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Ch. 11
The BYZANTINE Empire
Constantine I
Section 1:
Byzantium becomes
the New Rome
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Explain the rise of Constantinople as the “new Rome.”
• Describe Byzantine politics and the rise of Emperor Justinian.
• Describe Justinian’s achievements and major events in Constantinople
during and immediately after his reign.
AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !
• WARM-UP –
• INTRODUCTION • DISCUSSION of -
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 11, Sec. 1
• Study for Quiz
Students recall:
In what year did the
Western Roman empire
finally collapse
due to the invasions
by Germanic tribes?
476 A.D.
Emperor Constantine
moved the capital out of
Rome and to the eastern
capital of Byzantium, a
city he renamed for
himself –
Constantinople.
The eastern half of the
old Roman empire
would now become
the Byzantine Empire.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
• Constantinople
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
Justinian I
Ruled 527-565 A.D.
1. What did Justinian accomplish during his reign?
Conquered new lands and retook former Roman lands so that
his new Byzantine empire almost as big as Rome’s had been.
Belisarius was Emperor Justinian’s head general and
one of the greatest military commanders of his time.
He spearheaded Byzantium's attempts to rebuild the
Roman Empire, retaking North Africa from the
Vandals. His very successes, however, made him many
enemies. Incriminated in a plot against Justinian, his eyes
were put out on the Emperor's orders in 561 A.D.
Belisarius
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
According to a historian named
Procopius,
Belisarius was stripped of all his
possessions and was reduced to
begging in the streets
of Byzantium.
“Belisarius,” by Jacques-Louis David,
French Neoclassical painting, 1781.
BYZANTINE WEALTH
From Trade
What can you
infer about
Constantinople’
s location that
made it a
strategic
location to
benefit from
Trade?
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
BYZANTINE WEALTH
From Trade
Very typical
Byzantine Art:
Church
adornments &
Religious icons
Left:
Icon depicting
“Presentation of
Christ in the
Temple,”
Byzantine wood
painted, with
gold-leaf
background.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
1. What did Justinian accomplish during his reign?
Conquered new lands and retook former Roman lands so that
his new Byzantine empire almost as big as Rome’s had been.
Established center of trade, this brought economic prosperity.
Justinian I
Ruled 527-565 A.D.
1.
2.
3.
4.
His legal experts complete large body of civil laws – called
“Justinian’s Code”
Justinian appointed a commission in 528 A.D., consisting of
ten persons, to make a new collection of imperial constitutions.
The result was to gather together all Roman law into one code,
known as the Justinian Code.
The Justinian Code was divided into four parts:
The Institutes served as a textbook in law for students and lawyers.
The Digest was a casebook covering many trials and decisions.
The Codex was a collection of statutes and principles, and
The Novels contained new proposed laws.
This legal code became the foundation of law in most western European countries.
It was a compilation of early Roman laws and legal principles, illustrated by cases, and
combined with an explanation of new laws and future legislation to be put into effect.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
1. What did Justinian accomplish during his reign?
Conquered new lands and retook former Roman lands so that
his new Byzantine empire almost as big as Rome’s had been.
Established center of trade, this brought economic prosperity.
Justinian I
Ruled 527-565 A.D.
His legal experts complete large body of civil laws – called
“Justinian’s Code”
Marriage to Theodora
Theodora
Born 500 A.D.
Married Justininian 525 A.D.
Died 548 A.D.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
History Makers:
“Theodora”
Packet, p. 2
Reading about a History Maker, “Theodora” Packet, p. 2 Textbook, p.
“Empress Theodora and her attendants”
From a collection of mosaics in the presbytery of the Church of San Vitale,
Reading about a History Maker, “Theodora” Packet, p. 2 Textbook, p.
Theodora was the daughter of a bearkeeper
at the Hippodrome. Hardly the kind of
background one would expect of a future
Empress. Her former profession as an
actress was also a mark against her.
Needless to say Justinian’s marriage to her
created quite a scandal.
The center median
of the former Hippodrome racetrack
in Constantinople
is today a city park
in modern-day Istanbul, Turkey.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Reading about a History Maker, “Theodora” Packet, p. 2 Textbook, p.
The Hippodrome was the center of
Byzantine social life much like our sports
arenas are today.
Huge amounts were bet on chariot races, and
the whole city was divided between fans of
the Blue and Green chariot racing teams.
The rivalry between Blues and Greens
sometimes became mingled with political
squabbles, and riots the size of civil wars
would erupt in the city.
The most severe of these was in 532.
The center median
of the former Hippodrome racetrack
in Constantinople
is today a city park
in modern-day Istanbul, Turkey.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Reading about a History Maker, “Theodora” Packet, p. 2 Textbook, p.
These riots in 532 A.D. were called the Nika Riots
("Nika"= "Victory!"),
and grew from political unrest
over the government's new tax measures.
Rival gangs of Blues and Greens
(admirers of rival chariot-racing teams)
fought in the streets.
Justinian wanted to leave the city during the riots, but two of his
generals (Belisarius and Narses) and his wife Theodora, persuaded
him to stay.
Theodora took it upon herself to raise a personal army,
an army that eventually killed 35,000 people in a single day.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Reading about a History Maker, “Theodora” Packet, p. 2 Textbook, p.
