church of Hagia Sophia [Holy Wisdom] Interior of the Church of Hagia Sophia URBAN LIFE пЃ® Urban Life вЂ“ The capital was the heart of the empire вЂ“ Housing in Constantinople п‚§ Enormous palaces owned by aristocrats п‚§ Less splendid dwellings owned by less privileged classes вЂ“ Attractions of Constantinople п‚§ City of baths, taverns, restaurants, theaters, Hippodrome п‚§ The most popular game - chariot races пЃ® Greens and Blues вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ The two factions of fans for chariot races Frequent fights in the street between them Joined together in a popular uprising, 532 The riot left Constantinople in shambles BYZANTINE ECONOMY пЃ® The Agricultural Economy вЂ“ The peasantry п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ The backbone of the Byzantine army and economy Landless peasants worked as share-croppers Invasions of 6th, 7th century led to theme system Since 11th century, free peasants declined вЂ“ Consequences of the peasantry's decline п‚§ Landowners shifted taxes to peasants п‚§ Landowners raised forces on estates п‚§ Pool of military recruits shrank пЃ® Industry and Trade вЂ“ Manufacturing enterprises п‚§ Byzantine craftsmen had high reputation in various industries п‚§ High-quality silk became important industry; imperial monopoly вЂ“ Trade п‚§ Constantinople, important for Eurasian, Mediterranean trade п‚§ Solidus was the standard currency of the Mediterranean basin п‚§ Byzantium drew enormous wealth from foreign trade вЂ“ Banks and partnerships supported commercial economy Rome vs. Byzantine Roman Empire Byzantine Empire вЂўLatin Language вЂўGreek Language вЂўColumns and Arches вЂўDomes and Mosaics вЂўGeographically Expansive вЂўCentered in East. Heavily influenced by Greek and Persian Cultures вЂўOverextended вЂўLess Defensible вЂўLess Cohesive вЂўGeographically Contained вЂўMore Defensible вЂўMore Cohesive BYZANTIUM & WESTERN EUROPE Tensions between Greeks and Latins пЃ® вЂ“ Ecclesiastical tensions п‚§ Constantinople вЂ“ вЂ“ п‚§ Rome вЂ“ вЂ“ п‚§ Greek was religious language Caesaropapist emperors Latin was chief language Autonomy from imperial authorities Rivalry for conversion of Slavs Political grievances пЃ® вЂ“ First Franks then Germans claimed imperial authority вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Charlemagne received imperial crown in 800 Otto of Saxony claimed himself an emperor in 962 Byzantines felt they were only legitimate emperor Rivalry over Southern Italy and Sicily East vs. West Byzantine Empire Western Europe вЂўCentralized and unified political structures вЂўFragmented, localized political structures вЂўMore Localized Religion вЂўMore centralized Religion вЂўSecular Empire with an official state religion attached. вЂўReligious Empire with subservient political units вЂўAuthority vested in Emperor вЂўAuthority vested in Pope вЂўGreek and Hellenic culture dominates (with heavy influences from Persia, Muslim world, etc. вЂўLatin still official language. Called the вЂњDark AgesвЂќ for a reason. вЂўCosmopolitan, commercial, вЂњmosaic of culturesвЂќ, known for silks and textiles. вЂўAgrarian, manorial system, Feudal, economies of war. MAP OF THE EMPIRE TWIN LEGACIES пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Byzantine education п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ State-organized school system, Schools trained government bureaucrats Private education for aristocratic families Basic literacy was widespread even among lower classes Citizens constantly engaged in intellectual disputes п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Emphasis on humanities, classics Arts, architecture important for state, church Natural science generally ignored Educated considered heirs of classical Greece Scholarship Christianity (Church) was other legacy BYZANTINE CHURCH пЃ® вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ пЃ® вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ пЃ® вЂ“ вЂ“ Church and state Church's close relationship with the imperial government Constantine actively participated in religious debate Under emperors, church was department of state Iconoclasm Controversy over use of icons in religious services п‚§ п‚§ Old Testament prohibition on false images, Islamic influences Iconoclasts wanted to purge all churches of icons п‚§ п‚§ Unpopular policy sparked protests, riots throughout the empire Opposed by Western Christians, Pope п‚§ п‚§ Much protest, excommunications from pope Emperors worried Ban inaugurated by Emperor Leo III in 726 C.E. The iconoclasts abandoned their effort in 843 C.E. Greek Philosophy and Byzantine theology Examine theology from philosophical point of view Debate about Jesus's nature, a philosophical issue п‚§ Arian Heresy п‚§ Monophysite Controversy ICONS вЂўThe word of God in art used for prayer: Iconographers read Bible passage, paint as a prayer. Icons follow certain styles using specific colors, images. вЂўTrying to find a way to explain success of the Muslims, a controversy arises: Are Icons false idolatry? вЂўMuslims say yes. Iconoclasts say yes = donвЂ™t use Icons. вЂўHowever Icons are huge part of Byzantine art and culture so a massive controversy arises.) MONASTICISM AND PIETY пЃ® Asceticism вЂ“ Extreme asceticism, self-denial by some Christians вЂ“ Many famous, wealthy retreated to monasteries вЂ“ "Pillar saints" пЃ® Byzantine monasticism and St. Basil вЂ“ Earliest monasteries of dedicated hermits, ascetics вЂ“ Monasticism began in Egypt area вЂ“ Reforms urged by St. Basil, 4th century C.E. пЃ® Monasteries provided local social services вЂ“ Hospitals, orphanages, poor relief вЂ“ Heavily endowed by wealthy пЃ® Not centers of learning THE GREAT SCHISM пЃ® Constantinople and Rome вЂ“ Political rivalry in Central Europe, Balkans, Southern Italy п‚§ Popes