Robert Bruce вЂў Robert Bruce was named Guardian of Scotland in1298 after WallaceвЂ™s defeat вЂў However, this was only to last a 12 month period in which he had a disagreement with John Comyn over the re-establishing of King John вЂў Bruce would meet with Comyn again! Robert Bruce вЂў After his disagreement with Comyn in the late 1290s, Bruce continued to fight against the English invasion. вЂў Comyn and Wallace also continued their battle against EdwardвЂ™s armies. вЂў In 1302 Bruce decided to accept EdwardвЂ™s guarantees on his families lands and ended his battle. вЂў Wallace and the ComynвЂ™s would continue to their feud. Ordinance of the Order вЂў The вЂњOrdinance of the OrderвЂќ was published in 1305 вЂў This provided Scots with the chance of becoming Sheriffs and gave land back to old Nobles who had lost land during battles вЂў ComynвЂ™s men were to be given the privilege of becoming Sheriffs вЂў John Comyn had now become more popular in EdwardвЂ™s eyes than Bruce вЂў Bruce planned revenge! Grey Friars Church вЂў Aware of his diminishing chances of restoring King John to office or he himself becoming King вЂў Bruce decided to meet Comyn on 10th February 1306 at Grey Friars Church in Dumfries вЂў After a brief exchange within the Church in which Comyn refused to support Bruce, both men began to argue, then fight. вЂў Bruce, it is believed, then murdered John Comyn in вЂњcold bloodвЂќ вЂў For this dreadful, heinous act he was excommunicated Bruce becomes King of Scots вЂў On the 25th March 1306 in Scone, Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scots by the Countess of Buchan вЂў He could now plan his rebellion! BruceвЂ™s defeats вЂў King RobertвЂ™s rebellious campaign did not materialise at the beginning вЂў He suffered defeats at Methvin Woods where practically all his army were defeated вЂў The renainder would be defeated at Dalry as Bruce fled to safety вЂў King Edward once again showed his anger at those who questioned his powerful army вЂў He publically executed BruceвЂ™s brother and other supporters вЂў BruceвЂ™s wife was confined to a manor and his sister sent to a nunnery вЂў Countess Buchan, who made Bruce King, was along with BruceвЂ™s sister, placed in steel cages in Berwick and Roxburgh вЂў His daughter, Mary, was placed in a cage in the Tower of London вЂў Bruce??? He was in hiding!!! King Hob вЂў Due to the fact King Robert had been defeated and went into hiding for a short time, he was given the title of King Hob or King Nobody. вЂў It is whilst in hiding the fabricated story of Bruce and the spiders web was invented вЂў This story was never confirmed as no one knew exactly where he had hidden out. King Hob returns вЂў In 1907 Bruce returned to fight EdwardвЂ™s men вЂў He had successes at Turnberry Castle and Glen Trool where he defeated Valance the English leader вЂў He also defeated the English at Loudoun Hill The death of King Edward I вЂў Having defeated the English, Bruce was well aware that King Edward was in search of him вЂў It was on one of his voyages north that King Edward I passed away вЂў July 7th 1307 вЂў On his death he asked his son Edward II, to continue the search for Bruce Bruce vs Comyn вЂў It had became clear Bruce and his men would need to take the land of the ComynвЂ™s to gain total control вЂў Bruce gathered his men and marched into Moray, defeating everything in front of him вЂў The Comyn castles fell to Bruce вЂў This battle ensued at Inverurie. Battle of Inverurie вЂў Bruce had fallen ill and rumour spread his army could be defeated вЂў Bruce however, led his men to an astonishing battle in the North East вЂў He then destroyed the Comyn lands, cattle and castles вЂў Bruce deliberately destroyed castles вЂў Knowing he could not hold them it stopped them being used against him Stirling Castle вЂў Now only 2 castles in Scotland remained under English control, Berwick and Stirling вЂў Stirling, the most strategic of these was willing to surrender to Bruce if not relieved