“Empress Theodora and her attendants”
From a collection of mosaics in the presbytery of the Church of San Vitale,
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
1. What did Justinian accomplish during his reign?
Conquered new lands and retook former Roman lands so that
his new Byzantine empire almost as big as Rome’s had been.
Established center of trade, this brought economic prosperity.
Justinian I
Ruled 527-565 A.D.
His legal experts complete large body of civil laws – called
“Justinian’s Code”
Marriage to Theodora
Theodora
Born 500 A.D.
Married Justinian 525 A.D.
Died 548 A.D.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Reading about a History Maker, “Theodora” Packet, p. 2 Textbook, p.
Theodora and Justinian preside over the dedication
of the magnificent church Hagia Sophia (Church of “Holy
Wisdom”)
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Reading about this great feat of architecture, “Hagia Sophia” Textbook, p.
Hagia Sophia is the mother of all
Eastern Orthodox Christian churches
built in the Byzantine tradition and style.
The dome of the Hagia Sofia
must haveve been an
impressive sight to
maritime merchants
arriving at Constantinople.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Early accounts suggest that this site
had been the site of a pagan temple and
was replaced with a church by the Eastern
Roman Emperor Constantius,
son of Emperor Constantine who had
liberated the Christian faith from
centuries of persecution.
Constantius' church was dedicated
in 360 AD. and was known as
the Great Church because it was the
largest at the time.
It was later destroyed in mob riots.
Reading about this great feat of architecture, “Hagia Sophia” Textbook, p.
Hagia Sophia (Church of “Holy
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Following the destruction
caused by the Nika rebellion,
Justinian ordered that
construction begin on a new
basilica such as had never been
seen before. The construction
work lasted from 532 to 537;
the new church was dedicated
December 27, 537.
Architecturally the grand
basilica represented a major
revolution in church building in
that it featured a huge dome
which necessitated the use of
new ideas in order to support
the weight of this dome, a feat
which had not been attempted
before. The dome would
become characteristic of the
“Romanesque” architectural
Wisdom”)
style in Byzantine church
construction and represented
the vault of heaven.
Reading about this great feat of architecture, “Hagia Sophia” Textbook, p.
1,000 years after it’s construction
in 537, Constantinople fell to the
Turks in 1453…
and Hagia Sophia
became a mosque…
Reading about this great feat of architecture, “Hagia Sophia” Textbook, p.
1,000 years after it’s construction
in 537, Constantinople fell to the
Turks in 1453…
and Hagia Sophia
became a mosque…
…but the original Christian mosaics
continue to adorn the interior.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
1. What did Justinian accomplish during his reign?
Conquered new lands and retook former Roman lands so that
his new Byzantine empire almost as big as Rome’s had been.
Established center of trade, this brought economic prosperity.
Justinian I
Ruled 527-565 A.D.
537 – Justinian
completes building
the Hagia Sophia
His legal experts complete large body of civil laws – called
“Justinian’s Code”
Marriage to Theodora
Rebuilt Constantinople and the great church Hagia Sophia
Theodora and Justinian preside
over the dedication
of the magnificent church
Hagia Sophia (Church of “Holy Wisdom”)
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Reading a Primary Source, Procopius’ Secret History Packet, p. 3
Recognizing POINT OF VIEW
in the telling of History……….
Today the world remembers Justinian as a powerful ruler, a great builder, conqueror,
teacher and lawgiver. But this is only because "history is written by the winners," and
Justinian was a winner. The most important and respected source historian for this
period was Procopius of Caesarea. Procopius accompanied Belisarius on some of his
great conquests, wrote the emperor’s official histories of the wars and of Justinian's
immense building programs. He ensured that we remember Justinian as a superman.
But that was not the whole truth.
Procopius dared not say what was really going on. He feared for his life (and the lives
of his family) if he did. So he wrote another, secret history, with strict instructions that it
was not to be published until after his death. This history was so shocking, so
devastating, that scholars wanted to believe it was a forgery. Yet every test that can be
made on it, shows it is no forgery. According to Procopius, the emperor Justinian who
ruled the eastern Roman empire in the 6th century was demonic in his cruelty –
determined to whatever it took to rebuild the empire –
“yet in rebuilding it, he was destroying it.”
Procopius was not alone in secretly hating Justinian.
The chronicler Evagrius also agreed that Justinian would go to hell.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
1. What did Justinian accomplish during his reign?
Conquered new lands and retook former Roman lands so that
his new Byzantine empire almost as big as Rome’s had been.
Established center of trade, this brought economic prosperity.
Justinian I
Ruled 527-565 A.D.
537 – Justinian
completes building
the Hagia Sophia
Beloved
Christian
Emperor?
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
His legal experts complete large body of civil laws – called
“Justinian’s Code”
Marriage to Theodora
Rebuilt Constantinople and the great church Hagia Sophia
Is it common
to hear two
opposing
Or….
views about
great men in
history?
Brutal
Political
Tyrant?
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
537 – Justinian
completes building
the Hagia Sophia
542 – Deadly plague sweeps
through Constantinople
565 – Death of Justinian
Size
2. How did the plague affect Constantinople? Constantinople
Sizeofof
empire,
well at the
Killed so many people it left the empire weakwasempire
death
of
defended.
