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+ Overview of NASA ARMD Aircraft Emissions Research

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NASA Aircraft Particle Emission Research:
Highlights and Future Work
Bruce Anderson
Science Directorate
Langley Research Center
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 1
Sponsoring Aeronautics Research
Mission Directorate Programs
Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP)
Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET)
Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Fixed Wing Project (FW)
Objectives
AEAP: Assess climate and chemical impacts of aircraft emissions
UEET: Characterize particles; assess environmental impacts
FW: Develop and validate tools for predicting emissions; evaluate
performance of drop-in, alternative aviation fuels
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 2
AEAP SNIF Experiment: 1996
Flew Instrumented T-39
within flight corridors and
behind NASA DC-8;
measured particles, H2SO4
and wake vortex motion
Particle Emissions at Cruise Altitude
B757
T38
T39
AIRCRAFT
Made detailed measurements
behind > 8 commercial
airliners; observed that volatile
aerosols dominate particle
concentrations within aged
exhaust plumes of all aircraft
DC-8
B747
B737
MD80b
MD80a
Aircraft
14
10
10
15
10
16
10
17
10
18
Particle Number EI (#/kg)
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 3
AEAP SUCCESS Experiment: 1996
NASA LaRC B757 was
flown with 70 ppmS fuel in
left wing tank and 700
ppmS in right. Exhaust
was sampled from T-39
NONVOLATILE
TOTAL CN
B757 Particle Emissions
10000000
high sulfur
1000000
Particle concentrations
were 10 to 20 times
greater within the high S
exhaust plume
low sulfur
100000
10000
soot
1000
75020
5/4/96
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
75030
75040
75050
75060
75070
75080
UNIVERSAL TIME
27 November 2013 - 4
AEAP SNIF-III Experiment: 1997
Flew T-39 behind F16
aircraft from NJ and
Vermont ANG; burned
JP-8 with varying levels
of Sulfur
Confirmed that sulfur
plays significant role in
regulating volatile particle
emissions
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 5
SNIF-III/PSL F100 Comparison: 1997
F 1 0 0 P articu late E m issio n s
E m ission Index (1E 15/kg)
10
A irborne
> 4 nm
1
A irborne
> 16 nm
0 .1
T est C ell
> 10 nm
0 .0 1
JP 8+ 100
JP 8
Low _S ul
M ed_S ul
H igh_S ul
F u el T yp e
Same engines, same fuels—Vastly different results. Why?
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 6
AEAP Particle Measurement Workshop: 1999
Lab Phase: Compared
measurements from all groups
involved in AEAP airborne
and ground-based test venues;
Instrument saturation a
common problem
T -38 E m ission Index at 1 M eter
U sing nA S A D ata
10
17
Field Phase: Compared inlet probes
and sampling systems while
sampling T-38: identified particle
losses within inlet tips and sample
lines as a huge, unaccounted for
problem
E m issio n In d ex (# /k g )
afterburner
10
10
16
L aR C P robe
X P robe w /o H 2O
15
X P robe w /H 2O
10
14
40
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
60
80
E ngine P ow er (% )
100
27 November 2013 - 7
AEAP/SONEX DC-8 Flight Campaign: 1998
Based in Shannon and Bangor, project examined pollution in North Atlantic flight corridor
S O N E X M IS S IO N 1 6
100
1 .0
80
R eactive N itrogen (ppbv)
U ltrafine A erosols (1000/cm 3)
H ig h A ltitu d e F lig h t C o rrid o r
0 .6
NOy
60
0 .2
40
-0 .2
Uf
20
-0 .6
0
-1 .0
41300
41500
41400
T im e
NOy and CN times series in crossing
Aircraft plume crossings (+) at altitude
1 .0
N orm alized Frequency
N um ber of Plum es
50
40
30
20
10
N o n v o la tile C N
U ltra fin e C N
F in e C N
0 .8
0 .6
0 .4
0 .2
0
0
14
1000
3000
10000
10
30000
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
16
10
17
10
18
10
E m issio n In d e x (# /k g )
A p p ro x im ate A g e (sec)
Ages estimated from NOy dilution
15
10
Histograms of CN number EIs for 223 plumes
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 8
