DO NOW: ART INTERPRETATION Pope Leo IIIвЂ™s Lateran Mosaic What do you make of the fact that it is Peter who gives Charles the lance and not Jesus or some other manifestation of God? Charlemagne: 742 to 814 CharlemagneвЂ™s Empire Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800 The Carolingian Renaissance CharlemagneвЂ™s Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843 Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service. Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle Parts of a Medieval Castle The Road to Knighthood KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior The Medieval Manor Life on the Medieval Manor Serfs at work Checking for Understanding: AP Multiple Choice Question: Feudalism and manorialism were different in which of the following ways? a) Trade and commerce were more important in the feudal system b) Feudalism was a political system while manorialism was an economic system c) Advances in agricultural technology had a more positive impact on feudalism than on manorialism d) While feudalism involved the exchange of military services, only manorialism involved a social hierarchy e) Feudalism involved service via labor, while manorialism involved payments of tribute Checking for Understanding: AP Multiple Choice Question: In the 1100s, manorialism began to end in European nations for all of the following reasons EXCEPT a) b) c) d) e) The development of a money based economy The formations of towns and cities Peasant rebellions against nobles Severe floods that destroyed fields and crops Formation of trade relationships made self-sufficiency less crucial TODAY DO NOW: QUICK WRITE вЂ“ What insight does The Secret History, by Procopius, give us into the character of Justinian? вЂ“ AP Multiple Choice Question: A major factor in the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was a) b) c) d) e) The Mongol invasions of the Balkans and Kiev Russia The increasing illiteracy of the population The use of icons and symbols in religious ceremonies Integration of folk customs and practices into religious doctrine The development of the Cyrillic alphabet TODAY вЂ“ AP Multiple Choice Question: Which of the following statements about the Code of Hammurabi and the Justinian code are accurate? a) Both sets of laws derived their core philosophies from the Bible b) The importance of each was that they attempted to organize laws in ways that people could understand c) While the Justinian code contained harsh provisions for those convicted of crimes, the Code of Hammurabi was less punitive d) Neither Code applied to women, foreigners, peasants, or slaves e) Both sets of laws explicitly allowed slaves to bring suit against their masters for harsh treatment The Byzantine Empire One God, One Empire, One Religion Introduction When the western half of the Roman empire crumbled and fell, the eastern half, which became known as Byzantium, managed to survive and, mostly, to thrive for a millennium. During its long history, the Byzantine empire suffered many serious setbacks because of both internal strife and external pressures. Introduction ContinuedвЂ¦ Nevertheless, this culture, which blended Roman and Greek traditions, managed to flourish politically, economically, and socially up until the time it began its centuries long decline culminating in its conquest by the Islamic Turks in 1453. Byzantine Power: Byzantine power was achieved and maintained through: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Well-trained and well-led armies An armed naval force second to none The secret of Greek Fire A superior merchant marine A vibrant international economy A location in the Mediterranean and along the Black Sea that gave it a favorable commercial and strategic location 7) A tradition of sophisticated diplomacy 8) A well-run bureaucracy The Eastern Empire As Western Europe succumbed to the Germanic invasions, imperial power shifted to the Byzantine Empire (the eastern part of the Roman Empire). The city of Constantinople, was on a peninsula overlooking the Bosporus, a strait connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. From its central location, the city controlled key trade routes that linked Europe and Asia. The origins 292: Diocletian divides the Roman empire into two. 324: Constantine reunites the two parts 330: Constantine builds a new capital in the location of ancient Byzantium 337: The death of Constantine results in division between east and west. Constantinople Constantinople became the sole capitol of the empire and remained so until the successful revival of the western empire in the 8th century by Charlemagne. The Reign of Justinian The height of the first period of Byzantine history (324-632) was the reign