800
A.D.
and vulnerable to enemies.
Justinian.
622 – Muhammad’s Hegira
674 – Arab armies attack
Constantinople
CONSTANTINOPLE’S STRONG MILITARY DEFENSE & TECHNOLOGY
SAVE THE DAY
On two occasions, from 674 to 677, and again in 717-18, Arab armies besieged
Constantinople by land and sea. Superior military organization, the city’s high walls
and its strategic location, and the timely invention of one of history's most decisive
weapons, a medieval form of napalm dubbed "Greek fire“ used by the Byzantine
naval fleet enabled the Byzantines to weather the storm. The cost to both sides
was high. By 800 A.D., Byzantium had lost most of her territory south of the Taurus
Mountains and much of the remainder of the empire lay devastated. The Arabs lost
untold thousands of men through futile attacks against Constantinople's defenses.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
537 – Justinian
completes building
the Hagia Sophia
542 – Deadly plague sweeps
through Constantinople
Kingdom of the Franks
565 – Death of Justinian
622 – Muhammad’s Hegira
674 – Arab armies attack
Constantinople
800 – The Pope in Rome crowns the
Frankish king Charlemagne the
new “Holy Roman Emperor”
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Meanwhile…in the West
The Western region was
under attack again by
Muslims, Vikings, and other
groups. The Pope begged
for the help of the Frankish
king Charlemagne. In return
for his efforts, the Pope
made him the new Holy
Roman emperor in the West.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
NORSEMEN
537 – Justinian
completes building
the Hagia Sophia
• Kiev
542 – Deadly plague sweeps
through Constantinople
565 – Death of Justinian
• Rome
622 – Muhammad’s Hegira
674 – Arab armies attack
Constantinople
800 – The Pope in Rome crowns the
Frankish king Charlemagne the
new “Holy Roman Emperor”
820 – Vikings begin explorations and
terrorize Europe
The Vikings (or, Norsemen)
settled around Kiev and
intermarried with the eastern
Slavs. These are the ancestors
of the Rus (or, Russian people).
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
SLAVS
• Constantinople
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
NORSEMEN
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
537 – Justinian
completes building
the Hagia Sophia
• Kiev
542 – Deadly plague sweeps
through Constantinople
SLAVS
565 – Death of Justinian
• Rome
622 – Muhammad’s Hegira
674 – Arab armies attack
Constantinople
800 – The Pope in Rome crowns the
Frankish king Charlemagne the
new “Holy Roman Emperor”
820 – Vikings begin explorations and
terrorize Europe
860– Russians invade Constantinople
for the first of three times.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
In the 9th c., Prince Oleg
of the Kievan Rus
launched a surprise attack
against Constantinople –
hanging his shield upon
the gate of the great city.
• Constantinople
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
NORSEMEN
537 – Justinian
completes building
the Hagia Sophia
• Kiev
542 – Deadly plague sweeps
through Constantinople
565 – Death of Justinian
622 – Muhammad’s Hegira
SLAVS
• Rome
• Constantinople
674 – Arab armies attack
Constantinople
800 – The Pope in Rome crowns the
Frankish king Charlemagne the
new “Holy Roman Emperor”
820 – Vikings begin explorations and
terrorize Europe
860– Russians invade Constantinople
for the first of three times.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
3. How did the Byzantines prop up their
shaky empire? First they used bribes,
then diplomacy, then political marriages.
Then reorganized their Empire’s military.
End of Day 1 presentation.
For homework,
Use your textbook CH 11, Sec. 1
to finish questions #4. – 6.
on p. 1 of your packet.
Answer part B. as well.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Ch. 11
The BYZANTINE Empire
Section 1:
The Christian World
Is Divided
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe Justinian’s achievements and major events in Constantinople
during and immediately after his reign.
• Explain why the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman Catholic) Churches split.
• Identify the causes of the Byzantine Empire’s collapse.
AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !
• WARM-UP –
• Continued DISCUSSION of
•QUIZ over CH 11 Section 1
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 11, Sec. 2, finish the rest of p. in your packet.
• Study for Quiz
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
NORSEMEN
537 – Justinian
completes building
the Hagia Sophia
• Kiev
542 – Deadly plague sweeps
through Constantinople
565 – Death of Justinian
622 – Muhammad’s Hegira
674 – Arab armies attack
Constantinople
800 – The Pope in Rome crowns
Frankish king Charlemagne
“Holy Roman Emperor”
820 – Vikings begin explorations
and terrorize Europe
860– Russians invade Constantinople
for the first of three times.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
SLAVS
• Rome
• Constantinople
750 – 1000 A.D. “Western Europe and Eastern Byzantine Empire both face Invaders”
Vikings
(Norsemen)
SLAVS
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian and Muslim Worlds by 1050 A.D.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian World Divides” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
“The Great Schism in Christianity
must not be viewed as the result of only
one quarrel in the Church.
It is not true that
after centuries of perfect peace,
suddenly on account of one dispute,
the Christian world fell apart.
It was rather a case of a breach of communication caused by long-festering anger and
bad feelings, not by a rival theology initially. It would be inconceivable that hundreds of
Bishops would suddenly break away from union with their chief, if all had been going
smoothly before.
