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KING HOB - historyatplockton

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�King Hob’: King Nobody
We will be exploring Robert the
Bruce’s first year as King.
Bruce’s first year as King was a disaster! He
was defeated, his wife and children were
captured by Edward, and three of his brothers
were executed. The English called him �King
Hob’ as he seemed to have none of the control
expected of a King.
Explain why Bruce was
called King Hob.
Bruce defeated at Methven Wood
19th June, 1306
• Bruce hid his men in the wood ready to attack
Perth.
• English showed up in the morning and
attacked by surprise.
RESULT =
• Leading supporters captured & executed
• Ordinary people deserted Bruce.
Defeated again: Dalry
th
11
July, 1306
• Bruce and followers were fleeing towards
mountains of Argyll.
• MacDougall (son-in-law of Comyn) and men
attacked as Bruce passed his territory.
RESULT =
2nd defeat; Bruce forced to leave Scotland.
Kildrummy Castle: September, 1306
• Bruce and followers were fleeing towards
mountains of Argyll.
• MacDougall (son-in-law of Comyn) and men
attacked as Bruce passed his territory.
RESULT =
2nd defeat; Bruce forced to leave Scotland.
Kildrummy Castle: September, 1306
• Nigel Bruce and Earl of Atholl took the female
members of Bruce’s family to the safety of this
Aberdeenshire castle.
• The English besieged and the castle
surrendered.
RESULT =
• Nigel Bruce captured & executed
• Earl of Atholl escaped with the ladies.
After the English siege Kildrummy and while Atholl and the
ladies made their way further north, they were captured by the
English.
• Elizabeth Bruce (wife): House Arrest
• Marjorie Bruce (daughter): Imprisoned in Tower of
London
• Mary Bruce (sister): Open cage hanging from
Roxburgh castle
• Isabella, Countess of Buchan: Open cage hanging from
Berwick castle
• Earl of Atholl: Executed.
• RESULT = EVERYTHING OF IMPORTANCE TAKEN.
EDWARD SHOWN TO BE MORE POWERFUL.
Raid on Carrick: 10th February 1307
• Bruce and brothers (Alexander & Thomas)
landed at Carrick in an attempt to gain more
support. But, they were immediately attacked
by the English garrison.
RESULT =
• Thomas and Alexander were captured and
executed
• Robert Bruce had fled
Describe Bruce’s
recovery.
Guerrilla tactics
Bruce would no longer fight on open ground. He
would use:
• Spreading fear and panic
• Surprise
• Mobility
• Small scale fights
• Scorched earth
• Dismantling castles
Glen Trool, April 1307
• Bruce’s HQ was here. English found out &
made their way to attack Bruce. Bruce and his
men attacked.
RESULT:
• English sustained heavy losses
• Scots win
• Gained more supporters
• Now set up HQ at Galston
Loundon Hill, May 1307
• Edward sent army to Galston. So, Bruce
retreated to Loundon. Why? Backed English
into small area.
RESULT:
• English sustained heavy losses
• Bruce heads north to continue campaign
Death of Edward I,
th
7
July 1307
• En route to Scotland to �sort Bruce out’, Edward
died near Carlisle. Edward II was not as interested
in Scotland as his father.
RESULT:
• Edward II led his army to Cumnock and turned
homewards.
• English garrisons left without leadership.
• Bruce no longer had a strong English competitor
& could abuse Edward II’s neglect of Scotland.
Defeating the Comyns, 1307-1309
Herschip of Galloway – south west
Herschip of Buchan – north east
Battle of the Pass of Brander
Destroying Castles
Bruce destroyed castles such as Perth in order
to:
- Prevent the English from controlling Scottish
castles
- Bruce’s men could be redirected from trying
to gain control of castles to fighting the
English in another way.
Bruce claimed the throne of Scotland for himself
after murdering the Red Comyn in a church!
English called Bruce �King Hob’ meaning King
Nobody! 1306 was a disastrous year for him.
Bruce's sister, Mary, was kept in a cage in
Roxburgh Castle. Isabella, Countess of Buchan,
who had crowned Bruce, was placed in a cage in
Berwick Castle. Both were there for four years
open to the public. His wife was put under house
arrest and twelve year old daughter was
imprisoned in the Tower of London.
How fully does Source A explain why Bruce
was called �King Hob’ in the first year of his
reign as King of Scotland? (6)
Source A is an extract from �The Wars of Scotland’ by
Dr Michael Brown, 2004.
After Carrick, Bruce changed his plans. He decided not
to fight his enemies in open battle because he knew he
could not confront the well equipped English army
head on. Instead he took to the hills and waged
guerrilla war, to harass the English and spread fear and
panic. Speed, surprise, mobility, small scale fights,
scorched earth, dismantling castles were all features of
this campaign for the next 7 years.
Assess the usefulness of Source A as evidence of
Bruce’s recovery after 1306.
5
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