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Bruce A. Bracken, pH The University of Memphis R. Steve McCallum

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Nonverbal Intelligence Among Asian-Pacific
Islander Children in the United States
Bruce A. Bracken, Ph.D
The College of William & Mary
A Diverse Population with Diverse Needs
Race/Ethnicity
Number
White
222,104,000
African American
34,143,000
Native American
2,338,000
Asian/Pacific Islanders
10,181,000
Hispanic Origin (any race) 28,802,000
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Internet Release Date 2/6/98.
Percent of Total
82.6
12.7
0.9
3.8
11.1
A Rapidly Shifting World Population:
The U.S. is Still a Melting Pot
One out of every 10 people in the U.S.A. is
foreign-born.
Of the nation’s total foreign-born population,
• 68% are White
• 24% Asian/Pacific Islander
• 8% African American
• More than 40% are Hispanic.
Through 2020, the Asian/Pacific Islander
population is expected to grow faster than the
nation’s other race groups
Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health:
Culture, Race, and Ethnicity
Asian Americans / Pacific Islanders
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Approximately 4% Population
• 17% live in the South
• 29% live in the Northeast and Midwest
• 54% live in the West
At risk conditions (approximately…)
• Speak over 100 languages and dialects
• 35% in ESL households … Linguistically Isolated
• 61% Hmong
• 56% Cambodian
• 52% Laotian
• 40-44% Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese
• High refugee rate
* Low incidence of homeless, substance abuse, incarceration
Historical IQ Differences Between Asian and
Caucasian Examinees
Lynn (1991) Review of the literature
East Asians living in U.S. Median IQ = 103
Chan & Vernon (1988)
Raven IQ of students in Hong Kong = 110
Stevenson, Stigler, Lee, Lucker, Kitamura, & Hsu (1985)
Asian examinees have substantially higher Visual-Spatial
IQs than whites, with less disparate Verbal IQs
Lynn (1987)
Median Asian-American Verbal IQ = 98; Visual-Spatial
IQ = 106
Problem Statement
What are the mean score differences between matched
samples of Male and Female Asian-American and
Caucasian students on a comprehensive nonverbal
intelligence test - - a test that relies largely on a visual
modality?
What are the mean score differences in:
- Memory
- Reasoning
- Symbolic
- Nonsymbolic
- Full Scale IQ
Instrument
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Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT;
Bracken and McCallum, 1998)
Assesses intelligence in 100% nonverbal manner
Appropriate for children and adolescents, ages 5-0
to 17 – 11 years
Based on a theoretical model that emphasizes
general intelligence (g)
Also includes two primary scales (Memory and
Reasoning) and two secondary scales (Symbolic
and Nonsymbolic)
UNIT Conceptual Model
Memory
Subtests
Symbolic Symbolic Memory
Subtests Object Memory
Nonsymbolic Spatial Memory
Subtests
Reasoning
Subtests
Analogic
Reasoning
Cube Design
Mazes
Symbolic Memory Subtest
Cube Design Subtest
Spatial Memory Subtest
Analogic Reasoning
Object Memory
Mazes Subtest
UNIT Standardization Sample
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Normed on 2,100 children and adolescents ages
5.0 to 17.11 years
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108 sites across 38 states
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Sample representative of the general USA population
UNIT Internal Consistency
Split-Half Correlations
with Spearman-Brown Corrections
Standard
Battery
Memory
Reasoning
Symbolic
Nonsymbolic
Full Scale
Average
Reliability
Clinical/
Exceptional
Sample
.88
.90
.87
.91
.93
.95
.96
.95
.97
.98
Loadings on “g” and Common, Specific, and
Error Variance for UNIT Subtests
“g”
Loading
Average
Reliability
Common
Variance
Specific
Variance
Error
Variance
Symbolic Memory
.72
.85
52%
33%
15%
Cube Design
.74
.91
54%
37%
9%
Spatial Memory
.78
.81
60%
20%
19%
Analogic Reasoning
.72
.78
52%
26%
21%
Object Memory
.70
.76
49%
27%
24%
Mazes
.45
.64
20%
44%
35%
UNIT Standard FSIQ Correlations
with Other Intelligence Tests
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WISC-III FSIQ across four samples
(Learning Disabled, Mentally Retarded,
Intellectually Gifted, and Native American)
r
.81–.84
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WJ-R Tests of Cognitive Ability BCA (Est):
.83
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K-BIT IQ Composite:
.82
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Raven’s Standard
Progressive Matrices T-Score:
.56
TONI-2 Quotient:
.63
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Note: All correlations are corrected to control for restriction
or expansion in range.