of Emperor Justinian (r. 537-565) and his wife Empress Theodora (d. 548) The Byzantine Empire in the Time of Justinian В©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning в„ў is a trademark used herein under license. The Age of Justinian (527-75) Procopius, Histories 532 The Nica revolt 536: Reconquest of Rome and much of Italy took many years. North Africa and the Spanish coast were easily conquered. Victories over Sassanid Persia in the east consolidate the borders San Vitale, Ravenna Italy Justinian Mosaics Mosaics Islamic Conquests and Byzantine Revival Islam emerges in the seventh century Arab peoples conquered the Sasanid empire and part of Byzantium Prolonged series of sieges of Constantinople by Islamic armies Byzantium survived partly because of Greek fire Byzantine Empire Reorganized Provinces (themes) under leadership of generals Armies of free peasants helped agricultural economy Byzantium and western Europe вЂ“ ecclesiastical and political tensions Byzantine Economy and Society Rural economy and society вЂ“ Large agricultural base to support cities вЂ“ Economy strongest when large class of free peasants existed вЂ“ Economy weakened when large landholders consolidated and made peasants dependent Byzantine Economy and Society Industry and trade Constantinople was major site of crafts and industry Glass, linen, textiles, gems, jewelry, gold, and silver Silk developed into major industry in sixth century; secrets came from China Constantinople was clearinghouse for trade Banks and partnerships supported commercial economy вЂ“ Bezant was the standard currency of Mediterranean basin вЂ“ Western anchor of trade route revived silk roads The Imperial Goal: Unity The imperial goal in the East was to centralize government and impose legal and doctrinal conformity. One God One Empire One Religion 1st Method: Law Justinian collated and revised Roman law. His Corpus Juris Civilis (body of civil law) had little effect on medieval common law. However, beginning with the Renaissance, it provided the foundation for most European law down to the 19th century. 2nd Method: Religion Religion as well as law served imperial centralization. In 380, Christianity had been proclaimed the official religion of the eastern empire. Now all other religions were considered вЂњdemented and insane.вЂќ Increase in Church Wealth Between the 4th and 6th centuries, the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem acquired enormous wealth in the form of land and gold. Increase in Clergy The prestige and comfort that the clergy enjoyed swelled the ranks of the clergy in the Eastern Church. Independent Thinking Ideas thought to be heresies by the Roman Catholic Church received imperial support: вЂ“ Arianism denied that Father and Son were equal and coeternal. вЂ“ Monophysitism taught that Jesus had only one nature, a composite divine-human one. вЂ“ Iconoclasm forbid the use of images (icons) because it led to idolatry. 3rd Method: Strong Cities During JustinianвЂ™s reign, the empireвЂ™s strength was its more than 1,500 cities. The largest with 350,000 inhabitants, was Constantinople, the cultural crossroads of Asian and European civilizations. Urban Life Housing in Constantinople varied widely by class Attractions of Constantinople вЂ“ Baths, taverns, theaters вЂ“ Hippodrome used for mass entertainment вЂ“ Chariot races most popular; Greens and Blues rivalry Classical Heritage The legacy of classical Greece вЂ“ Official language went from Latin to Greek вЂ“ State-organized school system trained workforce вЂў Primary education: reading, writing, grammar вЂў Later education: classical Greek, literature, philosophy, science вЂў Higher education in Constantinople: law, medicine, philosophy вЂ“ Byzantine scholarship emphasized Greek tradition вЂў Wrote commentaries on Greek literature вЂў Preserved and transmitted Greek thought to later cultures The Byzantine Church Most distinctive feature was involvement of the emperor вЂ“ Council of Nicaea (325 CE) in which Arianism was declared heresy вЂ“ Iconoclasm controversy (726 вЂ“ 843 CE) was started by Leo III Greek philosophy applied to Byzantine theology Loyal Governors and Bishops Between the 4th and 5th centuries, councils were made up of local wealthy landowners, who were not necessarily loyal to the emperor. By the 6th century, special governors and bishops replaced the councils and proved to be more loyal to the emperor. Extensive Building Plans Justinian was an ambitious builder. His greatest monument was the magnificent domed church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom), which was constructed in just five years. In the area of architecture, Justinian blended Greek, Roman, Persian and Middle Eastern styles. The