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Chapter 21

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Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History
Copyright В© by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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GLENCOE DIVISION
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CHAPTER FOCUS
SECTION 1 Constantinople
SECTION 2 Justinian I
SECTION 3 The Church
SECTION 4 Decline of the Empire
CHAPTER SUMMARY & STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
3
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Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.
Overview
• Chapter 21 describes the Byzantine Empire
from the founding of Constantinople to the
Turkish conquest. пѓІ
– Section 1 describes Constantinople as
the “New Rome.” 
– Section 2 discusses the Byzantine
contributions to government and law. пѓІ
– Section 3 discusses the effects of
Orthodox Christianity on Byzantine and
eastern European culture. пѓІ
– Section 4 traces the decline of the
Byzantine Empire.
4
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the information.
Objectives
After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
• explain why the Byzantine Empire survived
and prospered for 1,000 years. пѓІ
• discuss why Constantinople was important
to the empire. пѓІ
• describe the Eastern Orthodox Church and
the role it played in the Byzantine Empire. пѓІ
• summarize causes of the decline of the
Byzantine Empire.
5
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the information.
Read to Discover
• Why the Byzantine Empire survived and
prospered for 1,000 years пѓІ
• Why Constantinople was important to
the empire пѓІ
• What role the Eastern Orthodox Church
played in the Byzantine Empire пѓІ
• What forces helped bring about the
decline of the Byzantine Empire
6
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the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 317 of your textbook.
Terms to Learn
• relics 
• Constantine I 
• theology 
• Justinian 
• Greek fire 
• Theodora 
• icons 
• Leo III 
People to Know
Places to Locate
• Constantinople 
• Byzantium 
• Hagia Sophia
7
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the information. Click the Speaker On button to listen to the words.
Why It’s Important
Emperor Constantine I moved the capital of the
Roman Empire from Rome to Constantinople
about 330. About 100 years later, the Roman empire
in the West fell. The Roman Empire in the East,
however, survived and prospered. It
became known as the Byzantine Empire. Its
people were called Byzantines. The Byzantines built
a civilization based on a blend of Greek, Roman,
and Christian ideas.
The empire in the East survived for several reasons.
Constantinople was a mighty fortress that needed
few soldiers to defend it. This freed soldiers to
protect other areas of the empire. The empire’s
wealth supported a large army and was used to
pay invaders to move farther and farther west.
Click the Speaker On button to replay the audio.
8
Constantinople
• When Constantine first chose the old Greek
city of Byzantium as the place for his new
capital, he was aware of its advantages. пѓІ
• Byzantium was located near a waterway
between the Black and Aegean seas. пѓІ
• It was located at the crossroads of the
trading routes between Europe and Asia. пѓІ
• Invaders would not easily be able to take
the new capital.
10
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the information. Section 1 begins on page 317 of your textbook.
Constantinople (cont.)
• Byzantium, renamed Constantinople, took
over four years to build and was modeled
after Rome except that it was a
Christian city. пѓІ
• Government and church leaders gathered
relics, or valued holy objects from the
past, to be placed in public monuments,
palaces, and churches. пѓІ
• About 600,000 people lived in
Constantinople during Constantine’s rule.
11
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the information.
Section Assessment
Why did Constantine choose
Byzantium as the site for the
empire’s new capital?
He chose this location because it lay
at the crossroads of the trading
routes between Europe and Asia.
12
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
How could the influence of
Christianity be seen in the city?
Possible responses include:
dedicated to God by Constantine,
influence of Church leaders on
Constantine and everyday life,
presence of many churches and
relics, and efforts by individuals and
organizations to help the needy
13
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment
In your opinion, what were some of
the good things about living in
Constantinople?
Answers will vary.
14
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Recreate the diagram on page 319
of your textbook, and use it to
compare the cities of Rome and
Constantinople.
Answers will vary.
15
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the answer.
Justinian I
• After Constantine died, his sons, generals,
and emperors ruled the empire. пѓІ
• Finally, in 527, a strong, Macedonian ruler
named Justinian came to the throne. He
came to be considered the greatest
Byzantine emperor. пѓІ
• Justinian was well trained in the army, law,
music, architecture, and theology, or the
study of religion.