The great schism is rather the result of a very gradual process. Its Causes must be
sought centuries before there was any suspicion of their final effect.”
The Catholic Encyclopedia
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian World Divides” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
The leader of the Roman Catholic
Church in the West is the Pope.
Rome
.
The leader of the Eastern Orthodox
Church in Constantinople is
the Patriarch.
4.
What factors led to the Great Schism?
* Language – the West spoke Latin; the East spoke Greek.
* Church Authority The East said the Bible was the final Authority on all issues of Faith
West said it was the Pope’s interpretation of the Bible that was the final Authority.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian World Divides” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
The leader of the Roman Catholic
Church in the West is the Pope.
The leader of the Eastern Orthodox
Church in Constantinople is
the Patriarch.
4.
What factors (disagreements) led to the Great Schism in the Church?
* Language – the West spoke Latin; the East spoke Greek.
* Church Authority - East said the Bible was the final Authority on all issues
West said it was the Pope’s interpretation of the Bible.
* Divorce – Eastern Patriarch began to allow divorces.
Western Pope forbid divorce.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian World Divides” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
The leader of the Roman Catholic
Church in the West is the Pope.
The leader of the Eastern Orthodox
Church in Constantinople is
the Patriarch.
4.
What factors (disagreements) led to the Great Schism in the Church?
* Language – the West spoke Latin; the East spoke Greek.
* Church Authority - East said the Bible was the final Authority on all issues
West said it was the Pope’s interpretation of the Bible.
* Divorce – Eastern Patriarch began to allow divorces.
Western Pope forbid divorce.
* Priests Right to Marry – Orthodox priests could marry. Catholic priests may not.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian World Divides” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
The leader of the Roman Catholic
Church in the West is the Pope.
The leader of the Eastern Orthodox
Church in Constantinople is
the Patriarch.
4.
What factors (disagreements) led to the Great Schism in the Church?
* Language – the West spoke Latin; the East spoke Greek.
* Church Authority - East said the Bible was the final Authority on all issues
West said it was the Pope’s interpretation of the Bible.
* Divorce – Eastern Patriarch began to allow divorces.
Western Pope forbid divorce.
* Priests Right to Marry – Orthodox priests could marry. Catholic priests may not.
* the Icon Controversy
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian World Divides” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
4.
What factors (disagreements) led to the Great Schism in the Church?
* Language – the West spoke Latin; the East spoke Greek.
* Church Authority - East said the Bible was the final Authority on all issues
West said it was the Pope’s interpretation of the Bible.
* Divorce – Eastern Patriarch began to allow divorces.
Western Pope forbid divorce.
* Priests Right to Marry – Orthodox priests could marry. Catholic priests may not.
* the Icon Controversy
Useful Aids
for Religious
Devotion?
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
ICONOGRAPHY
Or…a
form of
Idol worship?
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian World Divides” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
4.
What factors (disagreements) led to the Great Schism in the Church?
* Language – the West spoke Latin; the East spoke Greek.
* Church Authority - East said the Bible was the final Authority on all issues
West said it was the Pope’s interpretation of the Bible.
* Divorce – Eastern Patriarch began to allow divorces.
Western Pope forbid divorce.
* Priests Right to Marry – Orthodox priests could marry. Catholic priests may not.
* the Icon Controversy
Icons - sacred religious images.
representing saints, Christ, and the Virgin, as well as
narrative scenes such as Christ's Crucifixion.
While today the term is most closely associated
with wooden panel painting,
in Byzantium icons could be crafted in all media,
including marble, ivory, gemstone, precious metal,
enamel, and mosaic.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian World Divides” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
4.
What factors (disagreements) led to the Great Schism in the Church?
* Language – the West spoke Latin; the East spoke Greek.
* Church Authority - East said the Bible was the final Authority on all issues
West said it was the Pope’s interpretation of the Bible.
* Divorce – Eastern Patriarch began to allow divorces.
Western Pope forbid divorce.
* Priests Right to Marry – Orthodox priests could marry. Catholic priests may not.
* the Icon Controversy
Icons - sacred religious images.
Iconoclasts – those who opposed the use of icons
and saw the practice as idolatry.
Byzantine
Emperor
Leosome
III
believed
the
Icons
The
matter
were not
went
as on
popular
for
in the
time
West,
until
but
success
of1054
the Arabs
waswith
to
their
the
finally
Popeindecided
the
toPope
side
indue
thethe
West
poorand the
imagery-hating
Muslim
religion,
masses
Patriarch
in in
thethe
East
East
who wanted
them –
and thus
to ban
Christian
icons.
hoping
each
excommunicated
he tried
couldtowin
greater
the
other.
authority
there.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian World Divides” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
4.
What factors (disagreements) led to the Great Schism in the Church?
* Language – the West spoke Latin; the East spoke Greek.
* Church Authority - East said the Bible was the final Authority on all issues
West said it was the Pope’s interpretation of the Bible.
* Divorce – Eastern Patriarch began to allow divorces.
Western Pope forbid divorce.
* Priests Right to Marry – Orthodox priests could marry. Catholic priests may not.
* the Icon Controversy
Icons - sacred religious images.
Iconoclasts – those who opposed the use of icons
and saw the practice as idolatry.