Table 6.12
Mean FSIQ Differences Between Various
Samples on the UNIT Standard Battery
Sample
Males
Females
N
1,159
1,159
Mean
101.08
100.59
SD
13.87
13.72
194
194
98.32
100.45
12.73
12.54
-2.13
Native American
White
34
34
99.76
106.26
10.09
12.02
-6.50
African American
White
352
352
90.68
99.31
12.29
12.17
-8.63
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic
Difference
0.49
* Samples were matched according to age, sex, race, ethnicity, and
parent education
Asian and Caucasian Sample
Demographics
Group*
Asian
Caucasian
Total
Male
Female
32
35
32
35
64
70
5
7
8
4
7
2
8
5
4
3
7
1
5
7
8
4
7
2
8
5
4
3
7
1
10
14
16
8
14
4
16
10
8
6
14
2
Age Levels
5
6
7
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
* Samples were matched on the basis of age, gender, mothers’ and
fathers’ educational level
Analyses and Results
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Descriptive statistics (i.e., Means, SDs) by gender
and race/ethnicity
Separate Gender by Race ANOVAs for each of the
UNIT Scales (i.e., Memory, Reasoning, Symbolic,
Nonsymbolic, and Full Scale)
Post hoc analyses not needed because both gender
and race each have 1 degree of freedom
De scriptive Statistic s
RACE
As ia n
GEN DER
Ma le s
Me an
Ma le s
11 3.32 06
11 2.38 38
32
32
32
32
32
Std. Deviatio n
11 .6 81 79
12 .1 43 92
12 .9 61 48
11 .9 36 89
12 .5 13 19
Me an
10 8.42 31
10 9.34 38
10 5.39 37
10 7.84 33
10 7.12 24
35
35
35
35
35
Std. Deviatio n
15 .4 68 30
15 .0 87 72
15 .6 69 55
15 .1 78 56
15 .4 83 38
Me an
11 1.19 02
11 0.58 28
10 9.26 54
11 0.45 93
10 9.63 53
67
67
67
67
67
Std. Deviatio n
13 .9 94 92
13 .7 20 13
14 .9 01 01
13 .9 00 01
14 .2 84 83
Me an
10 4.36 90
10 4.56 35
10 4.83 69
10 2.98 49
10 4.82 13
32
32
32
32
32
Std. Deviatio n
14 .0 35 11
16 .3 64 82
14 .0 93 88
14 .4 35 86
14 .8 05 87
Me an
10 1.14 10
10 2.42 90
99 .9 71 4
10 1.20 74
10 1.20 00
35
35
35
35
35
Std. Deviatio n
18 .9 54 70
18 .5 04 94
19 .2 31 54
17 .5 50 05
18 .4 64 27
Me an
10 2.68 28
10 3.44 85
10 2.29 52
10 2.05 63
10 2.92 96
67
67
67
67
67
Std. Deviatio n
16 .7 40 55
17 .4 16 86
17 .0 24 25
16 .0 42 17
16 .7 90 35
Me an
10 9.29 29
10 8.25 07
10 9.16 84
10 8.15 27
10 8.60 26
64
64
64
64
64
Std. Deviatio n
13 .7 37 07
14 .7 70 13
14 .1 23 35
14 .1 34 62
14 .1 22 29
Me an
10 4.78 21
10 5.88 64
10 2.68 26
10 4.52 53
10 4.16 12
70
70
70
70
70
Std. Deviatio n
17 .5 60 94
17 .1 18 17
17 .6 26 43
16 .6 27 19
17 .1 76 15
Me an
10 6.93 65
10 7.01 56
10 5.78 03
10 6.25 78
10 6.28 24
13 4
13 4
13 4
13 4
13 4
15 .9 52 82
16 .0 23 94
16 .3 17 03
15 .5 36 16
15 .8 89 79
N
Fe m ales
N
To ta l
N
To ta l
Ma le s
N
Fe m ales
N
To ta l
No nsym b
Qu otie nt
11 3.50 00
N
Ca ucs ia n
Sym bo lic
Qu otie nt
11 1.93 80
N
To ta l
Rea son
Qu otie nt
11 4.21 68
N
Fe m ales
Me m ory
Qu otie nt
FSIQ
N
Std. Deviatio n
Full Scale IQ: Race by Gender ANOVA
Asians > Caucasians
Males > Females
Analysis of Variance
Dependent Variable: SMEAN(STDFSIQ)
Source
Corrected Model
Type III Sum
of Squares
df
Mean Square
a
F
Sig.
