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PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learning
Faculty Development Workshop
Adult Learners
Adult Learning
What are student reasons for being in school?
•Fulfill a dream
•Get a job or promotion
•Complete a resolution
•Change careers
•???????
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Adult Learning
Adults develop their learning processes in a number of
ways:
•Lasts the entire life span of each individual
•Allows an individual to acquire, renew, upgrade, or complete knowledge,
skills, and attitudes for functioning effectively in a constantly changing
society
•Allows adults to pursue learning throughout their lives, and is a way in
which people supplement (and, at times, find a substitute for) learning
received in formal settings
•Equips individuals with skills and competencies for completing their "selfeducation" beyond learning in a formal setting
•Acknowledges the contribution of all available educational influences,
including formal and informal.
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Educational Models of Adult Learning
There is a distinct connection between the historical development of
educational models, including the evolution from the pedagogical
model to the andragogical model.
•Pedagogy means literally "the art of teaching children." It developed
between the 7th and 12th centuries in the monastic schools of Europe.
•Secular schools in the 19th century followed the pedagogical model,
which was the only one available.
•The basic assumption of the pedagogical model is that the teacher is fully
responsible for imparting knowledge, primarily through lecture, while the
student's role is that of a passive receiver of knowledge.
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Educational Models of Adult Learning
Recent educational theorists (mostly Malcolm Knowles) have
developed an andragogical model based on the following
assumptions:
a) Adults need to know why they are learning;
b) Adults need to be seen as competent;
c) Adults want their knowledge and skills acknowledged in the classroom;
d) Adults need to be self-directed and experientially involved in their learning; and
e) Adults want learning to be life-centered and applicable
We should base our model based on andragogical assumptions.
•Facilitation methods allow students to be active and self-directed in their learning.
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Adult Learner Demographics
•The majority of adult learners work, most full-time
•Adult students are extremely well educated; 85% have
some college education
•80% of adult students are between the ages of 25 – 44
•More women than men study as adults
•Most adults seek degree programs
•About 70% of the courses taken by adults are in their
career fields
•About 40% receive some level of tuition assistance from
employers
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Adult Learner Demographics
•The majority of adults do not learn for the sheer pleasure
of learning
•Adults learn in order to cope with change in their lives
•Every adult who learns because of a transition can point
to a specific event that triggered the transition, and thus,
learning
•Trigger events occur unevenly in several arenas of adult
life
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
How Do Adults Learn?
•Adults seek greater involvement in decisions
involving their education
•The maturity level of adults indicates that they can
accomplish more learning in less time
•Adults place great value in education that offers
convenience
•Adults prefer goal directed learning orientations
•Adults are looking for the acquisition of useful and
relevant knowledge
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Teaching/Learning Factors
•Lecture
10% retention rate
•Reading
20%
•Audiovisual
30%
•Discussion
50%
•Practice by Doing
80%
•Immediate use of Learning
90%
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Adult-Centered Learning
•Should focus on need-to-know learning
•Is self-directed learning
•Takes into account the learner’s experience
•Involves a readiness to learn
•Includes an orientation to learning
•Is fostered by adult motivation to learn
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Teaching vs. Learning
•Is Teaching the purpose of education or is
learning the purpose of education?
•What is the difference?
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Teaching vs. Learning
Teaching Culture
Learning Culture
•Delivers instruction
Produces Learning
•Offers Courses & Programs
Creates learning
environments
•Improves quality of instruction
Improves quality of learning
•Transfers knowledge from faculty
to students
Elicits student discovery
and construction of
knowledge
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Teaching vs. Learning
Teaching Culture
Learning Culture
•Atomistic
Holistic
•50 minute lecture
Learning modalities
•Covering material
Specified outcomes
•Time held as a constant
learning varies
Learning held as a constant
Time varies
•Degree = accumulated credit hours
Degree = demonstrated
knowledge & skills
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Teaching vs. Learning
Teaching Culture
Learning Culture
•Knowledge is external
Knowledge is internal
•Knowledge delivered by instructors
Knowledge is constructed
and created
•Learning is cumulative & linear
Learning is nested &
interactive
•Teacher centered
Learner centered
•Talent & ability are rare
Talent and ability are
abundant
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Discussion Questions
Discussion Questions:
1. What are some of the negative and positive
experiences you have previously had in college?
2. What are some of the fears students about college
and how can an instructor help?
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Group Learning
Group Learning should be an integral part of the
educational experience at CEC
•
Group discussions
•
Scenarios
•
Panel discussions
•
Problem solving
•
Learning games
•
Debates
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Group Interaction
Key advantages of the group interaction include the
following:
1.Students gain knowledge and experience from each other
2. A real-world working environment is simulated
3. Individual strengths and weaknesses are blended
4. A sharing of teaching and learning responsibilities is facilitated
5. Self-confidence and self-esteem are increased
6. Leadership and participatory skills are developed
7. Interpersonal communication skills are strengthened
8. Achievement of a higher level of quality and performance in project
assignments is possible; and
9. Decision-making skills are developed.
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Group Interaction Contract
Good teams possess:
•
Excellent process skills
•
Team dynamics
•
Follow-through on commitments
•
Open and honest communication among members
•
Use of active listening skills
•
Constructive resolution of conflicts and disagreements.
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
Discussion Questions
1.What is the value of diversity in group
interaction?
2.How will the group interaction experience be
applicable in the workplace?
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
Adult Learners
University Resources
What support services do our students need to
impact their learning in a positive way?
Faculty Development
Workshop
PCC Community Education Center
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