AEAP/UEET EXCAVATE: 2002
NASA LaRC B757
Rolls Royce RB211-535E4
40,100 lbs thrust
Fuels: 810, 1050, 1820 ppmS
Inlets: 1, 10, 25, 35 m
Powers: 6,23,45,60,75%
1E17
EXCAVATE observations of
B757 particle mass, size and
number emissions consistent
with SUCCESS measurements
at cruise altitudes
Aerosol Number EI (#/kg)
High Sulfur Fuel
1E16
25 m Inlet Probe
1E15
1 m Inlet Probe
1E14
0
20
40
60
80
100
Percent Max Thrust
=> Careful ground measurements representative of airborne emissions
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 9
UEET APEX-1: 2004
Aircraft: NASA Dryden DC-8
Engine: CFM-56
Fuels: Hi, Lo S; Hi Aromatic
Inlets: 1, 10, 30 m
Powers: 4,7,30,45,65,85,100%
COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT
1E17
High Sulfur Fuel
Results consistent with previous
airborne and ground-based
measurements; set the stage for
systematic collection of data from a
broader range of aircraft and
engines with wide community
support
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Aerosol Number EI (#/kg)
30 m Inlet Probe
1E16
1E15
1 m Inlet Probe
1E14
Fixed Wing Project
0
20
40
60
80
100
Percent Max Thrust
27 November 2013 - 10
UEET Engine Studies: 2005
JETS/APEX-2
Oakland CA; Aug �05
Four Southwest 737’s with
CFM-56-3-B1 or CFM567B24 Engines
APEX-3
Cleveland; November ’05
9 Aircraft
CFM-56-3, CJ610, AE3007A1E, PW4158, RB211-535E4
Engines
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 11
FAP Particle Emission Foci: 2006-2008
1. Improve measurement techniques/develop standard approach
-validate line-loss model; use predictions to optimize sampling system
-select and characterize best set of instruments
-develop better techniques for sampling combustor emissions
-develop approach for calibrating instruments and sampling systems
2. Develop better understanding of soot emissions
-characterize morphology and microphysical properties of engine soot
-investigate pressure, fuel atomization, fuel/air ratio effects in combustor
-determine fuel matrix dependencies
-verify that sector=>annular combustor=>engine
-develop soot inception model; validate; incorporate into NCC
3. Develop better understanding of volatile aerosol formation and growth
-identify volatile aerosol constituents (oil, unburned HC, sulfate, etc.)
-investigate effects of fuel, ambient conditions, engine operation etc.
-further develop and validate volatile aerosol model
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 12
FAP Sampling System Characterization: 2006
Using “Start Cart” as an emission
source, compared relative
penetration efficiencies of a
variety of sample inlet probes
#1 – APEX3
gas
#3 – APEX3
Aerosol
#5 – Engine
Aerosol
Probes were mounted on cross bar
suspended over engine exhaust.
Examined probes from most
#4 – straight-thru
recent experiments conducted by
UTRC and NASA; Results still
pending
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
#2 – APEX3
loop
#7 – test
Aerosol
#8 – APEX1
aerosol
#6 – APEX3
aerosol
27 November 2013 - 13
FAP Sampling System Characterization: 2006
LaRC, July lab study
Using combustion source,
measured transmission losses
through sampling systems
used in APEX and QL tests;
Compared sizing instruments
GRC, November Study
Measured particle
transmission through inlet
probes and sampling
lines; intercompared more
than a dozen particle
instruments
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 14
JSF Quick-look Tests: 2006
Sponsored by DOD and
conducted at PW West Palm
Beach Facility to evaluate
emissions from new JointStrike Fighter Engines.
Experiments examined
procedures for sampling
particles from high velocity,
high temperature, exhaust
plumes and led to
improvements in inlet probes
and sample transport systems
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 15
Tinker AFB Tests of F-100 Engine: 2007
Conducted at Tinker AFB
in Oklahoma and
sponsored by SERDP, the
project used a tes-stand
mounted F100 engine to
test new methods of
sampling aircraft engine
exhaust.