17
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the information. Section 2 begins on page 320 of your textbook.
Theodora
• Justinian’s wife, the empress and actress
Theodora, was a great help to him. пѓІ
• Theodora helped fill political offices and
convinced Justinian to allow women more
rights. пѓІ
• Women finally were allowed to own land
equal in value to their dowry, or the wealth
they brought with them when they married. пѓІ
• In 532, a revolt arose by protesters of high
taxes, who were prepared to crown a new
emperor.
18
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the information.
Theodora (cont.)
• Theodora urged Justinian to stay, and
together they crushed the uprising.
19
Law and Public Works
• Justinian chose ten men to work out a
simpler and better legal system. пѓІ
• Tribonian developed a legal code, known
as the Justinian Code, that became the law
of the land. пѓІ
• Another of Justinian’s greatest
accomplishments was the church called
Hagia Sophia, or “Holy Wisdom.” 
• The church had a gold altar and colorful
mosaics, or pictures made up of many bits
of colored glass or stone, everywhere.
20
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Law and Public Works (cont.)
• Hagia Sophia, later called St. Sophia,
served the Byzantine Empire for more than
900 years and still stands today.
21
Conquest
• Justinian appointed an officer named
Belisarius to reorganize and lead the
Byzantine army to help reunite the eastern
and western parts of the empire. пѓІ
• Belisarius set up loyal and heavily armed
cavalry soldiers and developed a series of
battle moves that greatly strengthened the
army’s striking power. 
• During this time, the first secret weapon in
history, called Greek fire, was developed.
22
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Conquest (cont.)
• Greek fire was a chemical mixture that
ignited when it came into contact with water.
Its exact formula is still unknown. пѓІ
• With army improvements and Greek fire,
the Byzantines were able to control more
of the Mediterranean. пѓІ
• The Byzantines also won back much of
Italy and North Africa, defeated the
Persians, and ensured the security of the
empire’s eastern borders.
23
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the information.
Section Assessment
How did Justinian feel about the
old system of Roman laws?
What did he do about it?
He felt that it was too complicated
and disorganized; he chose 10 men
to work out a better system.
24
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
What was Justinian’s goal for the
Byzantine Empire?
His goal was to reunite its eastern
and western parts and restore
Rome’s glory and power.
25
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Making Inferences What do you think
Justinian would say about the state
of the American legal system today?
Explain.
Answers will vary.
26
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Recreate the diagram on page 324
of your textbook, and use it to write
and support a generalization about
Theodora’s role as empress.
Generalizations and supporting details
will vary.
27
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the answer.
The Church
• Church and government worked closely
together in the Byzantine Empire. пѓІ
• The leader of the Church in
Constantinople was called the Patriarch,
chosen by the emperor. пѓІ
• Under him were the metropolitans, or
church officials in charge of the empire’s
important areas. пѓІ
• Some missionaries, including a man
named Cyril, traveled among the Slavs, a
people who had settled in eastern Europe.
29
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the information. Section 3 begins on page 342 of your textbook.
The Church (cont.)
• Religion was very important to the
Byzantines and the use of icons, or
religious images used in worship, became
controversial for over 100 years. пѓІ
• In 726, Emperor Leo III ordered a stop to
the use of icons, but in 843, the emperor
once again allowed their use. пѓІ
• The fight over icons damaged the
empire’s relations with western Europe.
30
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the information.
The Church (cont.)
• The Pope broke his ties with the Byzantine
emperor and turned to the Frankish kings
for military protection. пѓІ
• This and other disputes helped pave the
way for the break between Western and
Eastern Christianity in 1054.
31
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the information.
Section Assessment
What role did Christianity play in
the Byzantine empire?
Christianity was the official religion
and the emperor was head of the
church and the government.
32
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
What were some of the
contributions of monasteries to
Byzantine society and culture?
Sample contributions include: they
helped the poor, ran hospitals and
schools for needy children, sent
missionaries to neighboring lands to
keep the peace, translated parts of
the Bible into several eastern
European languages, and developed
the Cyrillic alphabet.
33
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Making Inferences Why do you
think the Slavs needed an alphabet
that was different from the one used
in the Byzantine Empire?
Answers will vary. Note that the
missionaries would be able to convert
the Slavs much more easily if they
were not associated with the
Byzantine Empire.