Excommunication – to “kick out” of the Church /
forbid one to receive the Church’s sacraments.
Schism – split or division.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian World Divides” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
1204 – Crusading Christians from Europe
loot and pillage Constantinople.
5. What was the effect of the Schism?
Christianity was permanently divided
between Roman Catholic (in West) and the
Orthodox Church (in East).
Western – Eastern Christians Clash
The richest city of the world – Constantinoplewas at the mercy of the rowdy Europeans.
The barbarians did horrible things that are
beyond imagination. They tortured and
massacred a large part of the population,
destroyed churches, palaces, monasteries and
even sculptures made by Phidias, stole
thousands of priceless icons, relics and other
holy items, raped young girls and boys.
Not to mention the countless manuscripts of
ancient Greek learning which were burnt by the
ignorant and illiterate Francs. So much was the
hatred of the Europeans for the Greek Empire!
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
THE CRUSADES
A 200 year period of 9 Crusades total in which
the Western European Christians
attempted to retake the “Holy Land” (Jerusalem)
from the Muslim Empire.
The
Western
Christians
from poor
Medieval
Europe…
…were
like silly,
jealous
babies in
a Candy
store.
…to do so each time
meant passing through Constantinople.
The Church of St. Mark’s
in Venice…
…still retains today many of
the treasures that were taken
from Constantinople’s
churches in 1204.
CH 11, Sec. 1: “The Christian World Divides” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
5. What was the effect of the Schism?
Christianity was permanently divided
between Roman Catholic (in West) and the
Orthodox Church (in East).
1204 – Crusading Christians from Europe
loot and pillage Constantinople.
The looting of Constantinople in 1204
by the European Christian Crusaders
was an irretrievable disaster for the Byzantines.
With its territory and resources shrinking,
Byzantium was never again able
to fully quell internal disorders
or to exercise independence from outside powers.
The state became so impoverished that in 1369
Emperor John V was arrested for debt in Venice as
he tried to obtain financial help from the West.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The weakened Constantinople could not defend itself from the
rising new power in the region – the Ottoman Turks – who,
by the 1300s – had completely encircled the old Eastern capital.
“Woe be to thee, O Constantinople,
seated on seven hills,
thou shall not continue a thousand years.”
CH 11, Sec. 1: “Byzantium Becomes the New Rome” Packet, p. 1 Textbook, p.
330 – Constantine makes Byzantium
his new capital, Constantinople
527 – Justinian becomes ruler
of the eastern empire
674 – Arab armies attack
Constantinople
860 – Russians invade Constantinople
for the first of three times.
1054 – Christianity splits into the
Roman Catholic Church in the West
and the Orthodox Church in the East.
1204 – Crusading Christians from Europe
loot and pillage Constantinople.
1453 – Constantinople falls to
the Ottoman Turks.
6. What factors enabled the city to survive
for so many years before finally falling?
Its walls, naval fleet, and
its strategic location.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
QUIZ TIME!
Former Constantinople,
Istanbul, Turkey today
Ch. 11
The BYZANTINE Empire
Section 1:
The Christian World
Is Divided
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe Justinian’s achievements and major events in Constantinople
during and immediately after his reign.
• Explain why the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman Catholic) Churches split.
• Identify the causes of the Byzantine Empire’s collapse.
AGENDA:
• WARM-UP –
• Continued DISCUSSION of
•QUIZ over CH 11 Section 1
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 11, Sec. 2, finish the rest of p. in your packet.
• Study for Quiz
Ch. 11
Section 2
The Russians
Ivan the Great
1440-1505
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Summarize the Slavic, Greek Byzantine, and Viking roots of Russia and Russian culture.
• Describe the rise and fall of the principality of Kiev.
• Explain how the Mongol invasions united Russia and brought power to Moscow.
AGENDA:
• WARM-UP – Read History Makers, “Alexander Nevsky” – p. 277
• DISCUSSION of
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 11, Sec. 3, Do p. 6 in your packet.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. 4 Textbook, p. 274- (see map p. 275)
850 – Scandinavian chief Rurik
establishes first Rus
Principality in Novgorod.
The Vikings of Scandinavia
860 – First Russian raid on
have Constantinople.
been called other
names
in history
879
– Prince– Oleg moves the
the Norsemen
principality(North-men),
to Kiev.
and the Slavs referred to
Kiev
remain the
them
aswould
Varangians,
capital
of Kievan Rus (a loose
or the Rus.
NORSEMEN
• Novgorod
RUS
• Kiev
SLAVS
• Rome
• Constantinople
federation of small states) for
the next 300 years. The society
was divided between the
peasant
masses
the
820 – Vikings
beginand
explorations
and
Russian
nobles
called boyars.
terrorize
Europe
B. IDENTIFY
B. IDENTIFY
The
Vikings (or, Norsemen)
Slavs ––around
settled
people
of
Kiev
theand
Black
boyars
Russian
nobility.
Forest Regionwith
intermarried
north
theofeastern
the
Black Sea.
Slavs.
These
They
are the
wereancestors
Russia’s
of
the Rus
first
(or,unified
Russian
territory.
people).
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. 4 Textbook, p. 274-275
850 – Scandinavian chief Rurik
establishes first Rus
Principality in Novgorod.
