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Early Years Evidence

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Evidence on the Early Years
Ian Storrie
COSLA
March 2010
Evidence on Early Years
• Teaching grandmother to suck
eggs
Evidence on Early Years
• Teaching grandmother to suck
eggs is a saying, meaning that a
person is giving advice to someone else
about a subject that they already know
about (and probably more than the first
person)
• Cannot afford to assume that Granny
already knows
Reasons to Intervene
• Moral Imperative
Reasons to Intervene
•
“The crucial importance of the first five years in a child’s
development is well recognised” p45
•
“The active interest of parents in their children’s education is
associated with higher measured attainment.” p46
•
“Being disadvantaged does not of itself explain why children do
less well.” p53
•
“......when arguing for a curriculum appropriate to a child’s
community, teachers need to be sensitive to the social and moral
climate in which their children are growing up.” p57
•
To achieve a community-oriented curriculum..”..it could take years
and will require a generous and sympathetic change of heart, not
only among educational authorities but in society at large.” p57
Born to Fail - 1973
•
“The crucial importance of the first five years in a child’s
development is well recognised” p45
•
“The active interest of parents in their children’s education is
associated with higher measured attainment.” p46
•
“Being disadvantaged does not of itself explain why children do
less well.” p53
•
“......when arguing for a curriculum appropriate to a child’s
community, teachers need to be sensitive to the social and moral
climate in which their children are growing up.” p57
•
To achieve a community-oriented curriculum..”..it could take years
and will require a generous and sympathetic change of heart, not
only among educational authorities but in society at large.” p57
Reasons to Intervene
• Moral Imperative – Not enough?
• Science
– 1972 Dunedin, New Zealand
Dunedin Experiment (Not the
real name)
• 1,000 3 year old children observed over
90 minutes by nurses
• The nurses identified an �at risk’ group
based upon
– Restlessness
– Negativity
– Lack of persistence and attention
Dunedin - @21
• 47% abused their partners, compared with
10% of the control group
• Three times as many antisocial personalities
• 2.5 times as many had two or more criminal
convictions
– 55% of the offences were violent compared with
18%
• 30% of the at risk women had teenage
pregnancies compared with zero.
Reasons to Intervene
• Moral Imperative – Not enough?
• Science
– 1972 Dunedin, New Zealand
– Dr Bruce Perry
Bruce Perry – Brain
Development
Physical connections between neurons – synaptic
connections - increase and strengthen through
repetition or wither through disuse...early life
experiences, therefore, determine how genetic
potential is expressed, or not...
During the first years of life, the higher parts of the
brain become organised and more functionally
capable. Brain growth and development is profoundly
“front loaded” such that, by age four, a child’s brain is
90% adult size. This time of great opportunity is a
biological gift.
Bruce Perry – Brain
Development
Physical connections between neurons – synaptic
connections - increase and strengthen through
repetition or wither through disuse...early life
experiences, therefore, determine how genetic
potential is expressed, or not...
During the first years of life, the higher parts of the
brain become organised and more functionally
capable. Brain growth and development is
profoundly “front loaded” such that, by
age four, a child’s brain is 90% adult size.
This time of great opportunity is a biological gift.
Bruce Perry – Brain
Development
Source:The Margaret McCain lectures series, Inaugural lecture by Bruce D. Perry,
Maltreatment and the Developing Child, 2004
Schools and teachers are important but our
parents, and what happens before we reach
school, are more significant. It is estimated
that by the age of three, 50% of our language
is in place. At five, it’s 85%.
Language is either there or missing by the
time a child starts primary school. And once a
child starts primary school, they are only
there for 15% of their time.
Source: Wishart R, Herald, 13 June 2006
Reasons to Intervene
• Moral Imperative – Not enough?
• Science
– 1972 Dunedin, New Zealand
– Dr Bruce Perry
• Economics
– James Heckman
9/23/2014
Rate of return to investment in human capital
Rates of Return to Human Capital Investment at
Different Ages: Return to an Extra Dollar at Various
Ages
Programs targeted towards the earliest years
Preschool programs
Schooling
Job training
0-3
4-5
Preschool
0
Post-school
School
Age
16
The pattern of public spending
on education over the life
cycle, 2002/3
Source: Alakeson V, Too Much, Too Late: Life chances and spending on education and training,
Social Market Foundation 2005
Heckman Summary
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
9/23/2014
The economic returns to early investments are high.
They promote efficiency and reduce inequality.
The returns to later interventions are much lower.
Skill begets skill and early skill makes later skill acquisition easier.
Remedial programs in the adolescent and young adult years are much
more costly in producing the same level of skill attainment in
adulthood.
Children from advantaged environments by and large receive
substantial early investment. Children from disadvantaged
environments more often do not.
There is a strong case for public support for funding interventions in
early childhood for disadvantaged children.
Yet Social market Foundation finds we spend the
opposite
18
Reasons to Intervene
• Moral Imperative – Not enough?
• Science
– 1972 Dunedin, New Zealand
– Dr Bruce Perry
• Economics
– James Heckman
– Perry Pre-School
Perry Pre-School Programme
• 1962 Inner City Chicago
• Three year olds – 2 year programme
– Pre-School 5 ½ days a week
– 1 ½ hour weekly home visit
• Then nothing
• 123 children
– 58 intervention
– 65 no pre-school
• Followed up 3-11, then 14, 15, 19, 27 and 40
Perry Preschool Program
IQ, by age and treatment group
9/23/2014
21
Perry Preschool Program
Educational effects, by treatment
group
9/23/2014
22
Perry Preschool Program
Economic effects at age 27, by
treatment group
9/23/2014
23
Perry Preschool Program
Arrests per person before age 40, by
treatment group
9/23/2014
24
Perry Preschool Program
IQ, by age and treatment group
9/23/2014
25
Sources of �Ammunition’
• GUS – Growing Up in Scotland
• EPPE – Effective Provision of PreSchool Education
• 0-5: How Small Children Make a Big
Difference
• Early Years Framework Evidence
Papers
Some Hyperlinks
• http://www.crfr.ac.uk/gus/
• http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/everychildmatters/rese
arch/keyresearch/earlyyearschildcare0910/ep
pe/eppe/
• http://www.theworkfoundation.com/research/p
ublications/publicationdetail.aspx?oItemId=26
• http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/
06/evidence
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