34
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Recreate the diagram on page
326 of your textbook, and use it
to show the causes and effects
of conflicts between the Pope in
Rome and the Patriarch of
Constantinople.
Causes include icons and the power
of the Pope. Effects include the
Pope’s break with the Byzantine
emperor and the ties forged with
Frankish kings.
35
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the answer.
Decline of the Empire
• The Byzantine Empire lasted for about
1,100 years. пѓІ
• Forces from both inside and outside the
empire led to the downfall of the
Byzantine Empire. пѓІ
• Early Byzantine farmers served in the
army in return for land, but when they lost
their land they had little reason to join
the army. пѓІ
• The empire also began to have problems
with trade.
37
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the information. Section 4 begins on page 326 of your textbook.
Decline of the Empire (cont.)
• Meanwhile, when Christians from the West
and Muslims from the East attacked the
empire, Asia Minor was lost to these
invaders. пѓІ
• The population dropped to less than
100,000, and when Turkish armies
attacked Constantinople in 1453, they
easily conquered the Byzantines.
38
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the information.
Section Assessment
What problems within the
Byzantine Empire helped bring
about its decline?
The emperor stopped protecting
farmers from rich landlords;
aristocrats then took over the
farmers’ properties, and the farmers
lost their loyalty.
39
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
What outside forces helped
cause the empire’s downfall?
Venetian merchants gained control of
most of the empire’s trade, and the
empire was attacked by Christians
and Muslims.
40
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment
Do you think the Byzantine emperor
was wise in asking Venice for help
against the Vikings? Why or
why not?
Answers will vary. It is possible that it
was wise because the Byzantine
Empire could not defend itself against
the Vikings. It may have been unwise
because it led to the Venetian control
of most of the empire’s trade.
41
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Recreate the diagram on page
328 of your textbook, and use it
to show Byzantine contributions
to world civilization.
Contributions include: established
Constantinople, preserved the Greek
culture, preserved Roman law,
spread Christianity to peoples in the
East, spurred the growth if trade, and
developed new techniques in art.
42
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the answer.
Chapter Summary & Study Guide
• Around 330, Constantine moved the capital
of the Roman Empire to Constantinople, the
site of the old Greek city of Byzantium. пѓІ
• After the fall of Rome, the Roman Empire
in the East became known as the
Byzantine Empire. пѓІ
• Although Constantine patterned much of
life in Constantinople after Rome, his
acceptance of Christianity also helped
shape the city.
44
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the information.
Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.)
• When Justinian became emperor in 527, he
was influenced in some of his decisions by
the empress Theodora, who favored
increased women’s rights. 
• Two of Justinians’ greatest achievements
were development of a system of law known
as the Justinian Code and construction of
Hagia Sophia. пѓІ
• Under Justinian, Belisarius reorganized the
Byzantine army and expanded the
empire’s borders.
45
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the information.
Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.)
• Relations between the Pope and the
Patriarch were weakened by the argument
over icons, by the patriarch’s refusal to
recognize the Pope as the head of the
Church, and by the Pope’s crowning of
Charlemagne as emperor. пѓІ
• Both internal problems and outside forces
weakened the Byzantine Empire, which was
conquered by Turkish armies in 1453.
46
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the information.
Understanding the Main Idea
Why did the Roman Empire in the
East survive the fall of Rome?
Most Christians were united;
Constantinople was strong and
supported a large army and
paid invaders.
48
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
How did Constantinople’s location
help it become a great trading
center?
This location gave Constantinople
control of the sea trade to the
Mediterranean and a key land route.
49
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
How did Christianity affect
Byzantine attitudes toward the care
of needy people?
The Byzantines formed organizations
to care for the poor.
50
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
How did Theodora help women
within the Byzantine Empire?
She convinced Justinian to allow a
wife to own land and widows to
raise children.
51
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
What led to the separation of the
Eastern Orthodox Church and the
Roman Catholic Church in 1054?
Disputes over icons and the power of
the Pope led to the separation.
52
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
Why did Byzantine farmers
gradually lose their loyalty to
the empire?
The empire lost the loyalty of the
farmers because the emperor no
longer helped protect them.
53
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the answer.
