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Robert Bruce - Coatbridge High School

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Robert Bruce
• Robert Bruce was named Guardian of
Scotland in1298 after Wallace’s
defeat
• However, this was only to last a 12
month period in which he had a
disagreement with John Comyn over
the re-establishing of King John
• Bruce would meet with Comyn again!
Robert Bruce
• After his disagreement with Comyn in the
late 1290s, Bruce continued to fight
against the English invasion.
• Comyn and Wallace also continued their
battle against Edward’s armies.
• In 1302 Bruce decided to accept Edward’s
guarantees on his families lands and ended
his battle.
• Wallace and the Comyn’s would continue to
their feud.
Ordinance of the Order
• The “Ordinance of the Order” was
published in 1305
• This provided Scots with the chance of
becoming Sheriffs and gave land back to
old Nobles who had lost land during battles
• Comyn’s men were to be given the privilege
of becoming Sheriffs
• John Comyn had now become more popular
in Edward’s eyes than Bruce
• Bruce planned revenge!
Grey Friars Church
• Aware of his diminishing chances of restoring King
John to office or he himself becoming King
• Bruce decided to meet Comyn on 10th February
1306 at Grey Friars Church in Dumfries
• After a brief exchange within the Church in which
Comyn refused to support Bruce, both men began
to argue, then fight.
• Bruce, it is believed, then murdered John Comyn in
“cold blood”
• For this dreadful, heinous act he was
excommunicated
Bruce becomes King of Scots
• On the 25th March 1306 in
Scone, Robert Bruce was
crowned King of Scots by the
Countess of Buchan
• He could now plan his
rebellion!
Bruce’s defeats
• King Robert’s rebellious campaign did not
materialise at the beginning
• He suffered defeats at Methvin Woods
where practically all his army were
defeated
• The renainder would be defeated at Dalry
as Bruce fled to safety
• King Edward once again showed his anger at
those who questioned his powerful army
• He publically executed Bruce’s brother and
other supporters
• Bruce’s wife was confined to a manor and
his sister sent to a nunnery
• Countess Buchan, who made Bruce King, was
along with Bruce’s sister, placed in steel
cages in Berwick and Roxburgh
• His daughter, Mary, was placed in a cage
in the Tower of London
• Bruce??? He was in hiding!!!
King Hob
• Due to the fact King Robert had been
defeated and went into hiding for a short
time, he was given the title of King Hob or
King Nobody.
• It is whilst in hiding the fabricated story
of Bruce and the spiders web was invented
• This story was never confirmed as no one
knew exactly where he had hidden out.
King Hob returns
• In 1907 Bruce returned to fight
Edward’s men
• He had successes at Turnberry Castle
and Glen Trool where he defeated
Valance the English leader
• He also defeated the English at
Loudoun Hill
The death of King Edward I
• Having defeated the English, Bruce
was well aware that King Edward was
in search of him
• It was on one of his voyages north
that King Edward I passed away
• July 7th 1307
• On his death he asked his son Edward
II, to continue the search for Bruce
Bruce vs Comyn
• It had became clear Bruce and his
men would need to take the land of
the Comyn’s to gain total control
• Bruce gathered his men and marched
into Moray, defeating everything in
front of him
• The Comyn castles fell to Bruce
• This battle ensued at Inverurie.
Battle of Inverurie
• Bruce had fallen ill and rumour spread
his army could be defeated
• Bruce however, led his men to an
astonishing battle in the North East
• He then destroyed the Comyn lands,
cattle and castles
• Bruce deliberately destroyed castles
• Knowing he could not hold them it
stopped them being used against him
Stirling Castle
• Now only 2 castles in Scotland remained
under English control, Berwick and Stirling
• Stirling, the most strategic of these was
willing to surrender to Bruce if not relieved
by an English garrison by midsummer’s day
1314
• This was a direct challenge to Edward II
• He sent his men towards Bannockburn
Battle of Bannockburn 1314
• On the 23rd and 24th of June 1314 Bruce
found his men heavily outnumbered as he
appeared on the battlefield to face
Edward’s experienced men
• Day one of the battle was a few skirmishes
in which English Knights were kiled
• This made King Edward think again about
his positioning of his army
• He decided to move them towards Bruce’s
position
• Day 2 witnessed Bruce’s men taking up position
across the Carse, kneeling in prayer and preparing
to fight
• As the battle began, the Scots, in a formation of
schiltrons, attacked the English, driving them
backwards
• The horsemen, attacked the archers, preventing
them from being effective
• The Scottish reserves then rushed in from Coxet
Hill forcing the English to scatter
• It was a famous victory for Bruce and his men
• Bruce continued his onslaught of the
English from 1315 until 1318
• Taking back Berwick and destroying
the North of Edward’s country
• Bruce on many occasions outwitted
Edward’s army and kept his reputation
as a great Scottish warrior.
The Declaration of Arbroath
1320
• After his murder of Comyn in 1306 Bruce still
remained excommunicated (unable to officially be
Scotland’s King)
• To overcome this the Scottish Nobles had to
appeal to the Pope, John XXII, to acknowledge
Bruce as Scotland’s rightful leader as well as
recognise Scotland as independent from England
• If the Pope refused Scotland and Bruce would
remain under English rule
• The Declaration of Arbroath had no effect on the
Pope.
• It would not be until 1323 that Rome would look
favourably on this Declaration and on Bruce’s
excommunication
The Treaty of Edinburgh 1328
• In 1327 King Edward II was deposed and
murdered
• Bruce saw this as a way of making peace
with England and being recognised as King
• The new King was Edward III, he was too
you to rule
• His mother, Isabella would rule for him
• Bruce, on his death bed, ordered ferocious
attacks on the North of England
• He wanted a peace treaty before he died
The Treaty of Edinburgh 1328
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•
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The Treaty of Edinburgh was signed in 1328
This was the peace treaty Bruce wished for
It stated – Bruce be recognised as King of Scots
Balliol be denounced
Edward IIIs sister was to marry Bruce’s son David
All Scottish records be returned to Scotland
The Scots were to pay the English ВЈ20,000
The Scots had fought for their freedom and WON
Robert Bruce
• After reading the section on Robert
Bruce you should now answer the
following questions as fully as possible
• Again, this will allow you enough
knowledge to prepare a 10 mark exam
question.
• Why did Bruce want to meet with Comyn?
• What was the outcome and how would this
affect Bruce in future years?
• Bruce required the support of the Nobles.
Did he have this? If not detail why not.
• Bruce was crowned King of Scots in 1306,
why was this irrelevant?
• Explain what King Edward did to make
Bruce and his followers suffer for his
coronation?
• Bruce changed sides in 1297, detail why?
• Explain in detail the events leading up to Bruce
becoming known as “King Hob”
• Some historians argue the death of King Edward I
was very significant in Bruce achieving his goals.
How far do you agree with this? Explain your
answer.
• Historians argue also that Bannockburn, although
an important victory, had little to do with Bruce’s
ultimate victory in the wars! How far do you
agree?
• What do you think more important in achieving
independence, Bruce’s military or diplomatic
actions? Explain your answer.
• Were English weaknesses more
important than Bruce’s achievements?
• Do you believe that by agreeing the
Treaty of Edinburgh, Bruce had
finally achieved everything he set out
to do in 1306? Give reasons for your
answer.
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