NORSEMEN
• Novgorod
860 – First Russian raid on
Constantinople.
RUS
SLAVS
879 – Prince Oleg moves the
principality to Kiev.
945 – Trade agreements with the
Kiev
would remain
Byzantine
empirethe
establish
capitalclose
of Kievan
Rus
(a
loose
ties and
federation
of small
states) for
cultural
exchanges.
the next 300 years.
• Rome
957 – Russian Princess Olga
visits Constantinople and
is converted to Christianity.
B. IDENTIFY
Olga – Russian princess who converted to Christianity.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
• Kiev
Russian Icon of St. Princess Olga
• Constantinople
Sets up the first
Rus principality
in Novgorod;
establishes
Russian
dynasty
Visits
Constantinople
and Converts to
Christianity
Moves Rus
capital to Kiev
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians”
Textbook, p. 273
Byzantine Christian Missionaries Visit the Slavs
The brothers Cyril and Methodius were living in a monastery in Constantinople
when the Slavic leaders sent for a Christian teacher.
Cyril was selected and was accompanied by his brother. The two “missionaries” who
learned the Slav language and converted many of the people to Christianity.
Because they were acquainted with the language of the Slavs, Cyril and Methodius were then
chosen to provide a written alphabet for them. Cyril invented an alphabet for the Slavs,
using the Greek letters and, with the help of Methodius, translated the Gospels into the Slavic
people’s language.
Today the Cyrillic alphabet is still used in Russia and other parts of eastern Europe.
ä×ÅÒ�- Door
õÞÉÔÅÌ� - Teacher
ðÁÒÔÁ - Desk
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. 4 Textbook, p. 275
Read story in text, p. 275
of how Vladimir chose
Orthodox Christianity for
his people.
Orthodox Icon of Saints Vladimir and Olga.
B. IDENTIFY
1. What ties linked Kiev to Byzantium?
Trade – along the Dnieper river and
Sea route to Constantinople.
Religion – cultural diffusion will lead
the Kievan Rus to adopt the
Christian religion of Byzantium.
Olga – Russian princess who converted to Christianity.
Vladimir – He established permanent links with Byzantine empire
and under his rule all Russians converted to Christiantiy.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. 4 Textbook, p. 275
Map showing the principality of Kievan Rus, 878-912.
B. IDENTIFY
1. What ties linked Kiev to Byzantium?
Trade – along the Dnieper river and
Sea route to Constantinople.
Religion – cultural diffusion will lead
the Kievan Rus to adopt the
Christian religion of Byzantium.
Olga – Russian princess who converted to Christianity.
Vladimir – He established permanent links with Byzantine empire
and under his rule all Russians converted to Christiantiy.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. Textbook, p.
1. What ties linked Kiev to Byzantium?
Trade – along the Dnieper river and
Sea route to Constantinople.
Religion – cultural diffusion will lead
the Kievan Rus to adopt the
Christian religion of Byzantium.
B. IDENTIFY
Vladimir – He established permanent links with Byzantine empire
and under his rule all Russians converted to Christiantiy.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. Textbook, p.
2. How did Vladimir and his son Yaroslav
contribute to the power of Kiev?
Vladimir expanded the size of the state
west into modern-day Poland and
north to the Baltic Sea.
Yaroslav married off his daughters and
sisters to the kings and princes of
western Europe to forge trading
alliances. Yaroslav also compiled
Russia’s first law code.
Yaroslav the Wise
isB.
considered
the greatest
IDENTIFY
ruler of Vladimir
the Kievan –period.
He established permanent links with Byzantine empire
He led an extensive building
program
churches
– modeling
the Byzantine
style. He also
and under
his of
rule
all Russians
converted
to Christiantiy.
copied the Byzantines model of law, ordering the revision of all Russian laws PPaccordingly.
Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. 4 Textbook, p. 276
1054 was the year that
Christianity had its Schism,
or split.
Ironically, it is also the year
that Yaroslav died, and
division began to occur in
Kievan Rus as well as his
descendants fought over
territory.
Yaroslav the Wise
isB.
considered
the greatest
IDENTIFY
ruler of Vladimir
the Kievan –period.
He established permanent links with Byzantine empire
He led an extensive building
program
churches
– modeling
the Byzantine
style. He also
and under
his of
rule
all Russians
converted
to Christiantiy.
copied the Byzantines model of law, ordering the revision of all Russian laws PPaccordingly.
Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. 4 Textbook, p. 276
3. What factors brought about
Kiev’s decline?
Yaroslav had divided his empire among
his sons. Their internal fighting for
territory tore the state of Kievan Rus
apart.
Also, the Crusades disrupted trade
between the Byzantines and the
Russians, creating economic hardship
in Russia.
In its weakened state, Russia was
suddenly attacked
by the Mongols from Asia
who demolished Kiev.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
While the Mongol
conquests brought
much destruction, the
Read
great economic
benefits
that the
followed
about
should not be
Mongols,
disregarded.
Travel
safetytextbook
was guaranteed,
a great trading network
p. 277
was formed
stretching
from China to Europe.
For the first time in
Alsothesee
centuries,
Silk
Road 296-297
was reopened,
allowing cultural
diffusion again
between East and
West.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. Textbook, p.
1054 – Yaroslav dies; his sons
fight over Kievan territory.