Critical Thinking
What is your opinion of the
following statement: “Constantine
was wise to model Constantinople
after Rome”?
Answers will vary.
54
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the answer.
Critical Thinking
What are the advantages for a
government to have an official
religion? What are the
disadvantages?
Answers will vary. An advantage
might be that it would end conflict. A
disadvantage is that it would end
freedom of religion.
55
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the answer.
Critical Thinking
What do you think had the most to
do with the decline of the Byzantine
Empire? Explain.
Answers will vary. It is possible that a
loss of trade and invasions
contributed to the decline of the
Byzantine Empire.
56
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the answer.
Critical Thinking
What contribution made by the
Byzantines do you think was the
most important? Explain.
Answers will vary.
57
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the answer.
Geography in History
Movement Justinian expanded his
empire greatly. Refer to the map on
page 323 of your textbook. If you had
been Justinian, in which direction
would you have sent troops next to
gain new territory? Why?
58
Imagine you were a citizen of
Constantinople during the Byzantine
Empire and you met a man named
Cyril, about whom everyone was
talking. What were people saying
about this man?
59
Explore online information about the
topics introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Human
Heritage: A World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive
activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the
chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the
browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty
connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to
http://www.humanheritage.glencoe.com
61
330 A.D.
Constantinople
becomes capital
of Roman Empire
62
1453 A.D.
726 A.D.
Emperor Leo III
bans icons
Turkish armies
capture
Constantinople
527 A.D.
1054 A.D.
Justinian I rules
Byzantine
Empire
Eastern Orthodox
and Roman
Catholic churches
separate.
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Constantine I
c. 288 A.D.–337 A.D.
Roman Emperor
Born in what is now Serbia, Constantine
grew up the son of a Roman army officer.
In 305 A.D., he became the co-emperor of
Rome, but he continued to fight alongside
the troops. During one battle, he saw a
vision that convinced him to become the
first Roman Emperor to accept Christianity.
In 324 A.D., he triumphed as sole ruler of
Rome and ordered a new capital city built
at Byzantium. His rule helped ensure the
eastward spread of Christianity.
63
Theodora
Although Theodora was the daughter
of a bear-keeper with a traveling circus,
her strong will took her as far as the
royal court. Justinian’s court historian
commented: “She never did anything
at any time as the result of
persuasion… She claimed the right to
govern the whole Roman Empire.”
64
Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia, first built in the reign of
Constantine, was twice destroyed by
fire. When Justinian rebuilt the church,
he ordered it be made fireproof.
Earthquakes caused the dome to
collapse in 559, but it too was rebuilt.
The building became a mosque in 1453
and today is a museum.
65
Making Generalizations
• If you say, “We have a good soccer team,”
you are making a generalization, or general
statement, about your team. пѓІ
• If you go on to say that the team has not lost
a game this season and is the top-rated
team, you are providing evidence to support
your generalization.
Continued on next slide.
66
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the information.
Making Generalizations
• When studying history, it is often necessary
to put together pieces of information–
supporting statements–to arrive at a
full picture. пѓІ
• In some cases, authors provide only
supporting statements, and you will need to
make generalizations on your own.
Continued on next slide.
67
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the information.
Making Generalizations
• To make generalizations, follow these
steps: пѓІ
– Identify the subject matter and gather
facts and examples related to it. пѓІ
– Identify similarities or patterns among
these facts. пѓІ
– Use these similarities or patterns to form
general ideas about the subject.
Continued on next slide.
68
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the information.
Making Generalizations
Study the passage on page 321 of your textbook
about Hagia Sophia, a cathedral built by Justinian,
and study the picture on this same page. Then
answer the questions that follow.
Continued on next slide.
69
Making Generalizations
Which of the generalizations on page
321 of your textbook are supported by
details in the passage?
Generalizations a and c are
supported by details in this passage.
Continued on next slide.
70
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the answer.
Making Generalizations
Which of the generalizations are not
supported by the passage? Explain.
Generalization b (there are no facts to
support this statement) and
generalization d, (it is an opinion) are
not supported by the passage.
Continued on next slide.
71
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the answer.
Making Generalizations
Go to pages 322-323. Write three
generalizations.
Answers will vary.
72
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the answer.
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