Findings suggest that heated
sampling lines produce additional
losses, probably due to
thermophoresis, not seen in lines
operated at ambient temperature.
Sampling Line Transmission Efficiency
Aerosol Transport Line A
110
100
COLD
90
80
70
HOT
60
50
10
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
100
Particle Diameter (nm)
27 November 2013 - 16
Fixed-Wing Environmental Foci: 2008-2015
1. Investigate the performance and emissions of alternative fuels
-Characterize fuel thermodynamic and combustion properties in lab tests
-Examine fuel impacts on soot formation in flame-tube experiments
-Examine fuel effects on performance and emissions in on-wing studies
-Examine fuel effects on APU emissions
2. Develop understanding of factors controling contrail ice formation
Using SE-11 altitude simulation chamber:
-Examine effects of soot size and concentration on ice nucleation
-Investigate effects of sulfate and organic coatings on soot ice nucleation
-Determine influence of background aerosols on contrail formation
-Using APU soot generator, examine fuel effects on contrail formation
3. Determine how fuel properties effect contrails and cruise emissions
Using instrumented aircraft:
-obtain PM and ice measurements in exhaust aircraft burning standard
and blended alternative fuels
-Evaluate the role of fuel sulfur and soot concentrations on ice properties
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 17
Ultra-High Bypass Engine Test: 2007-2008
Conducted at the Pratt and Whitney test facility in West Palm Beach,
the test examined emissions from a high-bypass engine and included
a number of runs using a blend of JP-8 and Fischer-Tropsch fuel.
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 18
PW308 Emissions Test: 2008
Conducted at the Pratt and Whitney test facility in West Palm Beach,
the test examined emissions from a small turbofan engine and included
a number of runs using a blend of JP-8 and Fischer-Tropsch fuel.
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 19
Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-1): 2009
NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing Project
Objectives
• Create gaseous and particulate
emission profiles as a function of fueltype and engine power;
• Investigate the factors that control
volatile aerosol formation and growth
• Establish aircraft APU emission
characteristics and examine their
dependence on fuel composition
• Evaluate new instruments and
sampling techniques
Huge PM Emissions Reductions Seen when Using Alt Fuels
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 20
Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-2): 2011
NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing Project
Objectives
• Evaluate alt fuel effects on engine
performance and fuel-handling equipment
• Determine the effects of HRJ fuels on
engine PM and gas phase emissions
• Investigate the role of sulfur in regulating
volatile aerosol formation in engine exhaust
plumes
• Examine exhaust plume chemical evolution
• Conduct tests to support SAE E-31
development of standard exhaust sampling
methods
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
80
Relative Particle Number Emissoins
Summary of Findings
•
Negligible effect of fuel type on engine
performance, but some slight fuel system
leakage with neat HRJ and F-T fuels
•
Alt fuels greatly reduce black carbon number
and mass emissions and volatile particle
formation in exhaust plume
•
High fuel sulfur promotes rapid volatile particle
formation in exhaust, but downstream aerosol
number EIs do not vary linearly with fuel sulfur
content
•
Sulfate aerosols create nucleation mode and
coat soot particles to enhance solubility
Fixed Wing Project
60
40
Total Particles
Nonvolatile
20
0
15:36:38 15:38:18 15:39:58 15:41:38 15:43:18 15:44:58
Local Time
27 November 2013 - 21
SE-11 Altitude Chamber Experiments: 2010-present
NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing Project
Tests examine the links between soot emissions/properties and ice formation
Vacuum
Exhaust
Chamber
Liquid
Nitrogen
OPC
Flow
control
valves
OPC
Xenon Source
OPC
Vaporizer/
Heat
Exchanger
Spectrometer
Humidifier
P ~ 1 atm, T~673 K
Simulated
Exhaust
Emissions
• Flow-through chamber can simulate conditions up to 50,000 ft
• Particles monitored using Optical Particle Counters and Light Scattering
•Bruce
Can
control
soot size, number density,
coatings
Fixed Wing and
Project sulfate and organic 27
November 2013 - 22
Anderson,
NASA LaRC
SE-11 Altitude Chamber Experiments: 2010-present
NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing Project