1204 – Crusading Christians loot
and pillage Constantinople;
disrupting trade with Russia.
1227 – Ghengis Khan, founder of
Mongol dynasty dies. His
successors continue to
expand empire.
4. How did the Mongols treat the Russian people?
Were tolerant of all religions; allowed Russians
to keep customs as before;
Demanded obedience to Mongol rulers and
a large amount of tribute (taxes) from all the
Russian principalities had to be paid annually.
1240 – Batu Khan establishes the
“Khanate of the Golden
Horde” over Russia
Prince Alexander of Novgorod
defeats Swedes at Neva River.
Statue of Alexander Nevsky
in St. Petersburg square.
B. IDENTIFY
Alexander Nevsky – Prince of Novgorod who defeated invading Swedes at
the Neva River and advised the Russian princes to
cooperate with the Mongols.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. Textbook, p.
1054 – Yaroslav dies; his sons
fight over Kievan territory.
1204 – Crusading Christians loot
and pillage Constantinople;
disrupting trade with Russia.
1227 – Ghengis Khan, founder of
Mongol dynasty dies. His
successors continue to
expand empire.
1240 – After burning Moscow,
Batu Khan establishes the
“Khanate of the Golden
Horde” over Russia
Prince Alexander of Novgorod
defeats Swedes at Neva River.
4. How did the Mongols treat the Russian people?
Were tolerant of all religions; allowed Russians
to keep customs as before;
Demanded obedience to Mongol rulers and
a large amount of tribute (taxes) from all the
Russian principalities had to be paid annually.
Muscovy princes become the official
“tax collectors” for the Mongol
tribute.
Leads to the rise in power of Moscow.
B. IDENTIFY
Alexander Nevsky – Prince of Novgorod who defeated invading Swedes at
the Neva River and advised the Russian princes to
cooperate with the Mongols.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. Textbook, p.
5. What were some effects of Mongol rule on Russia?
Ironically, it helped to unify Russia since the Mongols
viewed Russia as part of their own unified empire.
It isolated Russia from Western Europe
(gave Russia its “identity struggle” – Asian?)
Led to the rise of Moscow as center of power.
Ivan I, or Ivan the “moneybags”, was the leading prince of Moscow and, after
crushing a Russian / Slavic revolt against the Mongols, was rewarded as the Mongol's
leading tax collector and made himself and Moscow very wealthy by maintaining his
loyalty to the Mongol Khanate of the Golden Horde.
He used this wealth to give loans to neighboring Russian principalities. These cities
gradually fell deeper and deeper into debt, a condition that would allow Ivan's
successors to annex them. Ivan's greatest success, however, was convincing the Khan
that his son should succeed him as Grand Prince of all Russia. Therefore, from then on
the important position always belonged to the ruling house of Moscow.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 2: “The Russians” Packet, p. Textbook, p.
Ivan I, or Ivan the “moneybags”, was the leading prince of
Moscow and, after crushing a Russian / Slavic revolt against
the Mongols, was rewarded as the Mongol's leading tax
collector and made himself and Moscow very wealthy by
maintaining his loyalty to the Mongol Khanate of the Golden
Horde.
He used this wealth to give loans to neighboring Russian
principalities. These cities gradually fell deeper and deeper
into debt, a condition that would allow Ivan's successors to
annex them.
Ivan's greatest success, however, was convincing the Khan
that his son should succeed him as Grand Prince of all
Russia. Therefore, from then on the important position
always belonged to the ruling house of Moscow.
Reading “Ivan III - Builder of Russia” Packet, p. 5 Textbook, p. 278
Ivan III
Ruled 43 years
Was 13 when the Byzantine empire fell to the Turks in 1453
Married Sophia, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor
Ivan saw himself as the inheritor of “Rome”
Referred to Moscow as “the third Rome”
Ivan III
“the Great”
1440-1505
Grand Prince of
Russia
Began calling himself “Czar” (Russian for Caesar)
1480 – stops paying the tribute to the Mongols
Russians and Mongols have a bloodless standoff
Russia gains independence
Ivan III begins empire-building.
Reading “Ivan III - Builder of Russia” Packet, p. 5 Textbook, p. 278
Ivan
6.
What
III events marked the beginning of an
Ruledindependent
43 years
Russian Empire?
IvantheIIIByzantine
refusedempire
to payfelltribute
to thein 1453
WasCzar
13 when
to the Turks
Mongols; resulting in a bloodless standoff and
Married
Sophia, thegiving
niece ofRussia
the last Byzantine
emperor
the Mongols
its independence.
Ivan saw himself as the inheritor of “Rome”
Referred to Moscow as “the third Rome”
Ivan III
“the Great”
1440-1505
Grand Prince of
Russia
Began calling himself “Czar” (Russian for Caesar)
1480 – stops paying the tribute to the Mongols
Russians and Mongols have a bloodless standoff
Russia gains independence
Ivan III begins empire-building.
Ch. 11
Section 2
The Russians
Ivan the Great
1440-1505
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Summarize the Slavic, Greek Byzantine, and Viking roots of Russia and Russian culture.
• Describe the rise and fall of the principality of Kiev.
• Explain how the Mongol invasions united Russia and brought power to Moscow.
