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Napoleon Bonaparte

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Napoleon Bonaparte
Emperor of France
1769 - 1821
Learning Objectives for the Unit
 Describe Napoleon Bonaparte’s rise to power
пЃ· Identify the characteristics of Napoleon
пЃ· Recognize the military tactics that Napoleon used
to conqueror and annex land
пЃ· Analyze the painting by Jacque Louis David,
“Napoleon in his Study”
пЃ· List the political reforms that Napoleon
established in French Society
 Describe the rise and fall of Napoleon – causes
for the downfall and defeat at Waterloo
Napoleon’s Rise to Power
 Military Training – 9 yrs
 Lieutenant – 20 yrs. Old
 Brigadier General –
24 yrs. Old
– Capture of Toulon
– Military Success
 1795 – Saves the
Directory –
nicknamed the
“Savior of France”
Napoleon Gains
Political Control
 1798 – Egyptian
Campaign is a failure
пЃ· Arrives in France to
find out he is still a
hero of France
 1799 – Plans to
overthrow Directory
and later names
himself “first consul”
“Napoleon in his Study”
by Jacque Louis David
пЃ· Characteristics of
Napoleon Bonaparte
– Determined
– Power Hungry
– “Military Genius”
– Dedicated to his Work
– Meticulous
– Self- Sufficient
– Demanding
– Highly Respected by his
Soldiers
Josephine & Napoleon
 Napoleon “truly”
loved Josephine
пЃ· While Napoleon was
on his Military
Campaigns she was
unfaithful to him
пЃ· However, he did take
her back for a period
of time.
Military Strategies
пЃ· Napoleon Bonaparte
– Adapted to battle field
– Use tactics that would
work best
– Make offensive moves
– Keep the army wellsupplied and
encourage them that
they will win the fight!
Napoleon’s Tactics
“Military Genius”
 Divide and Conquer – Split the enemy in
two and flank them from one side.
пЃ· The enemy will be literally half the size
after the one side is annihilated
 Reconnaissance – Search for gaps
пЃ· Concentrate artillery fire on these gaps
пЃ· Napoleon increased the use of artillery
Napoleon – Building an Empire
 Annexed Land – added
areas to France
пЃ· Netherlands, Belgium,
parts of Italy, and
Germany
пЃ· Napoleon conquered most
of Europe
пЃ· Was this enough
for Napoleon?
Coronation of Napoleon
Bonaparte
 Napoleon’s actions
during the Coronation
were very symbolic
пЃ· He took the crown off
of the Pope and
placed it on himself
пЃ· Symbolized that he
does not owe his
success to anyone
Napoleon’s Problems with
Great Britain
 Battle of Trafalgar –
Goal – End trade
between England and
Europe
 Heratio Nelson –
British admiral of
Navy
 Great Britain’s Navy
was too strong
The Napoleonic Code
Political Reforms in France
пЃ· Equality of all in the eyes of the law
пЃ· No recognition of birthright (nobility)
пЃ· Freedom of Religion
пЃ· Freedom to find an occupation of choice
пЃ· Strengthened the role of the family
– Emphasis on the husband/father as the head of
the family
Napoleonic Code
Strengths and Weaknesses
пЃ· Strengths
пЃ· Weaknesses
– Guaranteed civil
– Women could not vote
liberties
– Continued the social
aims towards the
French Revolution
– Protected the interest
of the middle class
– Wife owed obedience
to her husband
– Minors had few rights
– Males were given
more freedoms than
Women in French
Society
Napoleon in Power
“Order, Security, and Efficiency”
 Concordat of 1801 – Peace with the Church
– Recognizes Catholic Church and religious toleration
 Napoleonic Code – Reflects Enlightenment ideas
– All MEN are Equal
– The state is more important than one man
– Order and Authority over individual rights.
 Economic Reforms in France – Controlled prices – Improved Transportation
– Public Schools – Abolished Serfdom
Napoleon’s Empire 1812
Napoleon’s Downfall
 Russian Campaign –
– Failure (500,000 lives)
– Lacked Supplies
– Harsh Russian Winter
пЃ· Napoleon Exiled to
island of Elba
пЃ· Forced to abdicate the
throne to King Louis
XVIII
Napoleon Invades Russia
Napoleon Escapes from Elba
“Last 100 Days”
пЃ· Napoleon escapes from
Elba and returns to
France
пЃ· Rebuilds Military
пЃ· Soldiers are Loyal to
Napoleon not the King
пЃ· King Louis XVIII flees
and Napoleon regains
power
Battle of Waterloo - 1815
пЃ· Town in Belgium
named Waterloo
 Napoleon’s army –
short lived triumph
пЃ· British and Prussian
forces crushes France
пЃ· Napoleon forced to
exile in St. Helena
Success or Failure?
Hero or Villain?
пЃ· Won many victories
at the tactical and
strategic level
пЃ· Strategic Greed may
have caused his
downfall
пЃ· Rise of Nationalism in
French Society
Napoleon the “True Leader”
 Morale – Napoleon knew his soldiers on a first
name basis – He gained their respect by fighting!
– “All men who value life more than the glory of the
nation and the esteem of their comrades should not be
members of the French army.”
– “If you should see for the moment uncertain of
victory, your emperor will be on the front line.”
“Control man’s imagination & you
control their heart and soul..”
Napoleon Bonaparte
Legacy of the Revolution
пЃ· Influenced other
countries to demand:
– Constitution
– Individual Rights
– Liberty and Equality
– Strong beliefs in
Nationalism
– Desire to break away
from foreign rule
Other Influences of the
Napoleonic Era and French Rev
пЃ· Serfdom and
Feudalism abolished
everywhere (ex.
Russia)
пЃ· Religious Toleration ^
пЃ· Modern Warfare
“nations at arms”
пЃ· Louisiana Purchase
пЃ· LA fights for indepen.
 In France– Public Schools
– Merit
– Law codes (civil rights
– National bank
– Public Works
– Draft for national
army
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