best known structure is the Church of Hagia Sophia whose name means вЂњHoly WisdomвЂќ The Grounds & Interior In the area of art, the Byzantine empire made great contributions. Icons were images of Jesus, the Virgin Mary and others. These icons were supposed the create the sense that the holy person was actually present. Byzantine artists also developed Mosaics, pictures or designs formed by inlaid pieces of stone or other materials. Mosaics often displayed religious themes. Influence of Byzantium in Eastern Europe Domestic problems and foreign pressures вЂ“ Generals and local aristocrats allied; new elite class challenged imperial power вЂ“ Muslim Saljuq Turks invaded Anatolia, defeated Byzantines at Mansikert, 1071 вЂ“ Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in 1453, the end of the empire вЂ“ Western Europe took parts of Byzantium вЂў Normans in southern Italy and Sicily вЂў Crusaders carved out states and sacked Constantinople in 1204 The Byzantines gave Russia a written language. Two Byzantine missionaries adapted the Greek alphabet This new system, called the Cyrillic alphabet is still used in Russia today. Decline in the 7th Century In the seventh century the empire lost Syria, the Holy Land, Egypt, and North Africa to invading Islamic armies. The Iconoclastic Controversy The Iconoclastic Controversy, a movement that denied the holiness of religious images, devastated much of the empire for over a hundred years. During the eighth and early ninth centuries the use of such images was prohibited, but icons were restored by 843. Influence of Byzantium in Eastern Europe Early relations between Byzantium and Slavic peoples вЂ“ Byzantines began to influence Bulgarian politics and culture after the eighth century вЂ“ Mission to the Slavs вЂў Saints Cyril and Methodius, mid-ninth century вЂў Cyrillic writing stimulated conversion to Orthodox Christianity вЂў Education and religion tied together, led to more conversions Influence of Byzantium in Eastern Europe Domestic problems and foreign pressures вЂ“ Generals and local aristocrats allied; new elite class challenged imperial power вЂ“ Muslim Saljuq Turks invaded Anatolia, defeated Byzantines at Mansikert, 1071 вЂ“ Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in 1453, the end of the empire вЂ“ Western Europe took parts of Byzantium вЂў Normans in southern Italy and Sicily вЂў Crusaders carved out states and sacked Constantinople in 1204 The Fall of Constantinople in 1204, the Crusaders attacked, conquered, and pillaged the city of Constantinople, a goal that the Muslims had been trying achieve for centuries Fall of Byzantium Conquered by the Ottoman Turks In 1453, the city was finally and permanently conquered by the Ottoman Turks and renamed Istanbul. Byzantine culture, law, and administration came to its final end. Contribution to Western Civilization Throughout the early Middle Ages, the Byzantine Empire remained a protective barrier between western Europe and hostile Persian, Arab, and Turkish armies. The Byzantines were also a major conduit of classical learning and science into the West down to the Renaissance. While western Europeans were fumbling to create a culture of their own, the cities of the Byzantine Empire provided them a model of a civilized society. Compare the development of civilization in eastern and western Europe. CLASS DISCUSSION The West developed around Rome and its empire; likewise, the East branched from the Roman Empire during its decline. The religions also branched from the Romans. Rome developed by conquest, while trade was what spread to the East. Evaluate the significance of the Byzantine Empire to the civilization of Europe. CLASS DISCUSSION The Byzantine Empire was the birth place of Orthodox Christianity. This branch of Christianity spread through Eastern Europe westward, creating an alternative to Catholicism. Russia was also influenced by this empire, and claimed to be its heir. The Orthodox church and the civilization of Russia are the two most significant contributions Compare Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism. CLASS DISCUSSION Byzantine culture, political organization, and economic orientation help to explain the rift between the eastern and western versions of Christianity. Different rituals grew from Greek and Latin versions of the Bible. Emperors resisted papal attempts to interfere in religious issues. Hostility greeted the effort of the Frankish king, Charlemagne, to be recognized as Roman emperor. The final break between the two churches occurred in 1054 over arguments about the type of bread used in the mass and celibacy of priests. Even though the two churches remained separate, they continued to share a common classical heritage.