AGENDA:
• WARM-UP – Read History Makers, “Alexander Nevsky” – p. 277
• DISCUSSION of
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read Chapter 11, Sec. 3, Do p. 6 in your packet.
CHAPTER 11
Section 3
The Turkish Empire Rises
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe the rise of the Seljuk Turks and their impact on Persian culture.
• Explain how internal problems and foreign attack ended Seljuk power.
AGENDA:
• WARM-UP – Read History Makers, “Malik Shah” – p. 280
• DISCUSSION of
• DAILY QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• STUDY FOR CHAPTER 11 TEST
• Review all Daily Quizzes!
CH 11, Sec. 3: “Turks Create an Empire” Packet, p. 6 Textbook, p. 279
When the Abbasids first noticed the military skills of the Turks, they began to buy
Turkish children as slaves, to raise as soldiers, and employ as bodyguards.
TURKS
Eventually the mamelukes became a powerful force of their own,
even stronger than their Abbasid caliph rulers in Baghdad.
B. IDENTIFY
mamelukes – Turkish military slaves.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 3: “Turks Create an Empire” Packet, p. 6 Textbook, p. 279
This foreign (Turkish) influence came at a bad time for the Abbasids,
whose empire was already losing vast amounts of territory.
TURKS
1. In 945, Persian armies
move into Baghdad.
They put an end to the caliph’s political power,
he now was only a religious leader.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 3: “Turks Create an Empire” Packet, p. 6 Textbook, p. 279
2. Around 970, large numbers of Turks
known as Seljuks migrate into the
Abbasid Empire.
They converted to Islam,
but would then make war
on the other Muslims.
Tughrul Begh, began the Seljuk Turk
conquests around 1035.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 3: “Turks Create an Empire” Packet, p. 6 Textbook, p. 279
The Battle of
Manzikert is an
important event
because the defeat
of the Byzantines
and win of the
Muslim Turks
frightened the
Pope in the West
so much he would
launch
the First Crusade.
3. The Seljuks march on the
Byzantine Empire.
The Turks defeat the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
Within a year they occupied all of Anatolia
and were close to Constantinople.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 3: “Turks Create an Empire” Packet, p. 6 Textbook, p. 280
4.
The Seljuks choose a Persian city,
Isfahan, as their capital.
The political move helped the
Turks win support of their
Persian subjects.
5. The Turks adopt Persian as the
language of culture and adopt
features of the Persian way of life.
The Arabic language almost
disappeared from Persia,
except among the religious
scholars.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 3: “Turks Create an Empire” Packet, p. 6 Textbook, p. 280
Malik Shah, the most famous of the Seljuk sultans (rulers)
often appointed Persians to serve in his government offices.
He began using the title “Shah” – the Persian word for “king.”
He even allowed a Persian to serve as his government’s
Prime Minister, or vizier.
6. Malik Shah, the last of the strong
Seljuk leaders dies.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
No capable Shah to replace him,
and the Seljuk empire
quickly disintegrated into
a collection of small
petty kingdoms.
CH 11, Sec. 3: “Turks Create an Empire” Packet, p. 6 Textbook, p. 281
1099 – The First Crusade was the only successful Crusade for the Western Christians. In this year,
they did retake Jerusalem – and massacred thousands of the Jewish and Muslims inhabitants.
1187 – Christian European rule in Jerusalem ends. Muslim Turks retake Holy Land.
7. The Seljuks fight back against the
Crusaders after a century of
domination.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Led by Saladin, the Muslims
recovered Jerusalem from
the Christian Crusaders and
signed a truce with King
Richard the Lion-hearted of
England.
Saladin was the leader of the Seljuk Turks
who defeated the western Christian Crusader
armies at Jerusalem in 1187 and forced the
Christian king Richard the Lion-hearted of
England to sign a truce.
The agreement gave Jerusalem to the Muslims
but granted Western Christians the right to
access Christian Holy Places in Palestine.
CH 11, Sec. 3: “Turks Create an Empire” Packet, p. 6 Textbook, p. 281
1099 – The First Crusade was the only successful Crusade for the Western Christians. In this year,
they did retake Jerusalem – and massacred thousands of the Jewish and Muslims inhabitants.
1187 – Christian European rule in Jerusalem ends. Muslim Turks retake Holy Land.
8. Further Crusades occur, but each
is weaker than the last one.
The threat to the Turks from the
western European Christians
eventually passed.
New Threat to Turks Comes not from West but from the East!
THE MONGOLS
1258 – Genghis Khan’s grandson Hulagu takes Baghdad and has thousands of people killed.
Read what Hulagu did to the Abbasid caliph…
See Textbook, p. 281
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 11, Sec. 3: “Turks Create an Empire” Packet, p. 6 Textbook, p. 281
1187 – Christian European rule in Jerusalem ends. Muslim Turks retake Holy Land.
1258 – Genghis Khan’s grandson Hulagu takes Baghdad and has thousands of people killed.
THE MONGOLS
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CHAPTER 11 TEST TOMORROW
• STUDY the Section 1 and Section 2 quizzes
• SKIM over Textbook Chapter
• SKIM over your notes !
CHAPTER 11 TEST TODAY
Open Textbook to CH. 11 and skim it over.
Look over your Quizzes
Look over your Packet notes….
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