3159.919
3
1053.306
4.462
.005
1532163.430
1
1532163.430
6490.616
.000
2452.551
1
2452.551
10.390
.002
680.275
1
680.275
2.882
.092
55.018
1
55.018
.233
.630
Error
30687.573
130
236.058
Total
1566193.334
134
33847.492
133
Intercept
RACE
GEN DER
RACE * GEN DER
Corrected Total
a. R Squared = .093 (Adjusted R Squared = .072)
Memory Quotient: Race by Gender ANOVA
Asians > Caucasians
Males = Females
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: SMEAN(STDMQ)
Source
Corrected Model
Type III Sum
of Squares
df
Mean Square
1893.766a
F
Sig.
3
631.255
2.544
.059
1533052.810
1
1533052.810
6178.559
.000
1706.600
1
1706.600
6.878
.010
186.894
1
186.894
.753
.387
1.767
1
1.767
.007
.933
Error
32256.203
130
248.125
Total
1568764.064
134
34149.969
133
Intercept
RACE
GEN DER
RACE * GEN DER
Corrected Total
a. R Squared = .055 (Adjusted R Squared = .034)
Reasoning Quotient: Race by Gender ANOVA
Asians > Caucasians
Males > Females
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: SMEAN(STDR Q)
Source
Corrected Model
Type III Sum
of Squares
df
Mean Square
3121.717a
F
Sig.
3
1040.572
4.189
.007
1500494.217
1
1500494.217
6041.215
.000
RACE
1658.258
1
1658.258
6.676
.011
GEN DER
1406.401
1
1406.401
5.662
.019
87.786
1
87.786
.353
.553
Error
32288.912
130
248.376
Total
1534799.945
134
35410.629
133
Intercept
RACE * GEN DER
Corrected Total
a. R Squared = .088 (Adjusted R Squared = .067)
Symbolic Quotient: Race by Gender ANOVA
Asians > Caucasians
Males = Females
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: SMEAN(STDSQ)
Source
Corrected Model
Type III Sum
of Squares
df
Mean Square
2919.753a
F
Sig.
3
973.251
4.336
.006
1512232.383
1
1512232.383
6736.524
.000
2407.467
1
2407.467
10.725
.001
GEN DER
439.904
1
439.904
1.960
.164
RACE * GEN DER
114.409
1
114.409
.510
.477
Error
29182.739
130
224.483
Total
1545059.336
134
32102.492
133
Intercept
RACE
Corrected Total
a. R Squared = .091 (Adjusted R Squared = .070)
NonSymbolic Quotient: Race by Gender ANOVA
Asians > Caucasians
Males = Females
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: SMEAN(STDN SQ)
Source
Corrected Model
Type III Sum
of Squares
df
Mean Square
2188.359a
F
Sig.
3
729.453
3.021
.032
1513451.488
1
1513451.488
6267.441
.000
1519.868
1
1519.868
6.294
.013
659.497
1
659.497
2.731
.101
22.484
1
22.484
.093
.761
Error
31392.190
130
241.478
Total
1547238.873
134
33580.550
133
Intercept
RACE
GEN DER
RACE * GEN DER
Corrected Total
a. R Squared = .065 (Adjusted R Squared = .044)
Conclusions
•
Asian-American students scored higher than
Caucasians on all aspects of intelligence when
assessed in a nonverbal manner and samples were
matched on important demographic variables (e.g.,
age, gender, parent education level).
•
Males scored higher on Reasoning scale than
females
•
Consistent with literature, Asian students scored
approximately 10 IQ points higher than Caucasian
students when instrument employs a visual-spatial
presentation.
•
Next steps…. To assess Asian students in their
native countries with the UNIT and compare with
matched sample of Asian-American students.
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