High PM Concentrations Required for Ice Formation
“Contrail” visible for CN > 1e6/cm3
Exhaust
Jet
Light
Source
Soot
4% RH
• Tests are being conducted with partial FAA sponsorship and in collaboration
with Aerodyne, which is using the data to validate contrail model
• Tests explore particle size and solubility effects on ice formation
• New APU particle source will allow us to study alternative fuel-effects on
contrails
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 23
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise
Emissions (ACCESS-1): 2013
NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing Project
Accomplishments
•
Field mission initiated February 19 in Palmdale, completed April 13, 2013
•
Conducted 5 successful contrail sampling flights, with Falcon collecting
measurements behind DC-8 as it burned both JP-8 and blended alternative fuels
•
Completed 4-hour-long DC-8 ground study, collecting detailed aerosol and gas
emissions data as the aircraft burned blended and JP-8 fuel at a range of power
settings
•
Completed ground-station fly-bys to verify instrument calibrations
•
Conducted two-day study of aircraft emissions at LAX, collecting idle, takeoff and
landing data from multiple airframe/engine combinations
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 24
Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise
Emissions (ACCESS-1): 2013
NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing Project
Significant Results
•
•
Mass Emissions Index
-1
50:50 JP8-HEFA
Blend
160
NH4
NO3
Black Carbon (BC)
Org
SO4
140
(mg kg-fuel )
Mass Emissions Index
Pure160JP8
120
100
80
60
40
20
NH4
NO3
Black Carbon (BC)
Org
SO4
140
-1
•
Burning a 50:50 blend of HEFA and standard jet fuel JP-8 does not degrade gas-turbine
engine performance on the ground or at cruise altitudes, hence blended fuel is a suitable,
drop-in substitute for standard petroleum fuel
Blended fuel does not reduce engine NOx or CO production, but does slightly decrease
total hydrocarbon emissions at low engine powers
Black carbon mass and number emissions are reduced 30 to 50% in both ground and
cruise altitude operations when burning the alternative fuel blend compared to burning
standard jet fuel.
Total aerosol mass emissions are reduced by more than 50% at cruise altitudes due to
large reductions in sulfate, organics, and black carbon
(mg kg-fuel )
•
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
10
20
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
30
40
50
60
Engine Power (%)
70
10
80
Fixed Wing Project
20
30
40
50
60
Engine Power (%)
70
80
27 November 2013 - 25
ACCESS-II: May 2014
NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing Project
NRC T-33
ACCESS-II will
engage international
partners to examine
fuel effects on cruise
emissions and contrail
LaRC HU-25 Facon properties
Fixed Wing Project
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
DLR Falcon 20
DFRC DC-8
27 November 2013 - 26
Future Research
NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing Project
•
•
SE-11 APU fuel tests to:
пѓј Establish Black Carbon (BC) concentrations and
characteristics as a function of fuel aromatichydrocarbon/hydrogen content
пѓј Investigate fuel sulfur oxidation and volatile
particle formation
пѓј Examine the links between soot characteristics
and cloud and ice nucleation potential
Sample contrails in national airspace to:
пѓј Establish range of BC concentrations and
characteristics in exhaust from a wide range
of modern aircraft
пѓј Examine the links between BC properties
and contrail ice concentrations and microphysical characteristics
пѓј Investigate the evolution of exhaust PM and
contrail ice over minutes to hours as plumes
mix with background air
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 27
Future Research
NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing Project
•
•
Sample taxi, approach and takeoff plumes at
airports to:
пѓј Establish the range of PM number and mass
emissions from next generation aircraft
burning current fuels
пѓј Determine the composition and CCN potential
of aged aircraft PM emissions
пѓј Further examine the links between fuel sulfur
and volatile particle formation
Conduct ground and airborne exhaust
sampling experiments with modern
aircraft burning alternative fuels to:
пѓј Establish detailed PM emission
factors for next generation of
aircraft engines
пѓј Examine effects of low PM
emissions on contrail ice and
radiation characteristics
Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC
Fixed Wing Project
27 November 2013 - 28
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