by an English garrison by midsummerвЂ™s day 1314 вЂў This was a direct challenge to Edward II вЂў He sent his men towards Bannockburn Battle of Bannockburn 1314 вЂў On the 23rd and 24th of June 1314 Bruce found his men heavily outnumbered as he appeared on the battlefield to face EdwardвЂ™s experienced men вЂў Day one of the battle was a few skirmishes in which English Knights were kiled вЂў This made King Edward think again about his positioning of his army вЂў He decided to move them towards BruceвЂ™s position вЂў Day 2 witnessed BruceвЂ™s men taking up position across the Carse, kneeling in prayer and preparing to fight вЂў As the battle began, the Scots, in a formation of schiltrons, attacked the English, driving them backwards вЂў The horsemen, attacked the archers, preventing them from being effective вЂў The Scottish reserves then rushed in from Coxet Hill forcing the English to scatter вЂў It was a famous victory for Bruce and his men вЂў Bruce continued his onslaught of the English from 1315 until 1318 вЂў Taking back Berwick and destroying the North of EdwardвЂ™s country вЂў Bruce on many occasions outwitted EdwardвЂ™s army and kept his reputation as a great Scottish warrior. The Declaration of Arbroath 1320 вЂў After his murder of Comyn in 1306 Bruce still remained excommunicated (unable to officially be ScotlandвЂ™s King) вЂў To overcome this the Scottish Nobles had to appeal to the Pope, John XXII, to acknowledge Bruce as ScotlandвЂ™s rightful leader as well as recognise Scotland as independent from England вЂў If the Pope refused Scotland and Bruce would remain under English rule вЂў The Declaration of Arbroath had no effect on the Pope. вЂў It would not be until 1323 that Rome would look favourably on this Declaration and on BruceвЂ™s excommunication The Treaty of Edinburgh 1328 вЂў In 1327 King Edward II was deposed and murdered вЂў Bruce saw this as a way of making peace with England and being recognised as King вЂў The new King was Edward III, he was too you to rule вЂў His mother, Isabella would rule for him вЂў Bruce, on his death bed, ordered ferocious attacks on the North of England вЂў He wanted a peace treaty before he died The Treaty of Edinburgh 1328 вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў The Treaty of Edinburgh was signed in 1328 This was the peace treaty Bruce wished for It stated вЂ“ Bruce be recognised as King of Scots Balliol be denounced Edward IIIs sister was to marry BruceвЂ™s son David All Scottish records be returned to Scotland The Scots were to pay the English ВЈ20,000 The Scots had fought for their freedom and WON Robert Bruce вЂў After reading the section on Robert Bruce you should now answer the following questions as fully as possible вЂў Again, this will allow you enough knowledge to prepare a 10 mark exam question. вЂў Why did Bruce want to meet with Comyn? вЂў What was the outcome and how would this affect Bruce in future years? вЂў Bruce required the support of the Nobles. Did he have this? If not detail why not. вЂў Bruce was crowned King of Scots in 1306, why was this irrelevant? вЂў Explain what King Edward did to make Bruce and his followers suffer for his coronation? вЂў Bruce changed sides in 1297, detail why? вЂў Explain in detail the events leading up to Bruce becoming known as вЂњKing HobвЂќ вЂў Some historians argue the death of King Edward I was very significant in Bruce achieving his goals. How far do you agree with this? Explain your answer. вЂў Historians argue also that Bannockburn, although an important victory, had little to do with BruceвЂ™s ultimate victory in the wars! How far do you agree? вЂў What do you think more important in achieving independence, BruceвЂ™s military or diplomatic actions? Explain your answer. вЂў Were English weaknesses more important than BruceвЂ™s achievements? вЂў Do you believe that by agreeing the Treaty of Edinburgh, Bruce had finally achieved everything he set out to do in 1306? Give reasons for your answer.