supported anti-Byzantine Normans, Hungarians п‚§ Papal missionaries active in Greek areas вЂ“ Iconoclastic movement in the east criticized by the west п‚§ Emperors vs. Popes п‚§ Who is head of the church вЂ“ pope or an emperor вЂ“ Ritual, doctrinal differences п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ пЃ® Leavened vs. unleavened bread Marriage of priests Liturgy in the vernacular Council rule versus the monarchical style of the pope Filoque controversy: Holy Spirit вЂ“ from who does it proceed? Schism вЂ“ Power struggle led to mutual excommunication, 1054 п‚§ Rivalry between pope, patriarch п‚§ Papal ambassador excommunicated patriarch; vise versa вЂ“ Origins of Eastern Orthodox & Roman Catholic churches вЂ“ It was really post-1054 actions were made split permanent 1 Christianity in East and West Byzantine Christianity Western European Christianity вЂўByzantine emperor controlled Church affairs вЂўPope controlled Church affairs вЂўPeople rejected popeвЂ™s claim to authority over all Christians вЂўClergy kept right to marry вЂўGreek was language of the Church вЂўEaster was main holy day вЂўPeople accepted popeвЂ™s claim to authority over all Christians вЂўClergy prohibited from marrying вЂўLatin was language of the Church вЂўChristmas was main holy day вЂўUse of holy images permitted. вЂўEmperor outlawed the use of icons, or holy images 1054 вЂ“ Differences between east and west provoked a schism, or permanent split, between the Eastern (Greek) Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Church. DOMESTIC PROBLEMS AND FOREIGN CHALLENGES пЃ® вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ пЃ® вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Generals, local aristocrats allied, a challenge to imperial power Free peasants were declining in number and prosperity Imperial government had fewer recruits, many fiscal problems Challenges from the east Muslim Seljuk Turks invaded Anatolia, defeat Byzantines, 1071 Also took control of Abbasid Caliphate, Holy places in Jerusalem The loss of Anatolia sealed the fate of the Byzantine empire Challenges from the west пЃ® вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ пЃ® Social problems Norman army expelled Byzantine authorities in southern Italy Normans, western Europeans mounted a series of crusades The fourth crusade sacked Constantinople Byzantine forces recaptured the capital in 1261 Byzantines never recovered Turks gradually push Byzantines out of Asia; into Europe MAP OF BYZANTINE PROBLEMS Decline of the Byzantine Empire EASTERN EUROPE пЃ® вЂ“ Slavs, Avars, Magyars (Hungarians), Vlachs (Rumanians) As Germans moved west, Slavs moved into vacuum п‚§ п‚§ вЂ“ Avars and Magyars were pastoral nomads who invaded area п‚§ п‚§ вЂ“ пЃ® вЂ“ Eastern Europe Byzantine ruled area up to Danube, into Bosnia вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Slavs settled inside imperial boundaries Maintained close contact with Byzantium from the 6th century The peoples included Serbs, Croats, Macedonians Rise Bulgars п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ пЃ® Settled in Pannonia, area of Danube plain outside Byzantine control Split Northern or Western Slavs from Southern of Jugo-slavs Vlachs: Latin speaking agriculturalists, herders in Transylvania п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ вЂ“ Pushed into Balkans, Greece, Central Europe Generally agriculturalists, favored trade Bulgars were Turkish pastoralists Conquered, settled in Danube area; adopted Slavic traditions Formed very powerful kingdom, threat to Byzantines Missions to the Slavs Byzantium sent missionaries to Central Europe, Balkans The mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius, mid-9th century Cyrillic writing stimulated conversion to Orthodox Christianity Split Allegiance of Eastern Europe п‚§ п‚§ Pope: Magyars, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Croats, Slovenes Patriarch: Serbs, Bulgars, Macedonians, Russians, Romanians SLAVIC MIGRATIONS RUSSIA пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Rise of Russia вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Area inhabited by Slavs Varangians (Vikings) arrived, used river system Set up state based on trade, conquest around 9th Century State founded by Rurik, people called Rus; capital Kiev вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Converted for trade, commercial reasons Elites baptized by order of prince, often against will Served as conduit for spread of Byzantine culture, religion Conversion led to literacy, use of Slavonic; Greek traditions Byzantine art and architecture dominated Kiev вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Princes established caesaropapist control of church After 1453 claimed to inherit imperial crown of Byzantium State divided into provinces ruled by princes/boyars Landed nobles called boyars, constant strife with princes Kievan rule was very decentralized Constant threat, war with steppe nomads The conversion of Prince Vladimir, 989 The growth of Kiev MEDIEVAL RUSSIA The Byzantine Heritage For 1,000 years, the Byzantines built on the culture of the Hellenistic world. Byzantine civilization blended Christian beliefs with Greek science, philosophy, arts, and literature. пЃ® The Byzantines extended Roman achievements in engineering and the law. пЃ® Byzantine artists made unique contributions that influenced western styles from the Middle Ages to the present. пЃ® Byzantine scholars preserved the classic works of ancient Greece. They also produced their own great books, especially in the field of history. пЃ® Byzantine culture and religion spread into Eastern Europe and Russia, heavily influencing the development of Slavic and Russian societies. пЃ® Byzantine Empire was a bulwark against the spread of Islam and barbarianism.